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Tranblated akd Edited by 

Ftllov efAmlurst CoUtgt 


I 507- I 52 I 





NOV 25 1913 

ComiioBT, 1913, ar 






History is now read more than ever before from the 
original sources. Contemporary documents give l>oth the most 
vivid, and in tlie deepest sense, the most veracious narrative. 
Even when they arc mistaken in point of fact, or intentionally 
falsifie<l, they reveal imjioriaut trutlis, showing what the author 
believed, or wanted to lie lielieve<l. If they distort fact they can 
never belie the spirit of the times. But even objective error 
h far kss commt)n than mlg^ht be supposed. If a man has 
auilicntic information to give, the strongest bias on his part 
is a matter of secondary importance. He may color facts, 
impute wrong motives, shade here and lighten there, but the 
free invention, or even suppression of imporiani facts by 
strictly contemporary witnesses i* almost unknown. Minor 
misstatements can easily be corrected : the total impression 
is more true to life, and therefore both more veracious and 
more graphic, than that which can be given by any secondary 
narrative, no matter how great its erudition and art. 

By tlie great Ranke and his school the sources of history 
most esteemed were public documents — the treaty, the legisla- 
tive act, the contract, the charter, the edict. There is now a 
reaction from tliis method. The memoir, the journal, the 
private letter are coming into favor again, if only as the neces- 
sary interpreters of the pubh'c a«. But beyond thi.i they are 
seen to convey a deeper psychological and personal meaning. 
The epistle, in particular, enjoys the double advantage of being 
written, like the public document, on the spot, and of revealing, 
like the memoir, the real inward attitude of an actor in the 

The present work aims to set before the public the histor>-. 
as told by the participants and eye-witnesses themselves in 
all the unreserve of private correspondcoce, of the most 
momentous crisis in the annals of Europe. It is impossible 



here to appreciate the importance of tlic Reformation ; I have 
done it, partially, elsewhere, and hope to return to it in future. 
Suffice it to say that the revolution which goes by this name 
wrought an upheaval in the political, social and relig- 
ious structure oi Europe and prepared the ground for our 
modem civilization. Every clement of the movement is re- 
flected in these letters: the return to the Bihlc, the revolt 
from ecclesiastical abuse and from papal autliority, the ceo- 
noniic and social reform, the growing nationalism and awaken- 
ing subjectivism. The launching of the Ninety-fwf Thetts is 
described and their working on the minds of men portrayed ; 
the summons of Luther before his ecclesiastical superiors first 
at Heidelberg and then at Augsburg, the great debate with 
Eck at Leipsic, tlie trumpet call to spiritual emancipation in 
the pamphlets of 1520. the preparation of tlie bull of excom- 
munication and the biirning of the same, and finally, as a 6ttiiig 
climax, the memorable appearance of Luther before tJic Em- 
peror and Diel at Worms, are all set before our eyes. 

In onler to present faithfully all sides of the movement I 
have given not only the correspondence of Luther, but the most 
imponant letters relating to him by his contemporaries. Among 
the writers are the Popes Leo X. and Adrian VL, the Emperors 
Maximilian and Charles V'., and many of the Princes, Spiritual 
and Temporal, of Germany. Humanists and artists are among 
the writers; Erasmus, Hutlcn and Dürer. The great reform- 
ers are represented by Capito and Bucer, 0£colampadius, 
Zwingli and Melanchthon. Nor are the least interesting letters 
those of the Catholic champions, Aleander and Eck. 

But the dominating personality in this work, as in tlie age, is 
Martin Luther. To many the chief value of the book will be 
the revelation of his inward life. His early spiritual struggles, 
the things by which he profited and grew, his failli, his devo- 
tion to conscience and to truth as he saw it, and his indomitabte 
wilt, &tand out in his unconscious autobiography. No man 
in history lias mere thoroughly represented and more com- 
pletely dominated hts time. And these earliest years were the 
most beautiful in his life; a desperate bailie and a momentous 
victory for progress and tor the right. There have been more 
faultless men than Luther, but there have been none who have 


fought harder for the good cause. Oars is an age that trusts 
life; that scorns a cloistered virtue, idle if stainless, but loves 
the wirrior who rushes into the thick of the forces of evil to 
overthrow Xhem, even if he is at times mistakeu snd dow and 
then wrong. And in Luther wc have the most active brain, 
the most intrepid wilt and the most passionate heart of his 

It remains to say a few words about my own part in tlte 
present work. I have not included all of Lutlier's extant 
letters, but have omitted a few which were citlier uminportant 
or repetitious or which were already translated in my "Life 
and letters of Martin Luther" (1911). The original of the 
greater part of the epistles is Latin, and may be understood to 
be so when not otherwise stated. Other letters from the Ger- 
man, Ejigliäh, Greek, Italian and Spanisli have been included, 
the original language being duly state«] in every case. I have 
not translated directly from the Italian and Spanish, but have 
used cither the English version ofTcrcd by Bcrgcnroth and 
Brown in the "Calendars of State Papers," where available, 
or else have retranslated from the German of Kalkoff 
despatches relating to Luther written from the Diet of Worms. 
When convenient, I have, however, compared my transla- 
tion with the original. Adopting Luther's own wise principle 
(see below, ep. no. 344). I have not tried to give a slavishly 
literal rendering: I trust that I have never altered the sense 
cir the spirit of my original, but the means employed have 
been such as were, in my judgment and according to my 
powers, the best adapted to reproduce in our idiom the liter- 
ary quality, flavor and effect of tlie document in question. 
The fact that in some cases, particularly in Bucer's letters, 
the text is uncertain and the phrasing at times ungrammatical, 
has given me the more justification for rather drastic treat- 

In the notes I have endeavored to give all necessary light 
for the comprehension of the text: explanation of allusions, 
corrections of mistakes, and short biographical notices of per- 
sons mentioned. The basis of my work on Luther's letters has, 
of course, been the edition of Enders, but with the results of 
thirty years' scholarship since tlie 6rst volume of this wa$ 


published, at my command, I have naturally been able to sup- 
plement and improve upon the work of the German editor. I 
have even been able to add several letters by and to Luther 
which escaped him. 

I am proud to acknowledge the personal assistance of several 
distinguished scholars. The Rev. Professor Gustav Kawerau 
(Oberkonsistorialrat and Probst), of Berlin, has obligingly 
answered several questions I have put to him. Professor Gil- 
bert Murray, LL. D., of Oxford, and Professor H. DeForrest 
Smith, of Amherst, have aided me in the restoration and con- 
struction of a Greek letter of Melanchthon. Professor Stan- 
ley L. Gatpin, of Amherst, has interpreted for me one Spanish 
letter. Professor Clarence W. Eastman, of Amherst, has 
occasionally given me the benefit of his studies in early new 
high Gennan. My wife and Miss Helen Alice Hocheimer 
have read large portions of the proof. In thanking these 
friends for such specific services, I am but expressing my obli- 
gations for the least part of what I owe them. 

P. S. 
Amherst, Massachusetts, March 4, 191J. 



The name of Martin Luther is omitted. All other writers 
and receivers of letters are listed with the number of these 
letters opposite their names. In addition to this, the number of 
a letter in which a man is first mentioned is given in paren- 
theses. On the first appearance of a man I have given a short 
bic^aphical note, save in a few cases where nothing is known 
of him, or in cases of persons sufficiently famous not to 
require it. 

Accoiti, P. (253)- 
Addmann, B. (88). 
Adelmann, C, 88. 
Adrian of Antwerp (37). 
Adrian VI., Pope, 202, 443. 
Adrian, M. (230). 
Agricola, J. (150). 
Agricola, R., 395. 
Agrippa, H. C, 153. 

Alcandcr, J., 318, 3'9, 330, 358, 359. 362, 363, 394, 396, 397. 40t, 407, 
416, 424, 42s. 432, 437. 444 447. 452, 453, 454, 464, 46^ 473, 474, 475,476. 
Alexander, Secretary of Nassau, 423. 
Alfeld, A. (254). 
Alvarez, J. (192). 
Amman, J. J. (338). 
Amerbach, Basil, 316, 339, 384. 

Aracrbach, Boniface, 179. 3i6. 31?. 332, 339, 371. 374, 384. 
Amsdorf, N. v. (27), 169, 
Anhalt, M. v., 193- 
Anseim, T. (239). 
Aquensis, P. (254). 
Ardraboldi, J. A. (393)- 
Armslorf, P. v. (441)- 
Auer, J. (99)- 

Augsburg, Christopher v. Stadion, Bishop of (83). 
Aurogallus, M. (400). 
Baden, Philip, Margrave of (464)- 
Bamberg, George, Bishop of (328). 



Banntssius, J. (393)- 

Basle, Christopher v. Uttenheim, Bishop of (127). 

Bavaria, William. Duke of (4S9)- 

Bayer, C. 248. 

Beatus Rhenanus, S7. »68, 333, 371, 374 421. 428, 438. 

Bcckman, O. (27), 131. 

Benedict, M. (240). 

Berauld, N., 39g. 

Berghes, M. de (iS?). 

Bemhardi, B. '(20). 

Beroald, P. (135). 

Bessler, N. (372). 

Beymann, P. (21Q). 

Biel, G. (20). 

Bild, G., 8ia, 103a, 247a. 

Blaurer, A., 373. 

Blaurer, T., 373. 398. 

Bock, J. (470. 

Bösschenstein, J. (103a). 

Bossenstain, J. (89). 

Botzheim, J, v., 398. 

Bragadin, L., 238. 

Brandenburg, Jerome Scultetus, Bishop of (50), 63. 

Brandenburg, Joachim I., Elector of (378). 

Braun, J., i, 2. 

Breisgau, John of (205). 

Breitenbach, G. v. (198). 

Breslau, J. v. Thurzo, Bishop of (249). 

Briard, J. (245)- 

Briselot (187). 

Bronner, J. (220). 

Brück, G. (397), 434- 

Brunswick-Liineburg, Margaret v., 184. 

Bucer, M., 57. 168, 219, 299. 340, 438. 44t- 

BQnau, G. v., 30a 

Bünau, H. v., 262. 

Burckhardt, F., 160. 

Burckhart. P. (164). 

Busch, H. v., 472. 

Casar, J. (207). 

Cajetan, Thomas de Vio, Cardinal, 73. 

Calvus, F. (125). 

CamerariuE, J., 442. 

Campeggio, L. (253), 351. 

Cantiuncula, C, IS3- 

Capito, W. (49). 78, 94. 127, 349. 352, 375, App. III. 

Caracciolo, M. (3i9>> 4^ 


Carmelite, Prior at Augsburg (347a). 

Carlstadt, A. (20), 64. 66, 85, I23, »5ft »T»- 

Carondelet, J. de (362). 

Carvajal. B. (253). 

Catharinus, A. (414)- 

Collarius. J. (150). 

Charles V., Emperor, 255. 342. 361, 364, 368, 381, 4»». 413. 4^ 430.435. 

443. 465. 
Chicvres, W., 341, 357, 367. 
Chircgatto, F^ 298. 

Christian II., King of Denmark (414), 460. 
Cistein, see Ende. 
Claude, Queen of France (447). 
Oeen, D. v (471). 
CItvanus, R., 33S. 
Cochlaeus, J. (464). 474. 

Cologne, Hermann v. Wied, Archbishop Elector of (23). 
Contarini, G., 459, 463, 466. 
Comaro, F., 456, 466. 
Cowper, G., 23S- 
Cowper, T., 235. 
Crafft, A. (259). 
Cranach, L. (414)- 
Crautwald, V. (265). 
Creutzer, M. (414)- 
Crotus Rubeanus, 1S6, 190, 251, 3Sa 
Croy. W. de, Archbishop of Toledo (383). 
Croy, W., see Chievrcs. 
Dandolo, M., 463. 
Demuth, N. (247). 
Dieroc, V. (312), 3I4- 
DoU, J. (254). 
Dolzig, J. V. (4). 
Döring, C. (31). 
Dorp, U. (24t}. 
Draco, J. (281). 
Dressel, M., 17. 
Driedo, J. (312), 34S. 
Düngersheim, J. (52), 201, 264. 
Dürer, A., 221. 
Einer. J. (41). 
Eck, John, of Ingolstadt, 29, 61, 64, 66, 96, loi, iia 113. 129. 139. 160, 

164. 165, I9S, 2S3, 401. 
Eck, John, of Trier (452). 
Egmond, N. (187), 
Egranus, J. S., 52, 124- 
Eichstädt, Gabriel, Bishop of (loi). 


Einsicdel, H. v., 310, 389. 

Emser, J. (117). 

Ende lum Stein, N, v. (394). 

Eobanus, Hcssus, H. (87),^Jee ^ ^/^ V' y/" > ■ 

Erasmus, D. (9), 22, 87, n(i7i42. I4S. i4ft iSS. 156. »87, 188, 192, 21s, 
245. 257, 258. 273. z8i, 285, 294. 297. 298, 311. 312. 313- 314. 331. 33ft 
345. 346, 351, 352. 356, 38s. 399. 422, 429. 439. 477. App. III. 

Erfurt, Augustinian Convent of, 3, 7. 

Erfurt, University of, 211. 

Eschaus, T. (240). 

Faber, J., Dominican Prior of Augsburg (333). 

Faber, J., Bishop of Vienna, 253, 255a. 

Fach, B. F. (200). 

Feige, J., 462. 

Feüitzsch, F. v. (302). 306, 310, 347- 

FeiliUsch, P. v. (103). 

Fisher, J., 188. 

Fleck, J., App. II, I. 

Fontinus, P. (178). 

Franck, A. (140). 

Freisingen. Philip, Bishop of (120). 

Froben, J., 125. 

Frosch, J. (95)- 

Fuchs, A. V. (186). 

Fuchs, J. V. (186). 

Fuchs, T.v. (186), 20& 

Fug, J. (272). 

Führer, J. (178). 

Gambara, C. de (393)- 

Gattinara, M. (358), 469, 47b. 

Geroldseck, D. v. (127). 

Gcyling, J. (301). 

Ghinucci, J. (73). 

Giglis, S. de, Bishop of Worcester, 361. 

Glapion, J. (359). 

Glarean, H., 324. 

Glaser, M., 154- 

Code, H. (228), App. II, 2. 

Goniaga, F. de (416), 448. 455. 

Gradenigo, A., 260, 268, 423- 

Gramaye. T., 334. 

Greffendorf, J., 321. 

Grünenberg, J. (34). 

Gutdennappen, W. v. (ifi). 

Günther, F. (284). 

Hauen, G., i60u 

Hausmann, N., 427. 


Hecker, G, 75. 

Hedio, C, 308, 365. 

Hegeniiorfinus, C, 35& 

HdJingen, see G^yliaf. 

Hcit, C im). 

Hennigk, J. (iifi). 

Hennigk, M. (115). 

Hcnriquez, F^ 443. 

Herholt. J. (151). 

Herkmann, J., 433. 

Hermannsgrün, L. v. (436). 

Hess, John (of Breslau). (186), IQ7, 249. 250. 265, 267, 282, 400. 

Hess. John (of Wittenberg), (200). 

Hesse, Philip landgrave of. 461. 

Hildesheim. John, Bishop of (425). 

Himmel, A. (39). 

Hirscbfeld, B. v. (449). 

Hispanus, see Johannes. 

Hochstraten, J., 165. 

Hugwald, M. (433). 

Hugwald, U. (432)- 

Hummelberg, M., 214, 415, 433. 

Hump, H., 236. 

Huttcn. U. V, 189. 318, 233, 265. 291. 29^ 336- 340, 354, 37ft 403, 430, 4Sft 

451. 457. 470, 473. 
Hutter, C. (i). 
Isolani, I., 199. 
Jacobacci, D. (253). 
James, an organist (161). 
Jessen, F. v. (359). 
Jessen. S. v. (359). 
Joachim of Flora (83). 
Johannes, a Spanish Augustinian (253). 
Jonas, J. (140), 245. 45i, 477- 
Kammerer, J. (183). 
Kirschberg, H. t. (404)- 
König. C (230). 
Kotter, J., 317. 
Kunzelt. G., 270. 
Lang, J., 5, 9, 10. '4. 16, 18, 20, 30, 37,39- 43. 49. S'. 81, 87, 140. 156. I57, 158. 

l66, 170. 175, 197. 207, 220. 240. 259, 272, 286, 343, 4". 417. 431- 
Langenmantcl, C. (85), 99. 
Lantschad, J., 320. 
Latomus, J. («3). 37a 
Lefevre d'fitaplcs. J. (21), 
Lehnin. Valentine, Abbot of (50). 
Leiffer, G. (3), 12. 


Lcipsic, Theological Faculty of the University of, 105, 109. 

Leipsic, University of, 118, i2t, 126, 139. 

Uo X, Pope, 70, 73. 74. 90. 91. 92, 137. *74, 397, 318. 3>9. 323. 33D, 381. 

Liege, Bishop of, see Marck. 

Lindenau, A. v. (449)- 

Link, W. (3), 62, 69, 279. 372. 377, 39«* 4io> 

Lipsius, M., 187, 312. 

Lohr, A., 3, 7. 

Lonicer, J. (254), 

Lotther, M. (175). 

Louvain, Theological Faculty of, ao2. 

Lupinns, P., 123. 

Luther, J. (i). 

Luther's sisters (344)- 

Mansfeld, Albert, Count of (69), 471. 

Mantuan, B. (ti). 

Manuel, J., 255, 426, 435. 

Marck, £. de la. Bishop of Liege (155). 

Marck, R. de la (434). 

Marlian, A., Bishop of Tui (359), 429, 439. 

Martens, T. (345). 

Martin, a bookseller (24)- 

MascoY, G., 25, 26, 36. 

Maurer, M., 315. 

Maximilian, Emperor, 70. 

Mayence, Albert, Archbishop Elector of (42), 44, 193, 232, 231, 313. 

412, 413- 
Mayence, University of, 44. 
Mayr, G. (372). 

Mecklenburg, Albert, Duke of (378). 
Medici, Jerome de', 448, 455. 
Medici, Julius de'. 358, 3S9. 363. 393. 394. 396. 397. 407, 416^ 42* 425. 

432. 437. 444. 447. 452, 453. 454. 4Ö4. 468, 473, 475- 
Medici, R. dc', 393. 
Mclanchthon, P., 82, 84, 97. >02. t". 122, 136, 138, 142, r5<^ 163. 167, 

170, 174. 218. 232, 34IS, 250, 258, 267, 282, :^ 310, 329, J92. 400. 
Merseburg, Adolph von Anhalt, Bishop of (64), 115. 
Miltitz, C V. (90), 113, 148, 289, 302, 307. 
Minio, M., 79, 223, 224. 336. 
Miritzsch, J. (117). 
Moibanus (249)- 
Monckcdamis, R. v., 37a 
More, T. (49). 3i3- 
Mosdlanus, P., 157, 204. 
Mühlpfort, H., 337. 
Münier, T, (262). 
Mumar, T. (349), 366. 


Untian. C. lo, 13, 205, 259, 373, 

Mrconiua, O., 244, 325. 338. 

Nut, Clans (108). 

Nauau, H., 341, 357. 

Nithin, J. (7). 

Nesen, W, 213. 

Neastadt, Augustinian Convent of, 17. 

Noviomagus, G., 394. 

Occolampadins, J., 163, 257. 

Pace, R. (49). 446. 

Palatinate, Frederic, Count of the Rhenish (441). 

Palatinate, Wolfgang, Count :of the Rhenish, 58. 

Palencia, P. R. de la Mota, Bishop of (407). 

Pahx, J. y. (7). 

Pappenhein, J, v. (467). 

Pappenfaeim, U. v. (449)- 

Paris, University of, i80| 334. 

Pascha, Dr. (242). 

Pelican. C. (254), 4o8l 

PcUigrini, F. de, 404. 

Peter (441). 

Petri, A. (432). 

PeUcnsteincr, J, (447). 

Pcutinger, C. (85). 333. 

Pfcffinger, D. (4). 

Pflug. C. v., 114. 

Pflug. J. v., 204. 

Philip, M., 405. 

Phrygio, P. (394). 

Finder, U. (40). 

Pirckheimer, W., 215, 309, 470. 

Platz, L., 381. 

Pomerania, Barnim, Duke of (160). 

Pomcrania, Bogislav, Duke of (391). 

Prierias, S., 68, 72. 

Probst, J. (293). 

Pucci, L. (253), 362. 

Rab, H., 112. 

Reifenstein, W. (241). 

Reinecke, J. (241)- 

Reinhard, M. {414), 46a 

Reissenbusch. W. (304), 306. 

Raiie de France, Duchess of Ferrara (447). 

Reuchlin, J. (s), 104, 214, 331, 403- 

Reuter, K. (.33). 

Rhadinus, T. (316). 

Riario, R., 276. 


Riccius, P. C150). 

Rosemund, G., 311, 313. 

Rosso, A., 369. 

Roth, S., 405. 

Rovcre, Leonard Grosso della (253). 

Rozdalowsky, W., 161. 

Rubeus, i. (182). 

Rubel, J. (103). 

Ruthall, Tbomas, Bishop of Ehirham (44<S). 

Sadoleto, J. (73). 

Salmonius, B. (125). 

Salzburg, Matthew Lang, Archbishop of (80). 

Sander, M. (444)- 

Sasseta, A. della, 404. 

Saum, C, 301. 

Saxony (Albcrtine), George, Duke of, go, loi, 105, 108, 109, iiOi 114, 

115. 118, 119, 121, 126, 128, 132, 143, 144. 147, 152. 15* 180, 209, 210, an. 
Saxony (Albertine), Henry, Duke of (414)- 
Saxony (Ernestine), Frederic, Elector of (22), 58, 74, 76, 86, 91, 98, 108, 

120, 134. 141. 145. "46. 164, 172- 177. 19s, 2og, 210, 274, 376, 288, 292. 296, 

302, 307, 320. 322. 341. 342. 348. 357. 361. 364, 367. 368. 380. 386, 387, 

388, 409, 420, 436, 440, 445. 458- 
Saxony (Ernestine), John, Duke of. 243, 288, 380, 386, 436, 449, 458. 
Saxony (Ernestine), John Frederic, Duke of (378). 4i9- 
Schart, M. (191). 
Schaumburg, A. v. (256). 
Schaumburg, S. v. (256), 269, 

Scheurl, C. 27, 28, 29, 32. 35. 40, 41. 6?. 82, 89, 107, "6, 122, 130. 
Schinner, Matthew, Cardinal Bishop of Sion (393), 469- 
Schlcinitz. H. v. (198). 
Schleinitz, John, Bishop of (117). 
Schlcupner, D. (230). 
Schleusingen, G. (14). 
Schmicdberg. H. (335)- 
Schneidpeck, J. (464). 

Schönberg, Nicholas. Archbishop of Capua (394) 
Schott, J. (233)- 
Schurff, J. (4IS4). 
Schwartzenburg, C. v. (474)- 
Schwertfäger. J. (97). 
Seligmann. M., 183, 241. 
Serralonga, U. dc (83). 
Sickingen, F. v. (218), 326. 
Sieberger, W. (33)- 
Solms, P. V. (218). 

Spain, Governors and Grandees of, 443. 
Spalatin, G., 5, 6. 8, 9. 10, 15, 19. 21, 22, 23, 24, 31, 33. 34. 38,. 43. 45. 46. 


47- 48. 50, 53. 55. 56. 60, 71, 76, 83, 88, 89, 92, 93, 95. 100, 102, 103, 103a, 
106, 117, 131, 133. 1:35. 136. 150. "SI. 163, 167, 16ft 171. 173. 181, 182, 
185. 191. '94, 198, 300, »3, 306, 216, 217, 221, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 
233. 234, 239, 242, 246, 247. 248. 252, 254, 256, 263, ^ 271, 273. 27s. 277, 
278. 283, 284, 287, 290, 293, 295, 299, 3Q3> 304. 305, 3». 3*8. 3^ 335, 
344, 348, 353, 355. 360, 378. 379. 382, 38?, 388, 391, 392, 400, 406, 414, 
417, 421, 428, 434. 440, 441, 445, 467- 

Spengler, G. {303). 

Spengler, L. (303), 337. 
^^ Spcnlein, G., ii. 

Standish, H. {258). 

Staupitz, J. V. (3), 54, 65, 77. 80, 86, 178, 237. 372, 37«, 4«». 

Stehelin, W. (230). 

Stolberg, L. v. (414). 

Stolberg, W. v. (414)- 

Strassburg, William, Bishop of (425). 

Stromer, H. (160), 162, 309. 

Sturm, C. {431). 

Sturz, G., 442. 

Swaven, P. V. {447). 

Symler, J. (60). 

Tapper. R. (213). 

Tartaretus. P. (57). 

Taubcnheim, J. v. (263), 3ta 

Tauler, J. (20). 

Tetzel, J. (105), App. 11, 3. 

Teutlcbcn, V. v.. 292. 

Tiepolo, N., 459 

Tischet. W. (14). 

Trier, Richard v. Greiffenklau, Archbishop Elector of (120), 

Trieste, Peter Bonomo, Bishop of (358). 

Tnitfctter, J. (30), 59- 

Tücher, J. (89). 

Tunatall, C, 383. 

Turnhout, see Driedo. 

Ulrich, J. (253). 

Ulsccnius. F.. 375. 

Urries, H. de (434)- 

Usingen, B. A. (12). 

Vadian, J., 255a. 395. 4I5, App. II, 3. 

Valentine (438). 

Vehus, J. (464). 

Velenus, W. (391)- 

Venalorius, T., 215. 

Venice, Signory of, 79, 223, 224, 236, 260, 268, 423. 4S6, 466. 

Vogt, James (23). 

Vogt, John (16). 


Volckmar. C (ii6). 

Volta, Gabriel della, 75, 237, 23& 

Wägclin. G. (aos). 

Warbeck, G. (97). 449- 

Warham, William (257), 41& 

Watzdorf, R. v. {471). 

Weisseetadt (117). 

Wdler, A. (35!)). 

Werthem, D. v., 119. 

Wick. J. V. <278). 

Wimpina, C. (31). 

Wimpfcling, J. {57), 

Wittenberg, University of (3), gS. 

Wittiger, M. (265), 28a 

Wolsey, T., 149, 261, 383, 4"8. 446. 

Würzburg, Lawrence von Bibra, Biihop of (56). 

Zasius. U. (ISO), 179, 196, 205. 

Zeschaa, W. (166). 

Ziegler, N., 412, 413. 

Zwingli. U., 196, 213, 244, 3cft 384. 335. 305. 


The following abbreviations are used: 

Allen — P. S. Allen: Opus Epistolamm Erastni. Oxford. 
iyo6fF. Vols, I. 2. 3. 

Bcrgcnroth — Cal«ndar of letters» despatches, and stale 
papers, relating to the negotiations between England and 
Spain . . . edited by G. A. Bergenroth, P. de Gayaogos and 
M. A. S. Hume. London, 1862^. 

Bocking — Epistola« Ulrichi Hutteni, ed. E. Böcking. Lipsiae. 
1859. 2. V. 

Brown — Calendar of stale papers preserved in the archives 
of Venice, cd. R. Brown. London. i867ff. 

Burckhardt- Biedermann — Bonifacius Amcrbach und die 
Reformation, von Th. Uurckhardt- Biedermann. Basel. 1894. 

Corpus Rcformatorum — Volumes i-io contain P. Mcian- 
thonis cpistolac, cd. C. G. Brctschncidcr. Malis. 1834-42. 
Volumes 94fF contain Zwinglis Briefwechsel, cd. E. EgU, 
G. Finster, W. Krihler. Leipzig. 191 itT. 

De Jongh — L'ancienne faculte de theologie de Louvain, par 
H. de Jongh. Louvain. 1911. 

Dc Weite— Luthers Briefe, cd. W. M. L. de Wette. Berlin. 
1825-8. 5 V. 

De Wctte-Seidemann — Luthers Briefe. Band vi., ed. W. M. 
L. de Wette und ,1. K. Seidemann. Berlin. 1856. 

EndcTS — Luther's Briefwechsel, bearbeitet von E. L, Enders. 
Vols. 1-14. i884fF. (Volumes laff continued by G. Kawerau.) 

Erlangen — Luthers Sämtliche Werke. Erlangen edition. 
German works 68 volumes. Latin work.s 33 volumes, and, 
separately numbered. Opera latina varii argiimenti, 7 volumes. 

Gess — Akten und Briefe zur KirchenpoÜtik Herzog Georgs 
vwi Sachsen. Hg. von F. Gcss. Band I. Leipzig. 1905. 

Grisar — Luther, von Hartmann Grisar. Freiburg in Breis- 
gau. 191 1-3. 3 V. 




Kalkoff: Ateander — Die Dep«schen des Nuntius Aleander 
von Wormser Reichstage i$2i. Uebcrsetzt und erläutert von 
P. Kalkoff. 2d cd. Halle. 1S98. 

Kalkoff; Briefe — Depeschen und Berichte über Luther 
vom Wormser Reichstage 1521. Uebersctzt und erläutert von 
P. Kalkoff. Halle. 1898. 

KÖstlin-Kawerau — Martin Luther, von Julius Köstlin. 
Fünfte neubearbeitete Auflag, fortgesczt von G. Kawcrau. 
Berlin. 1903. 2 v. 

Krause — Der Briefwechsel des Mutianus Rufus, bearbeitet 
von C. Krause. Kasse!. 1885. 

Lutheri 0]>era varii argument!, see Erlangen. 

Rcalencyclopadie — Rcalencyclopadic für protestantische 
Theologie und Kirche. 3d edition, Leipzig. 1 896-1909. 
22 voh. 

Reichstagsakten— Deutsche Reichstagsakten unter Karl V, 
Hg. von. A. Kluckhohn und A. Wrcde. München. 1893^. 
(Volume ii. only referred to.) 

Smith — The Life .ind Letters of Martin Luther. By Pre- 
served Smith. Roston, New York and London. 1911. 

Walch — Luthers sammtlichc Schriften, herausgegeben von 
J. G. Walcb. Halle. I744ff. (Volume 15. containing supple- 
mentary doaimcnis is chiefly referred to.) 

Walcli' — The same. 2d much improved edition, published by 
tlic Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis. MissourL The 
letters, all in German translation, by A. F. Hoppe, are in vol. 
xxi, published in two parts at St. Louis, Missouri, U. S. A. 

Weimar — Luthers WerVc. KritLscbc Gcsammtausgabc. 

Weimar. 1883fr. As yet have appeared volumes i-i.x, x, part i, 

half i and parts ii and iii, ix-xvi. xvü part i. xviii-xx. xxiü- 

XXX, xxxii-xxxiv, xxxvi-xxxviii, xl part i. xli-xUü, xlv-xlvii, 

and Deutsche Bibel, volumes i-iü, and Tischreden, volume i. 





E L. End«»: Dr. Merlin Lathtr's Britf- 
wtchstl (Franklun am Main. 1884- ) i. (. Ewust, April 22, 1507, 

Martin Ltithcr wa« bom at Etsl<h<D, November 10, 1483. Soon 
afierwwdt his father mnvcii to Matisfcltl. 1497-6 Martin attended 
the school of the Brethren of lUe Common Life ai Magdeburg. 1498- 
IJOI be attended the school of St George at Eisenach. 1501-5 he was 
at the univcrMly of Erfurt. July 17, 1505. he entered the monastery 
of the Angiittinian Hermits at Erfurt. See Preserved Smith: Life attd 
Letttfs of ifartiu Lutktr (Boston. 191 1), chap. i. and ii. 

Of John Braun nothing is known, rxeept that he was priest of the 
Church of the Virgin at Eiienach, and thai be wa» sttll living in i;i6. 
Enders, i. 4& Luther had made his acquaintance durins the years at 

Greeting in ChrLst Jesus our Lord. I should fear, most 
j];entlc friend, to trouble your kindncM by an importunate let- 
ter, did I not consider your heartfelt affection for mc proved 
by the many benefits you have conferred upon mc. Where- 
fore, relying on our mutual friendship, 1 do not hesitate to 
send this letter, which I am sure will find you attentive and 

God, glorious and holy in <ill his works, ha.g deigned to ex- 
alt me, wretched and unworthy sinner, and to call me into 
his sublime ministry, only for his mercy's sake. I ought to be 
thankful for the glory of such divine goodness (as much as 
dust may be) and to fulfil the duty laid upon mc. 

'EMhn t>cviia tlic Ictui «ttli tbc »nrd "jr<etii«," whictt. according to Hoppe 
i» DM 1*111111 in Ihr culler eililloni. Dr. Uarli» LHlktr'j SämmIlUht SchrtfUn. 

, . . Band XXI. Die BHcfc (St. Loub. 190)), p. 1. 



La. 1 

WTiercfore the fathers liavc set aside the Sunday Caniate 
{May 2] for my tirst mass,' God willing, 'fliat day I shall 
celebrate mass before God for the first time, the day being 
chosen for thcconvcnicnccof my father.' To this I made bold to 
invite you. kind friend, but certainly not as tliough I were doing 
you any favor deserving the trouble of such a journey, nor 
that I think my poor and humble self worthy of your coming 
to me, but because I learned your benevolence and willingness 
to oblige me when T was recently with you, as I have also at 
other times. Dearest father, as you are in age and in care 
for me, master in merit and brother in religion, if private busi- 
ness will permit you, deign to come and help me with your 
gracious presence and prayers, that my sacrifice may be ac- 
ceptable in God's sight. Vou sliall have my kinsman Conrad,' 
sacristan of the St. Nicholas Church, or any one else you wish 
to accompany you on the way, if you are free from business 

Finally 1 ask that you come right to the monastery and stay 
with us a little while (for I do not fear you will settle douTi 
here), and do not go to the inn at the cross-roads. For you 
ought to be a ccllcrcr, that is, tlic inhabitant of a cell. Fare- 
well in Christ Jesus our Lord. 

Brother Martin Luther or Mansfeld. 

P. S. — Those excellent men of the Schalbe* Foundation ccr- 

iPrlailu; LMbcr bad be«n onlaiii*il ptirU not lanf t>«(ort, tlw exact due 
bdni unkiinrn. 

*Jnlia (Hini) Luthpr. oriipnally of HAhn. a htmlpi about Kfltm mil« sauih 
of KUmacli. A» • juuDB man h( nunkd MatMCH Zicslcr. of Eiimach. am] 
noml 10 the Couniy a( Miotrdd. finl Id the loon of Manilcid and then lo 
Eialebcn. line be (aun<l cairJor»":»! In ibc tben necnü]' tUMcJ profcMiva *f 
MlnUig ict. Ctmbriift MoJfm Hiittrj, L 50(1, In »bich be gradually «en a 
imall pToprfiji, iiid aiiaincd a '«ptct«] ^lilion in tkc torn,. He wu bSiteilr 
OpfMVil lA Martin'» entctins (Iie monwlcry. for as Uiia wn <h» aeeoad) be re- 
lied to make a hrillianl eaic^r. Hji ibii timr b« icrik 10 hav* btcome rMOnciled, 
and app*><Eill> bECanr ■ convinced Lutheran in later life. He di«l May jq, 1510. 

The ■lory fir« circulated by l.uthcr'* eoniemfior^ry WItirl ibat lUn* «ai obliged 
to leave Ewntcb becuux be had cummttled a muriJer. thouNh itill rrtwalcd in aome 
qoattm. 1* almui ceriainly (alu. It bai lecrnlly becume known Iboi Ibcre «it 
at Ibis licnc aiinihrc Ittna I.aihn al Uanafcld, a toush ctiaiaclvr lo wbum (be 
anenlott nuf hive applied. Bucbvrald: LuHtnkaltndar, igro. 

■Conrad Iluuer, a rdaiiTc by mairiact of bit moUicr, «ho came fram Ktenacb. 
O. Clemen: Bttirige m*i Kttarmttio'ittKkuklt. ii. L 

>Tbli was a liill* Franclacan cddvcdi al lb« foot of tb« Waiibutg, probably 
neat tb« prcMiit BarlüoeiMiaMc. Fraa Cotta, LulJicr'a boalo» «hue be a«- 



tainly deserve well of me, bui I dare not burden them with 
much astcing, for I am persuaded that it would not be suitable 
to their order and rank for me to inviie them to my humble 
affair, and molest them with the wishes of a monk now dead 
to the world. Nevertheless I am in doubt whether they would 
be pleased or annoyed by an invitation. Wherefore kindly 
(to not mention it, but when occasion offers, tell them how 
fratcful 1 am to them. 


Eodcn. i. 4> WnrtMBEitc, March 17, 15C9. 

Lulhcr was called lo the university of WitttnUerg (founilcd 1501) 
to teach Aristotle's Ethics and Dialectic at the beginning of the winter 
term (drca November i>, 1508, and remain«! thvre about a year. 

Brother Martin Luther sends you greeting and wishes you 
salvation and the Saviour himself, Jesus Christ. 

Cease, master and father, even more loved than revered, 
cease, I pray, to wonder, as you have been doing, that I left 
you secretly and silently, or at least would have so Icf( you, 
were thcrq not still a tic between us, or as if the power of 
ingratitude, like a north wind, had chilled our love and wiped 
the memory of your kindness from my heart. Indeed, no I 
I have not acted thus, or rather i meant not to act thus, al- 
though I may have been forced to act so as unintentionally lo 
give you occasion to think evil of me. 

1 went, I confess, and yet I did not go, but left my greater 
and better [yart with you still. I can only persuade you that 
this is so by your own faith in me. As you conceived it of 
your own kindness and favor only, I hope you will never suffer 
it to be slain or diminished without my fault, as you have never 
done before. So I have gone farllicr from you in body but 
come nearer to you in mind, provided you are not unwilling, 
which I hope you are not at all. 

To come to the point, that I be not longer compelled to sus- 
pect that your friendship doubts ray constancy (would that 
the suspicion were false !) behold how hard I have tried to 

itti^ti tAoci at ^Miuch, ■ 
het that kc met the OMolis. 

■ Sehalbe by Urth. and it may krr« b««a (hrmith 



Let. 3 

steal this time from my many and various affairs to write you, 
especially as niessengcrä are scarce, antl were they plentiful, 
could rarely be used on account of their ignorance and care- 
lessness. My only purpose in writing is to commend myself 
to you, and to express my hope that you will continue to think 
of me as you would wish to have me think of you. Although 
I cannot be, and do not think I am, equal to you in any good 
thing, ncverlhclcss 1 have a great affection for you which I 
cannot give yoii now as 1 have so often given it to you in the 
past I know that your generous spirit expects nothing from 
me save the things of the spirit, that is, to have the same 
knowledge of the Lord, and one heart and soul as we have one 
faith in him. 

Wonder not that I departed without saying farewell. For 
my departure was so sudden that it was almost unknown to 
my fellow monks. I wished to write you but had time and 
leisure for nothing except to regret that I had to b'cak away 
without saying good-bye. 

Now I am at Wittenberg, by God's command or permission. 
If you wish to know my condition, I am well, thank God, ex- 
cept that my studies are very severe, especially philosophy, 
which from the first I would willingly have changed for theo- 
logy; I mean that theology which searches out the meat of the 
nut. and the kernel of the grain and the marrow of the bones. 
But God is God ; man often, if not always, is at fault in his 
judgment. He is our God, he will sweetly govern us forever. 

Please deign to accept this, which has been set down in haste 
and extemporally, and if you can get any messengers to me 
let me have a share of your letters. I shall try to do the same 
for you in return. Farewell in the beginning and the end, 
and believe me such as you wish me. Again farewell. 

BxoTUER Martin Lutubb, Auifiutinia». 


Enderj, i. 7. Wittcs-biwc, September 33, 1513. 

Lather returned to Erfurt in the late autumn 1509, where h« re- 

nuincd Uircc semesters lecturing on the Senicnces of Peter Lumtnrd. 

He made a ioumey to Romo is the winter of 1510-11, rctumins to 



Wittenberg lo lecture on the Bible in the same year. Smith, chap. IV. 
The occasion vt the procnt letter ia to invite his brothers lo the cere- 
mony of taking the degre« of doctor of divinity, un Octoher ig, 1512. 

Greeting in ihe Lord. Reverend, venerable and dear 
Fathers ! Behold the day of St. I.uke h at hand, on whicli, in 
olhcdicncc to yon and to our reverend Vicar Slaiipitz,' I shall 
take my examination in theology in the hall of the university, 
as I believe you already know from the letter of our Witten- 
berg Prior Link.' J do not now accuse myself of unworLhiness, 
lest I should seek praise and honor hy my humility ; God and 
my conscience know how worthy and how grateful I am for 
this public honor. 

First of all I l)cg you for Christ's sake to commend me lo 
God in your common prayers, for you know yoti arc tny 
debtors for this hy the law of charity, that his well pleasing 
and merciful will may be with mc. Then I beg that you will 
deign to come and be present at the celebration, if convenient, 
for the glory and honor of religion and especially of our chap- 
ter. I sliould not dare to ask you tu undertake the trouble 
and expense of such a journey, except that the very reverend 
father vicar has done it, and because it would seem indecorous, 
unworthy and scandalous for you not to be with me on such 
an occasion of honor, as though you were ignorant of it or 

■ JftbA TOB SUipiU inalritii1at«i] at Lcipsic in i^is: ■" <4$r d' >• lound m* 
rtiiitw in Ihttilfy lud M. A. at tlif Auguilinlan convent it Tübtngrn. In tyrj 
ht <ru elected Vitar of lb« Cetniin Prnvlne« cf Aucii*l>nian Hermi«. and in 
tht use jiar <•■* called br Preileria the Wise ta be dean of the ihealoEleal 
facalir b( th* »'* iinlr*nlly of WltlcnbccR. where lie tack hli tCoctoral* in 
diviiiitr in isio. Lullier*i teUtinr* ailb liini wrrv vtijr close, and il U lo him 
thit the jiaiiDK monk owed bii two call* 10 Wittenberi. Slaupiu wu unable la 
tnlln« him in tUr rrvoll ttaat Rome, aiiil nn Atigt»! it, ijio, iild ilown Ibc 
olKce of Vicai »nd Kticcd Iv Saltbuis. emiriaf diipcnMtion 10 Jcate Ihc Aug'»' 
tiiUan lat ibc Ucncdiciice ordci. Here bo lired litl bii death by apaplciy on 
t><«cab«( 18, i(»-4. C/. Tb. Koldei Die ientttUe Angmtirnr C'>ni)rrgi»iiot> wnJ 
/. t-, Slüif''* CGcilia. 1S79). anJ in Rtolf'cytiofiiiit. 

■ Woiael Link (Januiry 8. iiSj-March li, IS47). »f Colditc, mitfieuULeJ at 
I.«i{iBic 1498, and at Willcohctf i}0). wbrre he wu called la Inch philDsof hy 
in (sol, and beeanip I>. I>. in tsti. In 1516 be l»ft Wiilenherg fnr Munich. Ai 
an AurHIJBlan he auendcd ihe Keneral chapter «.t Heidclbetc, April, ijit, where 
lir <■&■ clrclvd Uitldcl VIcir lo cuccecil Liilher. \a AuBiitt, it>a. he wm 
elected Mcar a( Ibe Crman PcDvitirp to iiicceeil Staupilz, bul under the tnflupnc« 
itl the rvanKellc laitb rcalincd Cbe TJciiiaic. became i>aiiat of 1 lerornieil cbuicb 
al Atimbuii and married nii- Two rraii later be wit called I« Nuiemlictii, 
wbcre Ik apcnt ibe tt*l of bii life in utetal scrricc and in frcijucni cDmmunicittua 
■riib Lulbci. Cf. W. Rnndcll: W. Ltnt vom CaiitiU Uaod I, i^Sj-ISi«. 4)lar> 
burg. iSt*-) •^tM Rt^racyctetSdit. 




Moreover if the venerable reader, Father George Leiffer,* 
is able and willing to come it would please me; but if not, the 
Turd's will be done. Please, dear fathers, show yourself in 
this equal to the high opinion I justly hold you in. I shall 
rcmcmher and be grateful for your attention. Farewell in 
the Lord, my brothers, each and all of you; to him we com- 
mend ourselves in prayer. 

Bkothes Maetin Lutuer, Augustittiau 


Enders, I. 9. (Lkifsic). October 9. ijia. 

Luther w-a» called to Wittenberg a second time apparently in the 
summer of 1511, in order to take the chair of Biblical exegesis hith- 
erto occupied by Kiaupiti. To lit himself for ihis he took, on October 
18. 151*, the dcsTcc of Doctor of Divinity, The cast of llie promo- 
tion was borne by the elector. Luther was obtJKcd to walk to Lcipsie 
(which, Strange to say, was not in the eteclor'i territory) to get the 
money from ilic EOvemment's agents, Dohjg and PfclTingrr. In the 
Weimar archives tlii^rc it a list of the cxpcnBcs of these gentlemen at 
the "Michaclismarkt" (fair held on Si. Michael's day), October 5-ltij 
1512. Amung the expense» is iniy guldai for Siaupii/, "which Martin. 
Atiguitinian friar at Wittenberg, received »gaiitst liis own written 
receipt. These fifty gulden our most gracious Lord kindly commanded 
to be given to the said friar for his doctorate, which he will receive 
at Witicnbcrg shortly after this fair, in return for which Dr. IStau- 
piti| lias undertaken that the said Martin shall during his life-time 
lecture on the suhjcct assigned him at Wittenberg," II, Stcinlein: 
t-Hlliers Dolitorat, Leipsic, toil. Sondtrabdruck aus der Neuen Kirck- 
Jic/nfH Zfltimg. Page of Errata preceding p. L In general on the 
doctorate, sec diis work. 

I, Martin, friar of the Order of Hermits at Wittenberg, 
acknowledge with this my own hand that I have received 
on account of the Prior at Wittenberg, from the honorable 
and trusty Dt^enhart Pfcflfingcr' and John von Dolzig/ cliam- 

* Kothinx m known ot Ldffer •**( tbBt he was «o AuiuttinUn at Eriuit, «ko 
ktid ikc poiitlgn of icadct »t tnc«b. Litttlicr wi«lc bim on ApiD ij, i)i6 Ütfr* 
on. ■>), knJ RKDiien«] him inddmUlIjr in ■ l«tt<-i of Oclvbcr ij, 1516. 

H'he chunlwrlain, tmMurct and iiiRumtiat ouricillur vi Fieilerk ihc WIm. 
He il>«l J0I7 ), ij'9. He i> frrqumtly ipokeB of by Lülbtr u ■ Mnnewhkt class- 
i>tt<] trdiridiMl. EBder*. i. *7. 

■A irrituTtf ttnS rcMlver of Usm (not cbimttiTliTn) who hiit h«cn \n VttA- 
eric'« terrlce ^lobatilr bHore itoo. In >{>;•> h« tn*dt a piltrimict M PalcMlne. 
In Ml« ti* bccaine mareliat a( Ihe coorl. He wat it AugmbiiTf Is lijo. Re 
HDdcftQok m nÜMWo 10 Enflawl in isjg. Hade gercnmr of Saatfeld 1S4J. Died 


Let. 5 


bcrlains of my most gracious Lord, fifty gulden,' on the Satur- 
after St. Francis' clay, anno domini 1512. 

?. CI 

Endcrs, i. 11. (End of 1513.}' 

George Burlchardl. o( Spalt (i4fi4-January 16, 1545). always known 
as Spalalin, one of Lwlher's best fncnd!, to whom more of his letter» 
arc addressed than to sny othri pniraon, had studied at Erfurt. 14^ 
1502, when he wcni to Wittenberg. Herv he ftnt learned to know 
Luther, Aboul 1513 he was nwdc chaplain to Frederic the Wise, 
«chote iTuKcd ci-iiil'idaiit he was imlil the elector's death in 1525. In 
iht* year Spalatin mamed. and was appointed pastor of a ehurch at 
Altcnbui^, where he lived the test of his life, Cf. Rtattntyclofadit, 
Bering: Sfatalin tind srin yerkältnis :» Luther. 

John Lang, another good friend, matriculated at Erfurt, ISOO, en- 
tered (he AuKustinian convent 1506. was forced lo kavc Erfurt on ac- 
count of the quarrel of that convent with Stau|Hli, and to went to teach 
al Wittenberg 1311-16. when he returned to Erfurt, became prior of 
Ihe monastery 1516, and District Vicar 151&. Left the monastery 1533, 
and became pastor of a church at Erfurt, where he icmutned till his 

I death. 1548. He married twice, in 15^2 and 1524. S. Paulua; 
VsiMff/n yb. Furstemaiin & Günther: Britft an Httumus (1904}, p. 
3;& Rfatencyclof'ddie, 
The subject of the following letters is Ihe Reuehlin trial Pfeffer- 
korn, a converted Jew. proposed to destroy all Hebrew books jave 
Ihe Old TeUanieiit (1509). This proposition was submitted to Rcuch* 
lin, a noted Hebrew scholar, who replied in a memorial, mentioned 
betow, October 6; 1510, advising against this. This memorial was 
made the basis of a charge of here&y brought by the Dntiiinii.'an3 of 
Cologne The case was appealed to Rome, and was argiied with 
heal in a host of pamphiets on both sid« iii Germany. The most 
famous of these, one of the world's great satires, was the iifixiola 
ObicvTOfum Virontm, ridiculing the monks. The first scries appeared 
in the autumn of 1515, and was by Crotus Kubeaiins; tins was fol- 
lowed by an enlarged edition in 1516. the ajdilional letters being fay 
Ulrich von Hunen. and by a new series from Hurten's pen in 1517. 
The best aecoant of the affair in English is V. G. Stokes: Hpitiola 
ObKurorvm I'iromm. Loudon, 1909, with l^tin text, translation and 
fall inlrudiiction. 

. . . Moreover I woald like to know from you whether 

April •. iitr. fif «u • cv«] fririid uf Lnthcr, to «rhotc msrilagc be vu In- 
Tilnl' /trcAii' li' Httorman-3iite<*t^Klitr, *i. 404- 

*A Buldcn wii worih fiftr cinu or iwn ihillinic* mtHniicallr. bul tfac pnrcliH- 
IbC r«*"*' o' niancT ww *^ui twtniy limn then wbu it is now. 

■On the date att EiiJcii. L ii-i), utd Kostliii-IUwciau, i, /Ji- iwU tup. It». 



Ui. 6 

Dr. Martin has seen the memorial of our Dr. RcucMin* on 
destroying the books of the Jews. If he has not read it. I 
beg nothing more at present than that he shall read it and give 
me his opinion un it. Although [ doubt not tliat wc all know 
how good and learned is Keuchlin, yet it is proütable to be on 
guard. . . . 

Enden, i. 14. WirrexBEno (January or February, 1514). 

Peace be with you. Reverend Spalaiin! Brother John lyang 
has just aj^kcd mc what I think of the innocent and learned 
John Rcuchlin and his prosecutors at Cologne, and whetlicr he 
is in danger of heresy. You know that I greatly esteem and 
like the man, and jwrchance my judgment will be suspected, 
because, as I say, I am not free and neutral: nevertheless as 
you wish it I will give my opinion, namely that in all his writ- 
ings there appears to mc absolutely nothing dangerous. 

I mueh wonder at the men of Cologne ferreting out such 
an obscure perplexity, worse tangled than the Gordian knot 
a-i they say, in a case as plain as day. Reuchtin himself has 
often protested his innocence, and solemnly asserts he is 
only pmposing questions for debate, not laying down articles 
of f.iith, which alone, in my opinion, absolves him, so that had 
he the dregs of all known heresies in his memorial, I sliould 
believe him sound and pure of faith. For if such protests and 
expressions of opinion are not free from danger, we must 
needs fear lliat these inquisitors, who strain at gnats though 
they swallow camels, should at their own pleasure pronounce 

•Luther prabibly did nol know Bpuchlin per»on»tly, hut know hi* workt. ind 
MlxtUltr li*<l uu'l 111« Ot Ruilmtmlu Uibratcii lisabl a Ki'itmir and dicttonarr 
la «n«. fie menlioni lht> In hit marfintl notn un Lambärd'a Stmltnttt (1509), 
Werkr, Wrtmat, ii. 31. 

Joba Rciicyiii <Fcb. fi. instJune jo, is**) of Pforiiheim, mttiiculiieil «r 
FrcibuTS I47°. went lo-on to Pirii, tben. t474, to Battt, wbere he tnok liit B. A. 
14^^ «n*! U' ^ '^TT. iltcn tciuiticil ID Pact», Mudled Uw, touk LL. B. •! Orluiu 
1479, b«c*n>* licrnliitc ■( Puiiitts uBi, >nil ilnclcn at Tübinntn ume )-<*t. 
■«Btfo be »pent in Italy undei pilrofiage of Ebcihird ol Würtemberf. M«cIit 
fiebl« 1491. About ifir «aiar time br^^n Itj Hludy Hrbm» ; wvnt io Hridelbcrf ^ 
f«ft. and und«( pdlranlit* of Rillip Count Ptlaltn« to Rom« 1498. Re rt<um*d 
I» Stititt*it IMO. vhere he spent iwenty yort. Mmnf at Triumvir of the 
Swibbn l-tisuF iini-i.|. lie retired brlofe the armie* of ibe Leucoe to lagal- 
lUdt. vbete he tpeni ifi9*ii «tlh Eck. after which be reiumrd to Stattetet. Sm 
fall tifc h) GtljteT. ftntriK-filafäiiU and Stnk«». op, til, Intioduflion. 

LcL « 



the orthodox heretics, no matter how much Uie accused pro- 
tested their innocence. 

What shall i say? that they arc trying to cast out Beelzebub 
but not by the finger of God. I often r^ret and deplore that 
we Christians have begun to be wise abroad and fools at home. 
A hundred times worse blasphemies than this exist in tlie very 
streets of Jerusalem, and tlie high places are filled with spiritual 
idols. \Vc ought lo ihow our excessive zeal in rcniovmg these 
offences which are our real, intestine enemies. Instead of 
which wc abandon all that is really urgent and turn to foreign 
and external affairs, under the inspiration of the devil who 
intends that we should neglect our own business without heij>- 
tng that of others. 

Pray can anything be imagined more foousii and imprudent 
than such zeal? Has unhappy Cologne no waste places nor 
turbulence in her own church, to which she could devote her 
knowledge, zeal and charity, that she must needs search out 
such cases as this in remote parts? 

But what am I doing? My heart is fuller of these thoughts 
than my tongue can tell. I have come to the conclusion that 
the Jews will always curse and blaspheme God and his King 
Christ, as all the prophets have predicted. He who neither. 
reads nor understands this, as yet knows no theology, in my 
opinion. And so I presume the men of Cologne cannot under- 
stand the Scripture, because it is necessary that such things take 
place to fulfill prophecy. H tlicy are trying to stop the Jews 
blaspheming, they arc working to prove the Bible and God 

But trust God lo be tnie, even if a million men of Cologne 
sweat to make him false. Conversion of the Jews will be the 
work of God atone operating from within, and not of man 
working — or rather playing — from without. If these offences 
be taken away, worse will follow. For they arc thus given 
over by the wrath of God to reprobation, that they may become 
incorrigible, as Ecclcsiastcs says, for every one who is incor- 
rigible is rendered worse rather than better by correction. 

Farewell tn the Lord ; pardon my words, and pray the Lord 
for my sinning soul. Your brother, 




Let. 7 


Enders, l l<x WittekbeiiCj June 16, 1514, 

In the early dftys of universities s degrc« meant no nioie than a 
ttcense to teach, ami for some centuries it was expected that a man 
itiould te:ich, for a time at any rate, at the institution where he had 
taken Iti^ dcgicc. or had prepared far it. An oalh to this effect was 
exacted at Paris until 1452 (II. Rashdall; Universities 0/ Europt, 
i. 45sn. The practice had (alien into disuse, but was appar- 
ently revived at Erfurt, which was extremely jealous of the sud- 
den growth of Wittenberg, When Luther left Erfurt for Witten- 
berg and look his (loccnratc there, his enemies at Erfurt represented 
it as a breach of oath. This is his answer. Cf. KöstUn-Kawerau, i, 
135, and Harlinanu Urisar; Luther (Freiburg im Breisgau. t91[), 1. 
aSff. Hanard Theologicai Rnviv. October, ujij. 

Grctting in Üic Lord Reverend Fatlicrs, I Iiavc heard and 
read much evil spoken by some of you about us and especially 
about me, reccolly from the letter of Dr. John Nathin' as 
though writing for all of you, and I was so mucli moved by his 
trenchant lies and bitter, provocations thai I almost imi- 
tated the example of Dr. Paltz,* and poured out on him and 
the whole convent a vial of wrath and indignation. For which 
reason I sent two stupid letters to you (I know not whether 
they reached you) and would soon have sent a key to their 
meaning had not the mouth of the reviler been first stopped by 
the general chapter. Therefore I am oliligcd to consider many, 
or rather most of you excused. Wherefore 1 beg you, if any 
were offended or mentioned in my letters, to forgive it, and 
impute my action to the furious writings of Dr. Nathin. For 
my emotion tliough excessive had a just cause. 

But now I hear worse: tliat he proclaims me perjured and 
infamous, I know not [or what reason. Wherefore I pray if, 
as I fear, you are unable to stop his mouth, you at least pay 

>Ot Neitkifehcn, nalricuUlcJ ■( Tübingen («Bj. b<pn Ircluriiig on tkpat»(7 
I4B4, D. D. 14II6 al TilbingCD »r 1493 at Rrfuit'. cr linlb. Taking llir Mmc 
ll«tr«c (■'. /., llccnle to l«ifh) at iFote than an« univeraity «M and «till [• 
lrf<vulsr fa GemunT: N«ihln, therefore, wai Kuilty of daing what he iccuwd 
Lntbpr of. H« rcinainNl can*«rvativr. an<] «hen l1if> cUiiilpr il KrtuM wat A\%- 
aolveil in is>), lie Mceded. Kohl«: Avo*i'*nr'Ci»ti/tttaiii'n. 137, 391. 

»I*hn Z«nttf (Jenwf, Grnwr) van falii. ["rtot of NcuMjJt i«7t. D. D. at 
Erfurt t4l<j. tuiwrlnlenOcnl of the monlu' vinAitt al Erfurt MO). ■!">■ ISAS-B. 
H( died Match i|. 1 p 1. Kolde. ef. cit.. Inilcx and W4-ta;: Kt*t*ntytl»piUit, 
Rl» milinc* enjoyed murli rcimtati"", Luther's lotcrcacc 10 him here i> obtcorc 
B* «u ■ ttronc defender of IndtilKeocek 

Ua 8 



no attention to him and teach otliers to do the same. For I 
am not perjured because I took my degree elsewhere. For 
both universities and all of you know that I never lectured on 
the Bible at Erfurt, on which occasion it is customar)* to take 
an oath, nor am I aware that I ever took an oath in the whole 
eourse of my acadenuc career. 1 did lecture on the Sentences 
at Erfurt, but I believe no one will affirm that I took an oath 
at that time. ... I write this, excellent fathers, lest the Erfurt 
doctors of theology should consider me a despiser of the uni- 
versity to whom, as to a mother, I owe everything. . . . 

But whatever men have done I am peacefully disposed to- 
wards you all, however much I may have been offended. For 
God has blessed mc richly, unworthy as 1 am. and I have no 
cause to do ought but rejoice and love and bless even tliose 
who have deserved the contrary from mc, just as I have 
deserved the contrary to what I receive from the I^ord. Wlicre- 
fore please he content, and lay aside all bitterness, if there is 
any, and let not my removal to Wittenberg provoke you, for 
thus the Lord, who Is not to be resisted, willed. Farewell in 
the Lord. 

Brothek M. Ludeb. 

Eaders, ü 287. (1514?)* 

Greeting. I would most willingly comply with your wish, 
which is also mine, gond Spalalin, but that you ask something 
which is beyond the mediocrity of my powers. 1 frankly con- 
fess my ignorance, for I do not know the meaning of those 
refrains* nor can I even conjecture it. 

I am sure that the psalms, Ixxx. and Ixvii. which you 

*TliU MIrr ha* nn date In the DTi&lnal. »nd vm piil. far «ii unknown rcawn. 
bt Ibr flnt editor in ifiq. All niccr»Ar> hurt Mlowcl him. »IthCMic'h Pr Wettc, 
F.nditi and Ih« Sc L*ai* edilot nil tblnk tbai it prapFtl]t bclongi lo an earlier 
itate. Th» main |i«k;I at Ihli i» ilic tijfiiiiiutr '■Luilcr," a (orm (ounil aotihttt 
clat »Uti SfpiembtT ii. isr?. Moicoicr a parallel jiafuagc hut beta (ounil to the 
Oittala /Kfvr Paaherium (ivcn by Luibcr ijijä. tfe'ltt. Wclntar cd. iii. doC; 
Rodcn, Ii. rfq- iTheie ii a mppknitnt to ih« DicUia. Weimai ix. ti8, but no 
(■ttkcr {laiallcl ) Spalalta frequently lurned lo Liicb«( for «CK«*!! of Üic Bible, 
«tnch be i»d read tbiouflb in 150E. On gentrat dating tf. KniiitntUwcrao, L 7S4< 
note a lo i^ t66, anl Tk^eyii<ht Sttidin ttmä Kntiitn i9S9, p. jg5. 

^LnÜK-r wii thinldoit of ibe "Sriah" which occur* in Pnalm I.XVII and el*e- 
■bvrt. Thia waa not printod in Ibc Vallate, but «u tfi. the «rigical and lo in 
fk< «filiaa «f l«fsvr« d'RiaplM «bieh be used. 



note, are the most beart-felt' prayers of the faithful congre- 
gation for the coming of Christ in the flesh. But you, who 
excel me in acumen of judgment and in weaUh of learning, 
consider whether the author did not wixh those refrains to 
point out that the psalms were choral,* tilcc that eclogue of 
Virgil' wliich says, J forget how many times ; 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mca carmina, ducitc Daplmim. . . . 
You now know as much as I do. Farewell and pray for me. 
From the monastery, 

Bkother Martin Luder, AHgustinion. 

K. Krause: Epittolae aliquot (Etnladungsichrifl . , . 2cibst>, i88j, 
P- 3- March S (ISIS)-* 

. . . Please commend me to Dr. Martin. For I think so 
much of him as a most learned and upright man, and, what 
is extremely rare, one of such acumen in judging that I wish 
to be entirely his friend as weli as yours and of all learned 
men. Farewell, excellent brother, and remember me in your 
prayers, and also remember our Rcuchlin laboring against 
the hatred and intolerable malignity of evil men, or rather of 
tacodemons^ Farewell again. I read your letter hastily. Our 
Erasmus' has relumed as amiable as one stuffed witli plenty. 

I'Sttiplfloilulm»": Lutbef ccminir nicana Mimethlns like (he tnnitation 
■JvcDj allhcuib the word be i]m«, both In cUwimI anil medlcv«! Laliii, propeclr 
mcJiiB 'Vuihnaiic." "ttKhlng." 

■Th» word Umi Lutlivr u*ri hvrf.anri I wo oihrr {ilncrt In On Mtfr, "tnitra'sllim" 
U fOHDil ntjlhrc in Harpct'i clutaical nor in Hu Canicf'* tnislievil I.aliti dirlionarjr. 
WbMhcr hp wu thinking of Ihr word "intercaUra," m tbt Arit cdllfi fut(<«li. 
«t not. the meiniiiB ik pcitcctlr ctcat frotn the coMcn. 

*Tb!> letter I* A*\tA by KrauM anil Ernten (i. ij> 1514. but ib« true dale !■ 
xir«» br Ihr tentrixe "ErMUM softer r«dlti quam aaabllii ui qui aiipalua bia 
Cupi»." KraRmu* T«ttirrnl rrom * firv-jeai ■»iouin in Kniland in Jul^, >3>1. anJ 
In tb« followinf Drc«inlieT Schürrr [xibllabed at Straialrurit a nrw «ililion of hit 
Dr Ctfi*. >0 which P.tumn« prrfactd ■ nott «■(■ble Idler (cf. P. S. Allen: Ofttt 
EfiiManttn Erittmi, L p. nü, Ü. pp. J. 1;). Sf«Ulin ruiIif« a punnlnf rtfertnca 
Id ilii* work, which he doubllot« l«nl with the Utter (Ufa). 

■DMtdvritia ErHmni «f Roilerdam {nrinh«T il. nMJuljr tt. luft), the natl 
noted Kbobtr of Ihe dar. attended tchao} at I>e*efitt( i«Ti-8«. at Hertoccnbiucb 
I4I4-6, wiwre d tb* Doniairrr fit Ausuuinixn Canoi» al Slela 14M. proffucd 
I4n, aradied al Pani i49t-0. (Ulced Enfland )49g'ttoo. i)ai-ilo6 and ijov-i«: 
tlalT ifoA-g; lived at tjinrain MU-ai. Oaalc Ijii-B. Prdbuic in Brdiiau ts>t-ssi 


L»t. II 



For whjr should he not have the horn of AnuUtheiaf^ 




Hekcl: Manipului ftim»t rputoUirum. 

1698. p- KM. Endcrs, i. 36. (May 2, 1515.) 

On May i, 1515, Luth« wa» elected Distria Vicar oi his order »t 
th« Chapter held at Gotha. On that occasion he delivered a rousing 
lenaon acattut the vices of the monks, ihc sermon prob.iljlj- being tlmt 
printed Weimar, i, 4+ agxiiist backbiting. Cf. Köstlin-Kiwcraii, 1. 
132. The Mrmon attracted the aitcntioii of Mutian. and the ncjci day 
Lui£ aent it to him with the folIowiiiK letter 

Conrad Muth. usually* knou-ti as Mulianus Kufus (October 15, (471- 
Miidt 30, I5j6>, aflcr attending scliool at Dcvcaicr [aälcicuUtcd 
at Erfurt, i486, taking tlic ilcaree of il. A, in i49i- From i4<)5-iso2 
he was in Italy. He took the degree of LL.D. nt Bologna. In 1503 
he received a canonry at Gotha, where he spent the rest of his life 
in leartietl leisure, exercising great influence on the yoiing'fr human- 
t»ts mid teaching that all ruligiona are essentially the same. His let- 
ters, published by K. Krause and K. Gilbert, life in fttaUncyclo- 
pädit, and ef. P. S. Allen, op. tit, ii. 416. He did not join the Refor* 
maiion and Luther considered his death, reported to \k a suicide, aa 
a judgment of Cod. Cf. Wram[iclmeyer: CoriaUu' Tagtbuch, no. 

Vou ask aboul that sharp orator who yesterday inveighed 
unst the morals of those brothers who [lass for little saints. 
He is Dr. Manin. with wlioni I have lived intimately at Erfurt, 
and who formerly helped me not a little in good studies. Our 
Spalatin venerates and consults him like Apollo. . . , 


End«rs. i. aS. WiTTCNDmu, .April 8, 1516. 

Spcniein wu an Augutttnian brother, who later htrcame erangelical 
putor at Arnstadt, in whidi capacity Lulher wrote him a letter, June 
17, 1544. De Wette, v. 66$. 

Grace and peace to you froin God tlie Father and the Lord 

*bm b« (cIuiikJ 10 BmIci Hi* |ifincl|<*l wvtVt »,fk: Enchiniivn MHilit Ckrit- 
ham 4iS"]l. Emeonimm Moria» <ijit). AJagia (t].a<i), an »diiicin of the Greek 
H«w TnldBcnl (Haicb. iSiA). Live« of bim by A. J. TfauJe C'Sv)} ■nd 
EL Em«Tl««i fiaftfl, Hu inSacnc« on I.ulhtr wt> inui»nw. Cf. t»pt<i»üf'. 
A. it*ftf Htud* eriHqu* itt rUtH^tt d'£r«mir rr it Lmhrr. Pari*, titf. 




Jesus Christ. Dear Brother George : — I want you to know that 
1 sold some of your things for two and a half gulden/ ». t., 
one (fuldcn for tlic coat of Brussels, half a gulden for the 
larger Eisenach work, and one gulden for ihe cowl and some 
other things. Some things are left, as the Eclogues of Bap- 
lista Manluan' and your collections, which you must consider 
a loss, as hitherto we have not hcen able to dispose of them, 
Wc gave the two and a half gulden you owe to the reverend 
father vicar* in your name; for the other half gulden you 
must either try to pay it or get him to remit the debt. For I 
felt that tite reverend father was so well inclined to you tlut 
he would not object to doing so. 

Now I would like to know whether your soul, tired of her 
own righteousness, would learn to breathe and confide in the 
righteousness of Christ. For in our age the temptation to 
presumption besets many, especially those who trj' to be just 
and good before all men. not knowing the righteousness of 
Cod, which is most bountifully and freely given us in Christ. 
Thus they long seek to do right by themselves, tliat they may 
have courage to stand before God as though fortified with 
their own virt^ies and merits, which is impossible. You your- 
self were of this opinion, or rather error, and so was I, who 
still fight against the error and have not yet conquered it. 

Therefore, my sxveel brother, learn Christ and him crucified; 
learn to pray to him despairing of yourself, saying: Thou, 
Lord Jesus, art my rightcousncs5, but I am thy sin ; thou hast 
taken on tliyself what thou wast not, and hast given to mc 
what I was not. Beware of aspiring to such purity that you 
will not wish to seem to yourself, or to be, a sinner. For 
Christ only dwells in .«iinners. For that reason he descended 
from heaven, where he dwelt among the righteous, that he 
might dwell among sinners. Consider that kindne&s of his, 
and you will sec his sweetest consolation. . . . 

If you firmly believe this (and he is accursed who docs not 

believe it) then take up your untaught and erring brothers. 

, patiently uphold them, make their sins yours, and, if you have 

'"Smimt," an unelaMJc»! tramUtion of Ih« Ccmikn "hattHlfci." 
>A lile p«ct (t44l-l5l6l irh«*e tclogUM were frtti. firaHIfi al Ihi* tba«. T^ri 
htTt rM«RiIir b««» reiditcd by W. F, Uacliril Johai Hopkini^ PrcM, igii. 


any goodness, let it be theirs. Thus the apostle teaches; 
Receive one another even as Christ received you, for the 
glory of God,* and a^Jn: Have this mind in you which was 
also in Christ Jesus, who, when he was in the form of God, 
humbled himself, Ac* Thus do you, if yo« seem pretty good 
to yourself, not count it as booty, as though it were yours 
alone, but humble yourself, forget what you are, and be as 
one of them that you may carry them. . . . Do this, my brother, 
and the Lord be with you. Farewell in the Lord. 
Your brother, 

Martin Luther, Auguslinion. 

Enden, I 31. WiTTKNBEac, April 15, t5i& 

Greeting in the Lord and in his Comforter. Excellent father 
and sweet broilicr in tlie Lord. I hear that you are templed, 
shaken by the whirlwinds and disquieted by the variou;; floods, 
but blessed is God the 1-atlier of mercy and (k)d of all conso- 
lation, who has provided for you a comforter and consoler as 
good as any man may be, the Rev. Dr. Usingen.' Only let it 
be your care to throw away your own ideas and thoughts and 
make place for his words in your thoughts. I am certain from 
my own experience and yours, or rather from the experience 
of all wliom I ever saw perturbed, th;u prudence alone is the 
cause of our emotion and tlie root nf all our unquiet. For our 
eye »8 Tery evil, and, to speak of myself, atasi how much 
misery has it caused me and docs it cause me yet. 

The cross of Christ is distributed through llie whole world. 

to every one certainly comes his portion. Do yon therefore 

not cast it aside, but rather take it up as a holy relic, kept not 

in a golden or silver case, but in a golden, that is, gentle and 

*Komuv, av. 7, 

■PbiHpfaan, ii. g. & 

iBtrlbolMDcw Arnoldi «f LVngen. Imrn li«tw««n 14*» and 146;, «iilered Erfurl 
1434 ««J »alt tu* M. A- !«<• H« Uughl pWtnoH'K «t ihr tlnivcnily, btinfi ■ 
foDewer of AHalOtt« in ill Ihins«. He cnlcreil Ihr Anautlinian cWlii«r tbouC 
ISli. •rpamOy nnder Loihcr'ii mflomi:«. onil lock hii D. D. m tji«. Ht <|ii1 
not. knwtvcr. fallow tulh«f in llle r«-otI. althcuiifa. notwilhttindine a <l«I<al* in 
Majr. 1518. tkey naiiin«d «n frlenilly tenni tiiiiil ijit «h«n Utingen ran* eat 
ttraiifllir i«mlnM tfcc RrCnrmition llr mitt olilianl in Umve trfarl In tfJ4. joing 
» Wörthutt. *l»nr he 'lied ScfKnbci 0. tssi. He WM at Ihe Di«l of AugiburK. 
'SJO- Liit by N. I'tutua. iSgj. 



Let 14 

loving heirt. . . . i-'arcwell, sweet father and brother, and 
pray for me. 

Brother Martin Luther, AHgusfinian. 

Enders, i. ^. Gotha, May 39, istlSt 

L-ulhcr was now on :i journey throniih the vanous cloUtrrs of bis 
dUiiict. While ai Gotha, he ihoUKlit best to excuse hinitelf for not 
callids on Mutian, whot« opinion o( liis icimon the ycAv before he hkd 
licani from Liing, who secin'S, moreover, to have introduced them. 

tjrtxting in Üie Lord. 'ITic reasons, most learned and kindest 
Miitian, why I have neither visited you nor invited yoxi to visit 
mc, are first the hurry of my trip and the pressure of my 
business, and secondly the great opinion and true reverence I 
have for you. For our mutual friendship is too recent for me 
to dare to bring down to my mediocrity your excellence as it 
is in my eyes and in fact. 

But now I would not leave you unsaluted, for [ felt it my 
duty to do so, even though I feci shame for my ignorance and 
unrhetoric, if I may use the word, Affection for you conquered 
and this rustic Corydon, this barbarian Martin accustomed only 
to ci^' out among geese, salutes you, a man of the deepe-st and 
most exquisite learning. But I know, t am sure or at least I 
assume, that Mutian prefers the heart to the tongue and the 
pen. and my heart is sufficiently learned In only being your 
friend. Farewell, farewell, excellent father in the Lord Jesus, 
and be mindful of me. 

Brother Martin Luther, Vicar. 

P. S. — I would like you to know that Father John Lang, 
whom you know as a Grecian and I^, and, what is more, 
a man of sincere heart, has recently been instituted by mc as 
prior of the convent of Erfurt. Favor him before men and 
pray for him to God. Farewell, iti haste, as you see. 


Enders, ). 44- Wirrtxiintc. June ys, }$l6. 

Greeting in the Lord. I wrote you from Sangcrshausen. 
excellent father, that if you have any brother of undisciplined 
mind you should send him there for punishment. I am writ- 



lag again not to command but to request you not to deliver 
over, but to yield to Eislcbcii George Schlcusingen and William 
Tischcr until the reverend father (.Staupitz) rctiims. For 
ilitu necessity demands ; and you should say to ttiat brother and 
to all that this is not done by mc from violeiic-c, but because all 
of us, and 1 especially, arc bound la uphold the honor of the 
vicariat«, and especially of the reverend father Vicar. . . . 

Brother Martim, District Vkar. 

P. S. . . . A thunderstorm at Dresden so cut down (he 
vineyards of our convent that the loss is estimated at two or 
three hundred gulden, besides other damage. This is my news. 

Eodcrs, i. *Gt WiTTENBEHC, Augial 24, 1516t 

Greeting. I am going to beg a service of love and faith 
froin you, sweetest Spalatin. that is, that you either send me a 
copy of Jerome's epistles' at once, or that, as much as you can 
in a short time, that you copy for nic from the book of Famous 
Men (which I greatly desire) what that saint says about St. 
Bartholomew the apostle, sa that I may have it before noon, 
for r am going to preach to the people.' I am much offended 
with the foolish lies of the Catalogue and the Golden Legend.' 

Farewell, excellent brother, 

nROTIlKR M,^RTIN LuDER, v4«^Jlim*OB. 

P. S. — Don't be surprised that a theologian iike myself should 
not have Jerome. For I am waitmg for the edition' of Eras- 

'I hti« taoktd ibrouch Jttoat'% ttitüt* wtihonl &n4io(| anylliitif on 9x. Bar- 
ihofMotw, Lulhrr quous one at Ihrai. M'linur, ii. %ii. 

Tkii MrMUB, in «hkh [.uihri ttrimxly ciiikim Ihe Imvnd of SL Barlholonnr, 
!■ pruit«! in Weimar i. 79. Fur a icrcrc opinion o( ihir Itiiniul« of ilw uinii. 
!■ tte fcai I \A*. <t- Kiokei: L»lh€rt TittlirtJtm in dti Maiikititehtn SJitmluiig, 
l.cipik. 190s. no. 6«i. 

Tke imtka releiitd M arc: Ptul in KaUttbui: Ctlaltf" Mnctvnm (which 
•M «ililcd al Lt«iMi ijdB) «hkli Lullicr slluJ» to in hia Ihtiutf« on Romana, 
t4. Fitlicr, StKilitn, ^ ati, and lacotil * Vora«In«, Lttt^J4 omtm, from which 
Liilfcar q»*tM in hi« tectum on Pm)«)«, Weimar, ir. sf^. 

Tke «4llkin In nif« volomra wUth wat p»lhli>hF<t hy Prnl>«n lht«uihout the 
fMr isrt. KnmiM «rfiied lb» £rM fftur ToluiaitL. con-taining Iha (piillcai iha 
Aaarbacha. RlHRanaa and alhera mtn r*apontibl< (nr thr atter worlu. Tlie 
■ledinlion lo the what«, hy Eraiaiu lo Watbain. i> dii«d April 1, 1)16. FmilMr 
Uilnnnaiion 1« M be found In P. S. Allen; O^i *fiiMantm Erati^ <Oaonll, 
19«6' ) ii. »IB. 



Let. i6 

mus and tttat which I use in comnion with others has been 
taken away by John Lang.' 

Eoders, t. 48. Wittenbehc, August 30 (1516}. 

Greeting. Venerable father, 1 am sending you the oration 
which I delivered at our chapter at Gotha' and 1 trust you lo 
fulfill my promise, namely, to send it as quickly as possible to 
John Braun, priest of the Holy Virgin at Eisenach, or to 
Wigand of Guldennappen,' priest at VValierhausen. For I 
promised it to them, and 1 also promised to let George 
LeifFer, the reader, see it, and show it to his friends. Not that 
I think it worth reading, but I must yield to tlie wishes of 
others rather than my own. 

You are certainly too much moved against John VogL I 
know nothing, nor have I heard any secrets, but I heard titc 
prior of Magdeburg* complaining about it, and just the äame 
as he was at Eislebcn, that is, desperate about sustaining the 
school, and several of the older brothers agreed with him. . . , 
Now it is your duly to receive this blow on your right clieek 

Jeron* m* ona ol the (»TOrlu aathon o( UiU period, >■ Ih« namvroiu cdltioB« 
■nU even liin&litions o( hit NltM« ibo«. If w* majr truit mn inicripllun In ■ hook 
[a the BiMliin Public U.t>e»rr, which ho been idenlilied •> Lulh«r's hand, (ba 
tcfomer bi<r owwd the dtticn ivhieh came out m Lynnt, ijiR. Tblt idenljfi- 
cMion bnwevtr U retf doubiful. Sec Frtttrrti Smith. Lifr and LttUrt •/ 
Uariin Litl\tr. p. 47t- 

■Tlic tcKt. ifier a timn*, addi "an<l inlJ." 

rrb« icicpon held a( Cotba, M«r 1, is'Ii '/■ «"fra. no. 10. 

*A fonn^r IMdicr ol I.iilhct al tliienaci). I.utlin l«ter inltrctded (m hxm «rilh 
foh-n Trcrlcilc, May i«, ijiä. 

*Jahn Vot\. An tnieiuU»! notioe of tiim iiovu ih; old chiunici» Drrkmaan of 
Pomcmuia, put \j kim in llic jcar >3iS, probably a miitak« for rsi&. 1* 
4<ioieil br- I>t WcttC' Seidemann. *i. ijo, noii 3. "He Invlicd Di. Uarün 
Linbcr. vhom the Ma cdtbur giant ncorleJ wtib ciKbteni boncmcn. and be ume 
«n JuTj 16, at tba «oticitalian at I>r. Vogt, wilh Thonamrn, an aid man In tbc 
AunafttUkfan cloitter. wbft YitA eboten Dr. Uarlin as bU ic^n. And wbffii h< eould 
nM give cciumd atklntt lb« wmng docltin« h« wn« aecusloinrd to «ay; 't viU 
complain of it 10 «j »iMt Martin.' for he Itne* «h»i una io b'ln- For (hey wrr« 
bMb from Kit1"ht«. Th*« Martin prracheil ihfie abont a w<«k. and while h< 
WM ih*re nftlhtn« wm don* wiib induleencra.*' Seven! •ermoiia ol 1514 ai-raninM 
lndulc*>^<'*. '. t: WriRit 1. As. Ju'v 17. 'Si<^. *"d Weimar 1. 0*. Octsbtr }i. ijiS. 
Vevt liter became evanaelical juilor at Mifdehu'tE. Kob*?; Attuvititrf-Canftfy». 
fm- in- Itia derotiiMi to the cause la thus amutintly portrayed in tbc table-till:: 
"Wben a ccitain Pt. Vogt «role to bin, 'Uy Luihri, I will to with you up to 
Ihe Are — but sot quit« tnt« il. Only idvance bravely I' he anawcied, '.Sncb 
oiarlTt* Clitlil Ica^d* up to bearett — but not quilt iato it.*" Titthrtitn, Weimar L 
no. 34 a. 

UL 17 



and also lo turn the other. For this will not be your 
greatest nor last temptation, but God's wisdom is preparing 
you for serious war, if you live. . . . 

Brother Maetin Luthek. 



EadcTs, j. $0. WiTTEHBOta. September 25, 1SI& 

Greetii^ in the Lord. I hear with sorrow, as I ought to 
hear, excellent fathers and brothers, that you live williout 
peace and unity, and that in one house you arc not of one 
mind, nor according to the rule do you have one heart and one 
soul in ihc Lord. This miserable and useless manner of hfc 
comes from tlie infirmity of your liumility, — (or where is 
humility there is peace — or from my negligence, or certainly 
from the fault of both of us, that we do not weep before 
the Lord who made us, nor pray that he would direct our 
ways in his sight and lead us in liis justice. He errs, he errs, 
he errs, who would guiJe himself, not to say others, by his 
own counsel. . . , 

Therefore I am forced to do absent what I would not like 
to do present, though I greatly wish I could now be present, 
but I am not able. Therefore receive my command in salu- 
tary obedience, if perchance the Lord will deign to work his 
peace in us. For the whole of your strife, or rather its root, 
is your discord with your head, the prior, which is more harm- 
ful than a quarrel between brothers. Wherefore, by the 
authority of niy office, 1 conmiand you, Brother Midiael Dres- 
sel, to resign your office and seal; and by Ihe same authority 
I absolve you from the duties of the prioratc. in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 
And these letters shall have tlie same force as if I were present. 

I would not have you complain that I have judged you 
unheard, nor would I receive your excuses. I willingly 
believe that you have done all with the best intentions in the 
world, nor can I imagine that you have purposely and 
maliciously fomented discord; you have done what you had 
.^race to do. For this I thank you, and if your brothers do 



Urt. 19 

not thank you ihcy will greatly displease me. . 
tions for electing a new prior.] . . . 

I beg iliat >*üu will be diligent and faithful in the instruc- 
tion of youlh, as in that which is the 5rst and main business 
of the convent. Farewell and pray for mc and for all of 
us. . , . Brother Maktin Luther, 

Dittrict Vicar of the Augustinians. 

EndcTS, i. S9- Kembcbc, October s. 1516. 

... It is quite clear that that nonsense you sent me about a 
supplication' to the pojie against theologs has been cooked up 
by some rash person, for it smells of the same oven as the 
Epistolae Ohscurorum Virorum. I imparted it opportiuicly to 
the faculty, which had met to license two physicians, and they 
were alt of the same opinion in regard to it. . . . 

You have rightly sought the reverend father Vicar- at 
Munich. He wrote me on September loth from there. I do 
not know whether he will come to «s, but I hope so. He wrote 
me that he was forced to reinaiii there on account of poverty. 
. . . Brother Martin Luther. 

Endcrs, L 61. (Wittenbeig, circa October s. 1516.) 

Greeting. Yesterday I received your letter and the gulden 
you sent me. Let it be as it must. 

John Lang, prior at Erfurt, has sent mc Supplication against 
Theologs. As it contains no manifest tnith. it must he by the 
author of the Epistolae Ohscurorum Virorttm or someone who 
apes him. 1 approve his intention, not his method, because 
he docs not forbear from reviling and contumely, in short, 
he was laughed to scorn by all when I recently exposed him. 
Take the lx»k and read it with your accustomed moderation. 

*rr»»* lufflitcticitii Pui^nUlünaf, in PaianUlut Uarraim rtul (isii). tff r[nl«d 
In B^dclni: ttutlrmi epna. nftlrmtaium, i. (a;. Fnttbir denili on it In 
0. CleiDen: flritrJtr tur RrfvmtttiaiuBftcAKhU (i«oi>). 1. 120. He holib Uul 
ibe luThoT c( tbe Tttigr «u one ol ibe Erfurt butMnitt*. 


LcL » 




fanden, i. S4> (Middle of October, I5I6-)* 

. . . Therefore, take care, as your Tauler' commanrls, lo 

persevere, keeping yourself apart and yet accessible to all men, 

as is hefitting the son of llic same God and tlie same dmrch. 

There is nothing for your schoolmen* to rnar\cl at in my 
;>roposiLioas,* or rather tliose of Bartitolonicw BcrnliardJ,* 

[aliliough my on-n schoolmen have expressed wonder at them. 

'And the propositions were not composed by me. but by Bern- 
hardt, moved llierelo by tlic cliatter of the detractors of my 
lectures. He did it so that, by a public discussion held, excep- 
tionally, under my presidency, tlic moutlis of llie chatterers 
might be stoppe*! or the opinions of others be heard. I 
offended all very much by denying that the book on true and 
false penitence was Augustine's." It is bungling and inept, 
nothing if not different from Augtislinc's opinions and learn- 
ing. I knew, indeed, that Grattan' and the Master of tlie 
Sentences" had taken a good deal from it, which was not 
medicine, but poison for consciences. But I offended them 
implacably, especially Dr. Cartstadt* because, knowing this, 

'Tib IclKr, «ilioul d«l«, It piMcd hj Ea^rs ia Scptcnibcr, Vul tb« tbtc kcrv 
girco U nNire IIIkIt. C(. WtJmai, i, itj. and St. Louii, ul, no. 44. 

*Tbia ii tbc Eni »lliiuon to Tiiul«, tlie d rnuin.fiiyiilH: <tt]Cl) who influenced 
kim •* Mucii. 1 Iwliciri. hnvcvcr, Ihat ihin« n( Tanl«! can be founil in the 
Uttrn d( ll*)r 1. »nd jane 11, and per1ia|is April 8 ei thia ftil. Accordirs to 
Ik* prrtrnl notk* it »** l^at *i^'> inirnduc«d him in tlii« itril«r. Tnwarili (he 
tai of ijtS Laihcr edited in Knoriymaui tract of thii seliiiDl. 10 whieh tic txrr 
ikr a>iDe "A Gcrnian ThroloBT-" Cf. Snilb. p. >;. KMilin-KiwerBu. 1. iii, 

*Cib>icii*t*c, tollfiwcd of Gabriel B<«l. Ihc lul »I Ibe steal scbaolmrn, iTnoni 
«ba*c Aecxiiac* UiU «( Ibr free will wm piominvnl. 

*TbMe IbMt». defended \tj Bernbuidi an Sri'lemher ij, ifie. under Luther't 
vrtKioKj, deny the pouibilily ol a man*! fulfUllnn God'i commands by Us Ifce 
wfll attboal psrc. Weimar, i. uf- K^siltn-Kewefsu, i. iig-jc 

■Ot Ftldkirclien in Swabla (■487'i5S>). iiadent si WittenbcM »aA sficr is'fl 
patior ef KnnlkCT^ 

*l.«lbcr mi qniic liglil in dcnjrina in aulbcnticity. Be had a fcccn aenae o( 
Mjte. sod vai aCaa cancel in ui(>üiiiig anotber wvik wrong]]' Btiti1>utid t4 

'Tb* l>Mretuin of UaMer Graiian, compoicd In iW Iwelflh century at lt(>1o|[na 
fr«K the d«cmi of ctiaacila and poix*. became Ihc fBundalion of the Caixiii I-iw. 

'Peter Lonbard. on wlintr SfHinuu. the ebief text boolc of tncdievtl thcolon, 
abo a twetfih century mtlc. Lulhcr hid lectured ijos'ii. For rcferercei i» 
Uulr quotatlans fTnin Lamhatd. Ender«, L si. 

*Aadrcw BodenMein of CailatadI (-c i48o-i54i) Mudlfld at Erfurt i4gg-is»J. at 
Celofn« isoi'4. «hen be wrui 10 WlUenberR wbere be look the doctvfiie of 



Let 31 

I dared to deny the authenticity of the book. Therefore, teil 
these wondering, or rather wonderful theologians, that they 
need not dispute with me what Gabriel said, or what Raphael 
said, or what Michael said, i know what Gabriel Biel says, 
and it is all very good except when he speaks of graee, charity, 
hope, failh and virtue; I have not time to tell in these letters 
how much, with his Scolus, he is a Pelagian.' 

[Here follows a defence of one of the propositions, with 
some dclaib of business.) . . . 

Eodcr», (. Ö«. WiTTCNueKG, October 19. iSi6- 

Greeting. What displeases me in Erasmus, though a learned 
man, is that in interpreling the apostle' on the righteousness 
of works, or of the law, or our own righteousness, as the 
apostle calls it, he understands only those ceremonial and 
figurative observances. Moreover, he will not have the apostle 
speak of original sin. in Romans, chapter V, though he admits 
that there is such a thing. If he read Augrtsttne's books against 
the Pelagians, especially the one on the Spirit and the Letter, 
abio the one on the Deserts and the Remission of Sins, also 
the one against the two epistles of the Pelagians and like- 
wise the one against Julian, almost all of which arc contained 
in the eighth volume of his works,* he will sec how little he 

dtiinity itis, tMcame Itoctwr and ctnon. ijig visited Roire. S«pl«inb«r itt6 at 
Wittnbcni piibli>li«4 iji thart (UstMnc AtiitstI« «nd the (fholutiM, »nd 
•Mtrltnc tht dnctrin« of ditcrminiim. In ritS «n«wcrp<l Eik'i MMck ati I.ulltrt 
tnd fair. iStQ. drbiwd «ith E^k al L«iptjc n did Lulhcr. Ue wu «tcoauniuu- 
uttrd «Itb Lulber hj the tull Eiiurot Demiiv of isjo. Duilni Lulbet'i ftu 
ai the Watttmrs nii-j, C*tltU4l led a «cfie» of rrfoUitionaty innoratioi«. On 
thr rc(o(Ritr'i iciiirn hv na diacrtditcil, Miihdrcw to UtUmündc t jtj and wm» 
Dbli>ed iq leave Suwny in isi4- After a «anderins llfr. in vhicli bt iwbttihcd 
■iiu<b on Ihi Mcnment agalnat l.uihtr, Iir wat cillcd in h*ilr in !S)4 ftnJ lived 
there ai pnrfcaaor -aniil bii dealli. Hi* llf« In two volum» br H. B*ri:t, isdj. 
('/• KOIIcr; LM^rr -•■J C«rI«r«A. 1907. 

<TW Ptbciant mn tkc vppgacala o( AnrnttiiM «bo naiatsbwd ataolaU tret 
«rtll «Rilmi bla detcnulnhdk 

ILulber i> referring ta Erainwi' not«* on At Now Tnluncnt, wbkh «iipcaiied 
wtlb Itic Cr<cli cdilion «lioiit Mar«b, I5i(. Lulhei «UaineJ the work aoon 
afl«f It wu aut. u my be xea by bla 1«cli>r«a on Bocaa«* (Fufcer: Ltih^rt 
Vt»i*twng Hf it* Nöm^hriff, ipoS). Thcae laMc4 fr«n the Mitrnmer *f tft} 
la Ibe autumn of 151^ Lntbet'* ti»ttCM of Cnaoua bctla with A« otMb ebapM». 

■li^tHon al Kult. ■{•« Tl« D/ j^mra rt mtrt tafojvd a tr*M re^staiien U 
Witteaberc. being ediied by Catbladt. Cf. A. Bnaibcft! Oritintt dr la tbMoffr 
a» «ion» . (Paiia, ■•■■>. p. a^flT. 


Let »I 




foßowa not only Augustine's opinion, but that of Cyprian.' 
Nazianzen,' Rhcticius.' Ircnxns.* Hilary,* Olympius* Inno- 
cent,* and Ambrose.* Perchance tlicn he will not only under- 
stand (he apostle artght. but will think Augustine deserving 
a higher opinion than he now does. 

I have no hesitation in disagreeing with Erasmus, because 
in intciTircting the Scriptures I consider Jerome as much 
inferior to Augvistinc as Erasmus thinks he is superior.' I 
ain not betrayed into approving Augustine because I am an 
Augiisttnian, £or before I read his books he had no weight 
with me whatever, but because 1 see that Jerome, as though 
on purpose, saw nothing but the historical sense of the Scrip- 
tures, and. strange to say, interpreted them better in hts 
vUter dicta, as in liis epistles, than when he set about to do it 
in his works. 

By no means, therefore, is the righteousness of the law or 
of works to Im: understood only of ceremonies, but rather 
of the whole decalogue. For whatever good is done outside 
the faith of Christ, even if it makes Fabricii and Reguli, men 
who were righteous Inrfore men, yet it no more savors of 
juslilication than tlo apples of iigs.*" For we are not, as Aris- 

itle thinks, made righteous by doing right, except in appear- 
ance, but (if I may so express it) when we are rigliieous in 
essence wc do right. It is necessary thai tlic character be 
changed before the deeds; Abel pleased before his gifts. But 
of this elsewhere. 

I Ix^ you to do the office of a friend and a Christian and 
inform Erasmus of tliis," for as I hope his authority may be 

■fas^- ^'* •"■"<■ '"'< citled at Rone u^t, at Venice 1471, and •! Pari» l|tx. 

*t^iv«d ■■ the lime of CAnilaatin«. Non« at bii wriKnti an «xtanl; t.ulhrr 
fcneii feim only (rfim duUcna bjr Aucuallne. 
•or LyMw. 119». 
KM Faüiv». Ijfiy. 

*STanl*b Bitkoit of dnp ot Con«l*nt[n*. known only (rain AuKu'llne'e ctUtJniu. 
'pEtw Innocml 1 t4A>iT) of wime Efia*la ad Comcilnm Carlliaei'mtt Lnllicr 
'h thiakiDg. 

■Dithap of Milan. IkT- 

■On t.ulfacr^ DN^OMihin ot Jerome and Aimviliii«. fliuabert. »f. til. p. iColf. 
■Tbl» fa a realniscrace cf ,^ut|u■t{ne. C/. Ititiiack; UUtery u/ Dngina. Tlie 
I-knovii Myiuc "tlst the virtues ol llie faealhrn «cie but >i'Iniiil vice*,** 
•Itrlbulcd la Aa|E<')*'"*> reel'y Anl «ecu» In Ileacaitpt' Tkt»ditit. C{. 
ft«nUU: turtcr iiarf Lathtrikimm. 
»C/. Mr*, no. ■■■ 


great and famous, so I fear lest through it some will be led lo 
defend the literal, that is the killing, sense of Scripture of 
which Lyra and almost all the commentators after Augustine 
are foil. For even Lcf^vre d'Etaples' a man otherwise, 
Heaven knows, spiritual and sincere, lacks this proper under- 
standing of the Scriptures when he inteqjrets them, although 
he has it ahnndantly in his own life and in exhorting others. 

You would say that 1 am rasU to bring such men under 
the rod of Arislarchus ;* did you not know that I do it for the 
sake of thcolog>' and the salvation of my brothers. Farewell, 
my Spabtin, and pray for me. In haste, from a corner of our 
monastery, on the day after St. Luke's feast, 1516. 

Brother Martin Ludi^r, Aufjustinian. 

P. S. Allen: Opux <fis\<tlatun 
Hrasmt (Oxford, ig«)- ), ii. 415. LociiAt;,' December it, 151& 

Oil the occasion of thit Icltcr, r/. supra, no. ai. Erasmus received, 
but did not antwer it, and Spatatin wrote again, in November, com- 
plaining of his silciiGC, bill received no iTnrnediulc answer to this, 
either. C/. Atlen, loc. cit. 

... I have recently been asked by an Augusiinian priest, 
not less famous for the sanctity of his life than for hig the- 
ological erudition, and at the same time a sincere admirer of 
3urs, to salute you. and I thought I would do wrong not to 
^e the present occasion and write to you, 1>usy as I am, the 
'more so because wc hope that the business which now' corn- 
pells me to write will be of public interest both to contempo- 
raries and to posterity. Therefore, although the Augustinian 
monk, a man, believe mc. of the mo^t candid mind and the 

■Jimei I..t(#«t«, of Klaplfi in l^caMv- "^h« I'Hle Luthrr." u MicKrlcl til1«<1 
tin (c. i4SS-i53<t). afirr itudyjns in IIsIt. Cenuanir and Parü, Htltni in \voj 
■I St. Grrm^n •(]?«• Prri (■ chuicti nnw on llx B'lvlcvaril St. Gvmiin m Parii) 
■n<l devoltd tiinucll to Bibtical »tndi«. In ijog he pulilltbT<l a QtiMtuplirw 
pMoUtfiuwi. or IHilitt in n«c lanfiias«!, of which Luiher ownni and anii^lai'^l a 
<Opr (bi* ooi<»in Wdmat. i*. 46 j) in iirj-iA. tic pubtitb«! vtf fint complete tr«ni- 
tatlon ot Ihr Bihlc <n f'tencb i^jo. In iszi *r>,l iS'j he w>» tllicl»^ hr 'he 
Svrbonac for LuilietatuiiiD. and durlni Fianci* I'l capliritr in ifij trd m 
StAMfcuTR, bill lairr rfiurned and fmithcd hll llle at ['arli. On hU ilnctrtnc cl 
jmlificalioTi by («.itii. r/. ttuintwrt, ff, fit., j8j, and UarvatJ Theohgval Rnirw, 
Uctobcr. I)»! J. 

■A prov«fbiail]r Mpti«ua critic of the Mcond century B. C 

'A cmO» tltMii mila »otHIiEait n! WlttmlinB. 

Vn tfotttiatantm, u la led, U an^annatictl: I 4ucf>(' *» pruitnttrinm. 

^Ry uetters 


most faithful heart, has, a? they say, put a saddle upon an ox,* 
yet moved by his kindness for me. I preferred, if need be, to 
expose my rusticity rather than to deny a favor to my friend. 
And if you have the goodness and wisdom to understand my 
letter in the spirit in which it is written. I hope titat you will not 
only take nie into the number of your clients and admirers, 
but that since the matter is of some importance, you will 
thereby greatly profit all students of the Scriptures and of that 
ancient, pure, uncontaminatcd theolo^'. not only of our own, 
but of all future ages. 

Havtii£ prefaced thus much, I beg you for Christ's sake 
lo take my letter in good part, which, God is witness, I have 
written for no other puqxisc than that which I have explained 
to you. namely, lo satisfy the wish of a very pious friend, to 
profii posterity and to become known to a most learned man. 
Far from there being any malice in my letter, all of us who 
liave devoted ourselves lo tellers are your warm friends. The 
monuments of your genius arc so highly esteemed by us that 
notliing is sought more eagerly iii the bookstores, nor bought 
^Minore quickly, nor read more diligently. My most clement 
^Pprinoc, Duke Frederic, of Saxony,* Elector of the Holy Roman 
Empire, who {»'not less distinguished for wisdom and piety 
and learning than for fortune, has all of your books that we 

i could find in his ducal library" and intends to buy whatever 
■ \ clastka] proverb lor luianins a tide to one wbo it not fitted hi t«r(«nB it 
Cirtro. «rv- ftd .Mikxiia, r. 15. 
*EheUT Fmltrrir the Wi»* of Cmnttn« Suonr fu^sMsy s, rsis>. Beotine 
•lector la I4>«. mad nade fcia dominion tbc omi pomtful In th« Koip'T- Hit 
|<»T*d in imponaat |>tn in the dmioii o( Oiarln V. Jun«, i$i9. lie wa* a 
■wrom ef ih« itts. and found«) (be UnWeimiiy at WlticnbriR tjoi. He wu 
«•^7 pious, bdone'"* to manr brulheihiioil* iml makiiii a lar^c colleclion of 
ttMia, He »■» th» miin luppori of Luihcr for ciahl ycnt». iS'J-'S. IhouBh he 
•rrcT H« til» cnepi >t Wotmi. Lslhci ipTiüu ii( hlia In hieh term* in hii itc- 
■wei oa RmmuM- Sth^lit, p. ajt (ciits June. i}i6}. 

►T*l» vu ■■ WlllcnbttB Tittle U niant a litt of book» bou(]ii for it bf 
St*'*'!"- Abiobi tboac of Ihc ynir liii, an Ih« folloirfnc: O/vra Eratmi 
tptafcablr <be Lmnbraliane^lat, publiiticd « Antwerp 150J. ijoo and at TAbinfcn 

J t5>>, b Bcant. BiHtel^nt Eraimmn^, 1. 1 ig). Vtil»'» Elfo^nliar at\ii AnmflMienrt 

^^Bn A'n-Bi« Ttjtamtaimm (both edited by fltaamusl. Ibc Pitilery of Fabcr Stapulcralh 

^^■ilkr wottit of Auguallnt, Fluurcb, Cicero, Niiiaiiieci, Jcivisc, Ainbiutc, Ililiry» 

^^^ Ko«*>E«f Bi*. Cbrt*o«lsD, AnMlon, and Gene». In 1513 «to baittbl a BMi» 

niw tl«ii» fSiiufia, Homtr'* Oifttfy. and Efatmiu' f!nc9»ittm Utriat. Anhiir 

fir Ctttktc^l* dti Jeili^hri» BMthkamJflt, 11 iii. l^eiinic, iS^fi. Lnihvr had 

•erw* lo Ihne ti<>nln; thnt ii oiw which tTohably belonged (o Fr«-lfTtt ■onotalcd 

Rtfcer. It b the fMliehttm Ftbn Siapitlentit, ef. Wciniir. iv. 4^. 



el« you may publish. He recently saw with admiration the 
works of St. Jerome so restored by your eclitoriat care that we 
may say tliat prior to that we seemed to have nothiog less 
than the works of Jerome.' 

But why all this ? So that, most kind sir. you may tdicve 
that 1 am writing to you with good intentions. My friend 
writes mc that In interpreting the aposllc on llic righteous- 
ness of works . . . [Here follows an almost word for word 
quotation from Luther's letter, supra, no. 31, to . . .] that 
some will take occasion by your example to defend the killing, 
that is the hteral sense of Scripture, of which aEmast all since 
Augustine arc full. 

This, most learned sir, is what my friend thought ought 
lo be referred to you as to Ihc Pythian Apollo. Pray hear 
bim, if not for my sake, for that of the whole republic of 
letters. Wherefore you will do what is most pleasing to us, 
and also most worthy of your piety, if you kindly deign to 
answer my good friend and me, however briefly. You will 
thus gratify ray love for you, as my illustrious prince's zeal 
and reverence for you and Reiichlin and all learned men. I 
will never he the last in loving and revering you. Farewell. 
most learned man. . . . 

Endert, I. Jt. WiTniinciio, Dcc-cmbcr 14, I5tfi. 

... I have written twice to the venerable Franciscan 
Father James Vogi,' the elector's confessor, first that he might 
give my thanks to the elector for the gift of a gown, which 
is of belter cloth than befits a cowl had it not been a prince's 
gift; and, secondly, that he might make sure the affair of 
the sacred relics, which he commissioned our most reverend 
Father Vicar [Staupitz] to gel in the regions of the Rhine;' 
but I know not whether tuy letters have arrived or will arrive. 

">a ttiit rdiiinn, rf. raff«, n«. ij. rrtjcri« coaM rail llltle LaHb, fab admlrm- 

■Ucntlgticd («ic« ot tbiicc in ikc*« Iclicn: be died .^pril is. i.iii. 

*Frt4l«ric w» m cttat totlccl^t e( rttlc*. of vbkii be bad by tbi» time moc« 
lino $ooff, tpu»ed Id Ui« Ciatle Cfcuich it Witlcnb*rB. Cf, Koldet yfufiu- 
litrrc*ntrfg*lt»it, i68, «oSf; P. KUkolI: AUttt und Rel\quirtvrt4ii*fmg i» Jtr 
SfUoiiNrtkr »H Wiltt^rrg, Goiha, 1907. I.ultiiir hiiJ eume (o dialika tiboa. 

C/. leti«r 10 Spalttlo, Jun« S, isi(. uaniUtH. Snitb. »f. 

IM. «J 



Wherefore will you pl<asc find out about iL The reverend 
Father Vicar asked for relics for the elector from the Arch- 
bishop oE ColognCi' and the business of procuring tlicse relics 
from the commissary of the archbishop was entrusted to the 
nib-prior of our monastery at Cologne. But after the departure 
^■of Siaupitz, when the chief nun of St. Ursula* was required 
^^to hand over the relics, she alleged a prohibilion of the Pope 
[ and said that she could not conscientiously comply without 
^■ifais mandate or permission. And though a writ of Ihc licenser 
was shown her, yet because she doubted its autliority and 
signature she has not yet complied. If you wish, you may 
tetl the prince cither to send thither a licenser of approved 
authority or else to excuse Staupitr. 

As to wliat you write alxjut tlie most illustrious prince 
speaking of me frequently and praising me, it does not please 

rme at -ill. yet I pray the Lord God may give glory to 
his humility. For I am not worthy that any man should 
speak of me. stUl less tliat a prince stiould do so and least of 
all that such a prince should do so. I daily see and expcri- 
^^ence tliat those profit me most who speak of me worst. Yet 
^■1 pray you permit me to tliank our prince for his favor and 
^»kindness, though I would not be praised by you or by any 
^V man, for the praise of man is vain and that of God only is 
tme, *5 it is written, "not in man, but in the Lord shall my 
soul make her lioasl."* and again, "glory not in your own 
name, but tn his."' Not that ihey who praise us are to be 
reprehended, but that they praise man rather than God, to 
whom alone is laud, honor and glory. Amen. 

You ask me for my opinion of your plan for translating 
some little works into German,* but it is beyond my power 

■Flvmiea to» WIed. ucbblihop isoi lo 1S46, wbtn ihe Pope dcpniwd hitn tar 
fjttttlns tb« R((arn»tioti. in irbiib hr hid idUKlii <li« iJd of Ruccr mil Mvlancb 
Aon. KAadin-IUwcna, ii. 541, 5K1. 

■TIm (amou« cbuTcli «nd convent at Cnlusna wfaeic an cihibited tbe boo« at 
Ik «ic«en ihoiuand ritxini. 

*rMln auiv. 3. 

•pHim c*. 3. 

*Sp*litln. «bo later tranalaied M*Ian4liib»n'a teei Mmimnut and »trcral of 
Lxlbtt'i thinsi, waa at üiia time tiunlting of lianilaiiiiR lome of ihe ihortcr «nKla 
of Cruniu. The firit Ihlnc he äÜ iranaloie [tciu iliU nuilior wai a Utter M 
Atnonj q( Bcthvii do react, dateil Martb 14. tti4, anJcr Ih« title: Hrrrt Bratmiu 
M^trrodammg Btirtfi nt tirrr Atilamj iah Btrf, Aft m Sa'i Btrtin, vpm Jtn 


to givt it. Who am I to judge what should either please or 
profit the public, since it lies entirely within Cod's grace that 
anything shouM do either? Or do you not know that some- 
times the more wholesome a thing is the less it pleases? What 
is more wholesome than the gospel and Christ? And yet to 
most they seem poor and are an odor of death unio death, to 
very few an odor of life unto life. Perhaps you will say that you 
at least hope to please those who like good things. Here you 
have no need of my judgment; the sheep hear eveiy call of 
the shepherd, and dee only from the voice of a stranger. 
Be assured, therefore, that whate\'er you do, if it is only 
good and the voice of Christ, will please and profit, though 
only a few, for sheep arc few in this land of wolves. 

... Do not follow your own wishes, however good and 
pious f for the common monk and priest err often and badly ) , 
but ask permission, or rather wait for a command to do this 
or anything imless you wish your work to be straw. I will 
add % piece of advice. If you delight in reading pure, sound 
theology, like that of the earliest age, and in German, read 
the sermons of John Tauler. the Dominican, of which I send 
you. as it were, the quintessence.' I have never read either in 
Latin or in our own tongue theology more wholesome or 
more agreeable to the gospel. Taste and see. therefore, how 
8weet is the Lord, as you have first tasted and seen how 
bitter is everything in us. Farewell. ,ind pray for me. 

nROTtiKR Martin Lutickr, Aitgustinian. 


Eadcrs, i. 36. Wrmxastc, December 26, 1516.* 

mtaailfifSltigrti tr^dtn irt Kritft tinä wer Sbrh, naektryti »J «awfwiu mir it* 
ffrlrrm irtpr;l>in. I'rinitd tn qmrlo «ilhoBi ptice. due at name of pnitlcr. 
Mr. P. Ü. Alien (Ofrnj fpia^lamm Eraitui, L SJi] ;iuta ttiit iraniUtion in I(I4. 
bat Ibr iaci Ihii ibe letnr nomU kardlr cireulair «> briiklr tnA ük [iiwii in 
the Inter bcrc ■(■nilalcd, wmtld inilkitc ijiA or 1517 m ■ mare protMUe due. 
That it evIdeiK« in a Itlter trom Luihcr iv SpalaUo, Deeeabcr »1, 1518, t« 
•hav Ibai be knew tbU traniUiioa. 

'On Tauler mc «bv*« no. bo. Lulhcr owned ■ tefrf of h{f Mtniims la lbs 
•drlicn »( A*g>tBi»| i]«i »iid bit nBrsiml cwlei arc priMt4 Wrinar Ix. 9$. 
Tfc« ".(M'lit*«»«!«" it tbe CfraiBB TttMloKr, ■ l'»H by '"< «^ T«uler*a ich««!, 
whiti Lulhcr ficibipt kUrlbuled to Tinier, uii »bicb be Gral oJütJ in Ihii r<ar. 
Mi* t^rtitr. Wdnur, i. us, 

■ Thi« leiTrr 11 pvl by Enden in ijij «n ibc (round thai Luiber an4 lb« 
Carwiai» of bla tuse dated tb« n«« jrmr fran CbtiaWAt. Tfc« rnne itaienenl ü 
MMie br Knaakc OV«imw. L ig) and br BtMacbncadar of Mdtnebiboa. (Certmt 



Greeting. Returning yesterday,' excellent Spalatin, I found 
your letters somewhat late in the day. Please answer the 
boolcseller, Martin,' on my behalf, that he cannot expect to 
have my lectures on the Psalms. Though I would rather not 
have them printed at all, I am forced to. I have not yet been 
able to obey the command, but now, having tiaished lecturing 

Ktf»Ttm4toram, L {14.) I lute «Mdpafcd all ihMc Irtltfa «I Luthef, to 1541. (a 
vbich the diw IS derided by lb« <ort*nt> htfond dnubt, tnd find that nf i&. r| 
aMUBe Ihtt tb« Nf« Vtsr be^n» on Chmttnu, &n<l j dsiD. i5>7, I5j8) (bat 
It bettln «n Janmrj 1 or later, t.uthcr (utthrr •xplaiiu fait practU« in b »enimn 
ON January '■ *U*> of abich Iha bevinnins ii iF;iori(d in Ibr i«o lollowins Forma: 
(Wtimai. xnir. pari i. 1) "Uaa hem hadiEinuni diem <Ut Newcnjanuiic. <inan> 
qoaiB no* ChrUlUni nnitrurn ncwrii J<)(tl4it anf.iiigcn, aictil rliani icfihilur 'Anno 
■atiKilalu,' dock wallra wir diCMn iic«rn iarilai hinirtiirctAcn. guanquam inctpliu 

■ Romania cl bic moi roan»! apui] titn, lub icmpoie Kuinanu »iiinu-%, t.l alii miilta ut 
JyriMcrci md Babalun ein ttn atuclk Iirin accundum Romnnoruni boiDloEiuoi 
ci ditfiini apprlation»." And: "Man bcj-il diat lag dci Neven jtura ag. in 
«|ua circuniciaio CbriMi agatur, Wicwul wjt Clij-itlen beicbrn unHcn nnvjaii tat 
an Cbrätlas, Immm illnm non rvUtivitini, qiii a mnrp Knmano hue «cnit. Solden 
•fr an daa «eg ■erffcn da* vuo bcydeu bcr kummeC, toturn ji» cirile aC Papato* 
trikicnda «airnf.'' Howner (hax (rxK have bren coirunt'd il <a plnin itam Ibin 
thai Lulb'f kriFv nf the beginning of the year on January 1, though i( the lime 
be >p«üu b* Uiougbi il moi« Cbiiiiian to briin on December if. Thia would 
laid na l» ri|>*irl vjrar varialicin in hit practic«. juil aa wc have foutid to bf 
tlK a*t, 1 ihefefore Ihlnk that thairKh the prciumritian i« ihat ihr or« ^mi waa 
letniB on At laiirr il4le. ye\ Ihr wviiihl ii( pviJence Iruni Ihe contcai o( thr 
letter abonld be drcisin. The tcasunn vbr I put ihii letter in 1576 ue lb« Eol 
kving: I. LAilhcr »peaki of havii]g: httn onlcrcd thj whom U i> nut known, prob' 
•Mr bv Sianpita or poaaiUj ih.t elector) 10 prim hia Dtciat« tfper Pnlitriam. 
Tbcae Iccigrei «crc not Aniihcd imtll isi6. In ihc letter tu Lang of Oeltibcr »6. 

■ 116, Lniber uya he li "eotltclor Palteni" IT.mitry i. 6j^. and in thia letter tbat 
Ac Iccturei "nan ila c<>llceu lunt." Ltilhei'i rcvitli>n wutild be Biore tiMf t« 
acciip7 two mcntht (ban ten. a. Lulbct titver iiubliibed the Dulila wbich firat 
■pf tared in iB^A. bul in ibe (piins of <5t7 he did publiih a comfneniary on the 
Setv» Pmi<eit*taJ Ftatmi. Ki^itlm-Kawcrau, t. i)6. 1 bcliev* ifaia wa* s aob. 
Mitut# lor the piiblteali«Ti ol th* wiiDlt. fnr the time agree* caaclly with what it 
Mid in tbii letter about being readjr to fiubliib hf Lent, j, Luibef apealcaofbariag 
fifiubed Ueluring on I'nul. He 1> thinking nl hii lecluro on Roman« whieb 
vrobabtir were finiihe^l by (he beginning cf (he «inter (crm tii6. certainly not 
baNee. m th* nunieroua iiootatlona from Kraimui' (ir«rk Tettament (publiahed 
Ma«tL i|i6) prove. Cf. Ticker: Lalkm Vorlnino ibrr dm Ritmerbritt, tsoS. 
It U ime Ihat in (he letter (a Lang of IDciubei lü he mk> tliai he eipecti to 
begin iKtarlng on Galtiiaii* ott ilic lultumiiig day. bui ihi*. ttiauith a difficulty, 
n not ao grol aa would be Ihc alternative of phicing the letter in liij. Id may 
Ml hare bctun lecturing *i aooii a> be eapected, ot il may be a simpfe ilip. 

'The eapUnaticn of tbi« giiren in Linckc: Lalheri Reiteift^chuhu (i^gC). 
f. jA, ikM LutbcT bad been called (a Cifuii lu acitlc the dUTicullJc* with Ibc 
bctUlj thei^ mciilioned in Ihc leiten of 1114, would be iiaprobablc In any 
«irewmatant««, doubly k ii tbi> )*iier !■ in ijii. Lu(her uailc a good many tiipa 
00 bwahivaa o( bta order. 

■"Marlio« M»MaI«ri," (he aecond word taken by De Wette «1 a proper name. 
petbap« "Ktofnafln," Ko tueh bockteller ii Imixkn. Thecr WM a Martin 
BetWpolenaUi «I Leifote. and T. Uaneni, '*tbe Aldiu of the Nciherlanda." whs 
at Lourain, ifii-iy. SUnpila had frequent dealingi with (he NelhcrUada. 



UL ae 

on Paul, I can give myself to this work alone. But even 
when it is finished, it will not be in such a form that it can be 
printed away from me. Moreover, the professors here wish 
that it should be published by our phnler.' This cannot be 
done before Lent. This also pleases me (if it must be pub- 
lished at all), because it will thus come out in poor style; 
for those things which arc worked up with good types and 
by careful and able printers do not seem lo me to be worthy, 
but arc for the most part trifles deserving the sponge. Fare- 
well. Hastily,' from the monastery, the day after Cliristmas, 
noon, 1516. Bkotiihr Maktin Luder, Augitslitiian. 

Enders. i. 76. VViTTKHtiEittt (last month* of 1516). 

Mucov, who later hccame erangdical pastor at Lcltitcau. was not 
an AuKUtilinian, bul a Pracmontlratrntian whom Luthrr had perlu]>a 
come to know throtiKh his biisin^t« relations with tlic town. Cf. letter 
to LanK, October 26, 1516, transUletl. Stnitli, .^f. 

TI1C <Iaie of ihh letter iectm to be fixed by the allusion to the 
plague which raged in Saxony (lurinjt the autumn of i5t& 

Be strong in Christ, nor be troubled because hearts and 
bodies die. For these arc signs of grace rather tlian of wrath. 
For God is most angry when he least shows it, as he says 
through EzekicI, "I will he no more angry and my jealousy 
shall depart from tlice."* This is to be most feared, for it is 
only spoken to the reprobate. At the end of my letter I beg 
you lo pray the Lord for me, for I confess to you that my 
life daily approaches nearer hell, for 1 become worse and 
more miserable all the time. Farewell. 

An exiled &on of Adam, 

Mabtin LxrritER, /tugustinian. 


Ender», i. 77. (1516?) 

Greeting. Like your order, [ believe all orders arc run- 

■pTolMblir Jphn rnuiiciilwr«. wh» printed ih« Scrtn PtnSwntlal T^mIbib. t-utbcr 
«pp*k( of him clHvhrri;, ■* ( pnor, *!•>« prinlar, hin at > GoJ-f(ari»8 mm. 

■Tlie fact (hat ilic letter «u writlai hisliljr muiksi it inuie |itohahlc iluil, 
lapIHMinc ha had orinl la dale ll I5lf, he «hauli) h*v< 4>lrd it 1J16, joct W 
«« ultra put tb« d*t« •( tkt FMt f*u on th* lira dar* «' Juiuaty. 

■>lli. t& 


rHKR col 


läog dovfn hill and aclUtg slothfully so tliat those n-bo ar« 
placed as their guardians may act vigilantly. If, therefore, 
you are not able to accomplish anything by peace and good- 
ness, I do not advise you to fight ohstinatcly with all your 
might againsc the majority of your monks. Give place to 
wrath and let the tares ooiite up with the wheat ; it is better 
to save the moderate in peace than to disturb all on account 
of many. It is better to tolerate many on account oi a few 
than to ruin a few on account üf many. 

IBrothek Martin Lutheb. 
d«ri, i. 7ÖI NuREUBEUc, January 2, ijiy. 

Schcurl (u8i-iM^). of Nurcmbers. visitcJ Italy 1900; LL. D., 
1504; lectured on jurisprudent:« ai Wittenberg 1507-11. Then lie re- 
turned to N^uremberg and filled various hi^h offices, f. g., being sent 
to rcprcjeni the cities before the Emperor in Spain. 1523, He wat a 
warn friend both of the RefurnierB and com« of their oiiiionents. 
especially John Edc, until >tK>ut 1523. when he rc-turnccl to the 
Catholic Chuich. In i5J3 he passed cliruugh Wittcnbciv without icc- 
ing Luther. AUgemeint Deulschf Biographit. 

Honored Sir,' and reverend Father, the Augustmian pro- 
fession, your splendid virtue and great fame have so made 
mc your subject that I greatly desire to be your friend, and 
to be inscribed in the catalogtie of your intimates. With our 

^common parent and vicar I conversed as much as the bust- 
less of each of us permitted, and during several days and 

"a part of the night the subject of our talk was frequently 
your CÄCcUcncc, goodness and learning. Besides Martin, we 
especially desired Otto Beckmann* and Amsdorf.' (The rest 
of the letier is chiefly concerned with Staupitz's sermon' on 

'Otacquis pants." 

»Of Warbvif, Btar P»d»fb»fn, itadied »t De»enl*T, matrieatalcd at L^ipiic tyt/ti: 
ft- A, tjoj) eiilcrvd Wtiimfvrj ■S^7i U- A. ijnj, He received • canoinry «id 
liimbi bfr« onttl ll>7, whFii bt (pent aome i>c«k* il ErfufI, tcMiicnlatins Utf 
ol eiMt. In I!t4, havlnf remained Catholic, h« bicant pric't st Wsrbiirg, ini) m 
■ S*r WM ntadi ffovott of St. Cum (Arflilltti) 11 Mäiuter. from which eity lie 
«1« scni in ts)« a* delenle u (he Diet of AueibuFc- H« died (n 1)56. He 
*u the «Bthne nf Mrtnl hnnli«. A'ckn fO' RtformaUom.iftifi'ithir, vü. I5(lf. 

■Kichalu Ton Ancdoif (Detcinbcr j. t^gj-MiT 14. ts6s), I.utber'i noil detoted 
faUOBer, hnm at Totiid. railticiilat«4 at t.«ip*)e iioo and at Wtrnnbarf 1501, 



L«L aS 

Enden, i. 81. Wittenbekc, January 27, 1517. 

Greeting. Learned and kind Christopher, I received your 
letter, which to me was both very pleasant and very sad. 
Why do you frown? For what could you write inore agree- 
able than the well merited praises of the reverend father, or 
rather of Christ in his vessel, our vicar? Nothing can please 
nie more than to hear that Christ is preached, beard and 
received, or rather lived, felt and uiiderslaud. Again, what 
could you write more bitter than that you <1estre my friend- 
:>hip, and than the many empty titles with wbidi you load me? 
I do not wish you to he my friend, for my friendship will 
bring you not glory, but danger, if, at least, that proverb is 
true that friends have all things in common. Wherefore, if 
you partake of what I have by this friendship, you will find 
yourself richer in nothing but sin. folly and ignominy. Such 
arc the qualities in me, which, as 1 have said, you called by 
such contrary epithets. But 1 know that you savor of Christ 
and you will say: ! admire not you, but Cbnst in you. To 
which I answer; How can Christ, true righteousness, dwell 
with sin and folly? Nay, it is the height of arrogance to 
prcsun^ie that you are the haliitation of Christ, excet^t that 
this boast is easily permitted to the apostles. Therefore I 
congratulate your happiness in hecoming the familiar friend 
of our father. Staupitz, but I pray you spare your honor and 
do not degenerate into my friendship, even though the rev- 
erend father himself, not without peril to mc, boasts of nie 
c^-erywhere and saya: "I preach not you, but Christ in you." 
and r must believe it. Rut it is bard to believe. For this is the 
unhappincss of this wretched life, that the more numerous and 

hrrominff U. A. in ifa* anil liccntiat« in rTieoloaii rs>i. To bim Luiher dcdinlcil 
ihc AUrtst (o Ih* Ctriuan Nobilily, 1510 (Smith, 79). In 1511 kc ■ccani|i«DMd 
Lutbcr to Womit. I>i 1J14 he was called lu Mttd«burc In im bt tmk a 
prajiiitirnl pin in Liitl>cr*i <|uBtttl with Krairaui, which bruuglil him inio irauMc 
«lib llt-latietHbon inj ßuccc. In 1 )4> Lulbtt cgnircialcü him F.vanKelical &ishi>i> 
ot Naumburg, wlikk jwiitinn he «<■ cbliicd <o vacate in convequeni;« of the 
Schnulkalük war (1147}. In i}Si l>c nblainrd a potiliiin at Eiacnacti. tti» latt 
7«ari «err ditlurWri by qiunel» «ilh o'htt l.iilhrrint. KfalfiytlafSdif. 

*Dr Eriiul<«nt ttlrrntt frtdtilinaltonu, «hieb Scb«UFl (ra&italcd infa Ccraiaa. 
On tbia work M<t T. K«1ibr AHgtttlinlr-CvnfrtgMuti», »Ha. and HuMbert: 
Otigio*! lit la llitt>Ug^r m^itrft. It ihovi marked in)lii«D«e of I^tfacr'i idM» 

Ml hii (omcr t««<her. K»lile. op. rti-, p- »Dfr. 


Let J9 



unanimous are the voices of our friends praising us, tlie 
more hurtful they are, as it is written:' "a man's enemies 
are those of his own household." and again, "tliose who 
praised me conspired against nie.'** For God's favor recedes 
as man's advances. For God will be your only friend, or will 

I not be your friend at all. . . . 
[ I do not write this, excellent Christopher, in scorn of your 
Bprtght and kind intentions, but because I fear for myself. 
Vou do the oflRcc of a pious Christian, who ought to despise 
none but himiself, but 1 must also trj' lo be a Christian like 
you (if our future friendship is to be solid), that i^, to despise 
myself. For he is not a Christian who receives a man on 
account of bis learning, virtue, sanctity and fame (for thus 
iJie genliles do and the little poels.' as they call therisclvcs. 
of our age), but he who cherisiics the destitute, the poor, 
the foolish, the sinner and the wretched. . , . 
Behold your verbose friend ; do you as a friend be a patient 

Brother Martin LxmeA, 
On« of the Hermits of the Sect of St. Augustine. 

• Christoph SthtnrU Britfbitck, bg. von Soden und Knaake, a v. Pots- 
I dun. l8&7-7a, ii. a. Nubgmbwc. January 14, 1517. 

John Maicr of Eck (November 13, 148fr Fchtuary 10, 154JI in 
Swabia, irutrtcuUtcd ai Heidelberg in i+oS, at Tubingen in 1499. tak- 
ing the dcifrce of B. A. there in the same year, and M. A. in 1501. 
From 1502-10 he was at the universiij- o( Frcitmrg in Brcitga«. be- 
cofDing D. D, in the latt named year. He (published several things, 
amonji ihern t)ic Oiryssopassus (! r/. Revebtions, xai. 20). Front 
1510 till hi« death he was professor at Ingolstadt. In 1514, at the 
rajDcst of the banking house of Fuxser in Augsburg, he maintained 
the juMicc fit taking intrrest at 5 per ceiit.. and debated (be «ubjcct 
■n 1515 at Bologna, and in i;i~ st Vicuna. He was anxious to dis- 
tinguish himself, and early in !i^^ atiarkcd Erasinus for saying that 
the Greek of the Kew Testament was rot as good a.* that of Demos- 
tbcncs. About tlie same time Scheurl tent him LuthcT's Theies, 
wbicli be answered in a work called Obelisks. A debate bccwem faim 

'»bitlK« I. it. 

'TmJiii <il. 9. 

Tic huBkaeJMs (tcqnMUj talM lbMn««l<m poeK. 



Let. JO 

on one side and Luiher and CarlsiaJt on (li< oih« w« arranged at 
L*ii)8ic. June and July, ifiig. In March, i^m, he was at Rome, where 
be was target)- tnururarnul in drawing up ih« biill Ejrsurj/r Domine 
againtt Luther. He was entrusted with the pubtication of it in Ger- 
niajijr in the autumn of ihc same year. In 1530 he was the Catholic 
pnMaKotii^t at the Diet of Augsburg, and after that in several rcliKiwn 
conferences, notably that of Ratisbon. 1541. Cf. RtalencyctofädU; 
Grcving: Heformationgejrhicluliche Stitdun und TtxU. Hefte L. i», 
v.; H. E. Jacobs, in Paptrj oj AmtrUan Svc. of Ck. Httlery, ad 
Scries. iL, 1910. 

. . . Among Lhc theologians [at Wittenberg) the most 
eminent arc Martin Luther, the Aiigiistiiiian. who expounds 
the epistles of the Tarsan with tnarvcUous genius. Carlstadt, 
Amsdorff. Kcltkirchcn (Bcmhardi], and others. If you wish 
to make die acquaintance of any of them, und out if wc can 
do anything for you. 

Enders, i. 87. Wittenboc, March 1, 1317. 

. . . ]f the Psalms' translated and explained by me in 
German please no one. yet they please me exceeding well.* 
John Grünenberg, the printer, is waiting for you to fmish 
those I sent you. 

I am reading our Erasmus, and my opinion of him becomes 
daily worse. He pleases me, indeed, for boldly and learnedly 
coDvtcting and condemning monks and priests of inveterate 
ignorance, but I fear that he does not sufficiently advance 
the cause of Christ and God's grace, Jn which he is much 
more ignorant than Lefevre d'ßlaples, for human considera- 
tions weigh with him more than divine. I judge him with 
reluctance, and only to warn you not to read all his works, 
or rather not to accept all without scrutiny. For our times 
arc very perilous and everyone who knows Greek and Hebrew 

■J>i« nrb/D BwiiPfilmt*. WIncntKTit. tjiT. Thli «-u Luihci'i drat (■iiblictiliii 
vritlm bT hiniwU (the rttj litit hannt beon ttar Ofraiaii Tlitahah prkiiod April. 
I.vltier b peibai« )rTi<IInit tbcm i» Laii| (or rcvkion br IhM friend wIm ko«« 
Hebrew, fiqiniiied. Wnnxr, i. 1S4B. 

'Lulher prabkltly mtani llial ility pltoar hiio huaujt lhr> «Itl pit»: iw oot 
ct*e, (or hie conaidcied ihU tb« lurr«! *ifn of divin* fa*ar. Cf. the letter of 
DK«IBb«r It, i)it. '■hrr« be ny* he fttlci* lo hi» Ibcm cana eat in poor 
for«. Knaake (Wgitnir, i. isjI icfibi to min Uiii meanina oben he m^*: "Luther 
hatM Mfaio bcMtklM t'reud* an ibDea.** 



is nol (or that reason a wise Christian, seeing that Jerotne,' 
with bis five languagirs. did not equal Augustine with his one, 
aJlhough £ra<imu5; thinks him so superior. But the opinion 
'of him who attributes something to man's will is far different 
from the opinion of him who knows nothing but grace.* I 
much prefer to conceal thi-s opinion for fear of confirming 
ibe enemies of Erasmus; the Lord will perchance give him 
understanding in his own time. Farewell and salute Uie pro- . 
fcssors and Lciffer, and inquire whether Trutfelter" has 
deigned to answer anything.' 

feBKOTHER Martin Luther, Augttstinian Vicar. 
8;». (Wrrn-NBEac, Spring of 1517.) 

Ig. As you wish, excellent Sir. I am sending you 
the Latin tract on predestination,' and if you wish it in 
German, 1 send you also Schcurl's translation, which is more 
omate than the original. Of all the books, I have kept only 
The Itttitalion of Christ's Death* for myself, the others 1 have 
given away. Therefore use my copy and I will sec if I can 
get some more. The third book," the little Adam, is unlike 

^^ 'II H intOMtine to ir< Ibal Ihc inbjfit cf th< great lirbalc liclw<^en Erooiui 
and Lulhcf, iSM-s, »u (hut arly c\ttt\y defined. 

'JnttMoi TtulfMOr (c. uta-e, Mtctmhtr i, tits) »f Eiaenach, nulrÄuUled >l 
Efhitt 14;^ btcaine M. A. tdS«. lachilor of divlaity 1480 >nd O. 0. ijo«. He 
UMghl lofiic on «tilch be (lubliiJttd a ■luinbrt o[ baoka of Ibe "madeni." i. f., 
OoclMiM Kboot. Id IS07 be vu c*l1ed lo teacli at Wliipnbert. where tm «u 
cleeted Becior at once, an<1 on liaj 1. tsoR, Ucan of tbr throloaical laculif. 
Allrt a Tlolcnl quarrel with »»mc of hit ciitlruiii*. lie returned C4 Erfurt in lb« 
wmmoMT of 131D, wbtrc be t^maincd as profoior Ibc teal «i bU life. lAtt b^ 
G. nill. iB76> 

Tli« refn* W a ItiUt of Lutbcr lu Lan«. Ftbiuary 8 (tniaUxed Snillli. a6J 
in vbkb (be writrr cncltKed Mm« pToifoiiiloni cililcliiiig the prtralcnt tosk and 
eipecially AiUtolle, «bleb be deaJred to have canaiinlcaicd 10 Trutfclter and 

*nEa it the wrmon of StaupiU. Lib*ltiit it eettulient »rlrrnat ^ratdittiiMitnit, 
■MbMiMl br Scbeurl, Jinuary a, tfif. Stlieurl tnniUled it, and aJilcii both 
the CcnBati, Jamiary so. and Ibe Larln, February 6. Cf. Hunb«n, of. eil., jiSff. 

•Stiapiti' £■■ bmthltm ran dtr nachf^ltu't i" villiffnt lirrbnu Chtitti. 
Uimic rtit. 

•Lniber neaoa bli cJition of Üw Ctrmtn Tkrtlegy of iti6. of «hich tbe (iUa 
*■■: Eyt> gryiUitk nSItt BucUfyin. von uthltr umti'jfhfyit und vtnUmd. Wbi 
ätT all ■>• n«w M<MieA« «n>. Wat Adamr ■ni wai geltü kini iry. Uam irff 
(filwa jnn ■■/ tterbtm iiaaJ ChryHms tnim tail. Cf. Wdinir, L ijj. 



Ut ji 

anything that has ever come into my liands {I lie not) 
and most theological. I send it, but 1 shall be sorry 1 have 
dcue so if you read it carelessly. Behold most learned 
Erasmus and Jerome so much praised by him! I do not 
know whctljer they could compose such a book, but I know 
they have not done so. 

I no longer have the Psalms, but the printer.' Truly, I am 
sorry that you want tliem so much, for ihcy are not published 
for choice minds, but for the simplest, of whom I have to 
bear with many. Therefore they are not provided with 
learned apparatus and are without parallel passages in Scrip- 
ture, and, tliougli very verbose, strange to &ay, insufRciently 
explained. For their subject is foreign to men, or rather they 
are incapable of understanding it. So it is not for your mind 
to cat prcdigcsted food like this. You already have enough 
in the works just mentioned, or if they are not enough, I beg 
you trust yourself to mc this once, and with all your power 
lay hold on the book of Taulcr's scnnons, of which I spoke 
to you before. You can easily get it from Christian Döring,' 
a most theological man. From this book you will see how 
the learning of our age Is iron, or rather earthen, be it Greek, 
Latin or Hebrew, compared to the learning of this true piety. 

My opinion of Wimpina's book on predestination' is the 
same as Carlstadt's, namely, that he has labored in vain as 
far as the subject goes. You can easily form an opinion of 
the labored elegance of his style. Even if the theses he tries 
to prove were true, he should not draw the conclusions which 
he does from it. 

Th» Stvtii FniltnlM PiiJmt. 

>A RoldimLlh »bo wn> atM a prtnt«r tad b^okMlItr, raenttoned often %)r Luiber 
at > frivnil 11c ilicd dm 1514. 

*Df imma frevidtiuta. Fi»nkfon a. O. March t, isi6. Conrad Kocfc, kn»wn 
as WimpIi-kB (c. i(4<i'MiT >7. MJ'). in*<iicula(cil ai l-tiruli H19, B. A. uSt. 

M. A. I4t6, dMtoi ihcal. ijoi. At tbis time, or pcnhaps earlier, he T!iitc4 
Rome. He wm involved in • '<iuarrel with Ti^llii;!), Col mtor nf Wln^nhcii- 
Is i]o6 he vu calleil bf ibc dcctar a( BrBndeiiUura to be deto of t)i« new 
nnlverticjr of FrnnWfotMnlhcOdor, wbtr« he ipcnl iht rr»i of hi» HI*. In 1517 
ha had a conlrovrny with Kgnnua vhich wilt I» naliccd below. On January M". 
ijil, John TtlieP. Ibe induUirte preath«r, t»oV Liithir't TXnti lo FiBnli(i>rt and 
wd. Wintpina't b«lp conpotcd a Kply. In i;*s bt «rot« (be Aiattphtlaraiu 
(prinwd i^iS) atainii Luther and in ttj« w» at the Dttt of AuRiburE- Ule br 
J. Nes«^. tOB9- 


let. 34 




Enden, L gs. Ndreuberc, April i, 1517. 

Honored Sir; — I lold my friend, John Eck,' about your 
virtue, which makes him desirous of knowing you. He does 
not write, but sends you the book of his disputation.' I 
doubt not that yoa will answer him and discharge my obliga- 
tion. 3S you think it base to be conquered in love or over- 
come in kindness. write him cordially, for I think 
him wortliy of your friendship. The reverend father' speaks 
of you often and hopea you arc well. I desire to commend 
myself to your prayers. Beckinann will explain what the 
Empcfor* is doing. Farewell. 

Dr. C. S. 


End«», i. 94. WrrTENBttfi, April j. 1517. 

Good men have told me, excellent Sir. that you were the 
trustee for the estate of the late Dr. Rcutcr,' to distribute 
cIothioR to tlie poor. I have, therefore, been requested to ask 
you for something for this youth Wolfgang,* whom wc are 
maintaining her« from charity; he is an honest and promising 


■ ■ « * 


En<)«fa. i. «. (WiTTtSBEic, April 9, tst?.) 

Greeting. I tliank you. dear .Spalatin. for your splendid 
lination towards me. For I look at the mind only, which 
is to be preferred to all gifts. You ask me to tell you what 
>-ou ought to read these days; I advise Augustine on the 
grace of the New Testament to Honoratus, in which he aläo 

*Ct. titfra, no. n- 

^Dtit'tUto Ja«a. Etta Thttloti Cirniur Pattnoniat Kabila. AiiE*tnirc Feb- 
mur '■ 'f<7' ^ laklnf latcrcit. 


*Ttril nftiB 10 ibe eodeiven of MuimilUn w ict bia trandion Chailci ekctrd 
Uac of ibe Rcnikiu. 

*lffliH Rct)t«T of Mclkr*iaiit, H. A. tri C«lpgne, nuiitcuUtMl v Wittenberg 
Ifns, died isrfi. 

■Wolfvuif fiicbcfgcf af IfiniMh. matricuUted 1513, In ijif WM Ulm inU ih« 
BUck OaiiMr «kef« be beeaae • ton of a »ervsnt. After all Iht monka bad 1«tt 
bsi LuiImt. he rpnuliwd *t hi« (aJthfnl wrrjnl for m»ar yttn. See Kraker: 




treats Psalm, xxii., so suitable for this season, or else Hilary's 
Explanation of the Psalms, or else Cyprian's not inept ser- 
mons, or Augustine on John, beginning witK chapter xiü., 
which narrates the events of Easter week. I shall try, if I am 
able, to-morrow to teach how Clirisl may be seen in every 
man.' Farewell. 

Martin Littues. 

Eoder«, J. 96. V/rmnBac, May 6, is>7- 

Greeting. Dear Sir, I thank you for your gifts of Staupilz's 
works, but I am sorry that the reverend father distributed 
my foolish trifles' among you. For they were not written for 
Nurembcrgcrs, that is, for delicate, discerning souls, but for 
Saxons, rude people as you know, who need their Christian 
doctrine chewed and predigested for them with all possible 
care But even if I wished it, I would not be able to write 
anything tolerable to I-alin ears, less llian ever now that 1 
have chosen to devote myself to the service of tlie dull crowd. 
Wherefore I pray you keep my book from the inspection of 
ÜIC teamed as much as you can. 

I have written a friendly and careful letter to our Eck as 
you asked mc* but I do not know whether it has reached 

I am sending you these declarations, which they call Theses, 
and through you to Father Wenzel Link, and to any others 
who may care for this sort of tidbit If I mistake not, you 
have here not tlie Paradoxes of Cicero,' but those of our 
Carlsladt,' or rather of St. Augustine, which are as much 
more wonderful and worthy than those of Cicero, as Augus- 
tine or rather Christ is more worthy than Cicero. For these 
Paradoxes convict of carelessness or ignorance all lliose to 
whom they seem more paradox than orthodox, not to say 
(hose who, having not read, or not understood, Paul and 
Augustine, rashly judge them heterodox,' blinding themselves 

T»o »ctmoni Dr piMicn» Chriiii, Wcimr, i, 3)5. 

*/. »., the Srvrn Pntilmiiai Pietmi. 

■CiccrenU Parana*» »4 M. Brmhnm. 

«On CuUladt'* TktKt, t/. ^>^^r^. p. 4*. tte. 


and otliers. They arc paradoxes to men of metliocre ability, 
»■ho had not thought of Ihem, but they arc good doctrine and 
fair doctrine to the wise, and to me the best of doctrine.' 
Blessed be God who again commands light to shine in the 
darkness. . . . 

Bkotker Martin Luder, Augustinian. 

Endcfs, i. g8. WiTTtwratRc, M.iy 17, 1517. 

Greeting, ] sympathize, Reverend Father; I pity the fall 
of your brother and ours ; he yesterday, wc to-day, or rather 
be yesterday, we yesterday, to-day and always are sons of 
Adam and, therefore, do the works of Adam, Yet wc mU3t 
not despair of God's powerful hand. It is difficult for me 
to judge and coimsel you what to do with him, especially as 
I do not know your rules. H they do not punish such a 
transgression with death or life-long imprisonment, it seems 
to me that he should be made to suffer the full penally. For 

»it is not you who punish him thus, but justice and the law 
of which you arc not the judge, but the officer. Let not the 
thought that you arc an equal or greater ainner move you. 
It is enough to confess this to God. It is edifying to think 
that wc must almost always correct those who arc better tlian 
ourselves, teach those who arc more learned, help the worthier, 
that the saying of the Lord' may be established, that the 
princes of the nations rule over them as their inferiors, but 
the princes of the faithful serve them as their superiors; for, 
be says, whosoever is greatest amongst you let him be your 
servant. Therefore keep your heart humble and gentle to 
this man, but show the power of a. strong hand, since the 
power is not yours, but God's, but the humility ought not 
to be God's, but yours. Who knows whether he was per- 
mitted to make the stench of his sin public because he could 
not cure it in secret, but only by public shame. God is 
wonderful in all hts ways above the sons of men. He cures 
many of sin by sin, as poison is coimteracted by poison. Where- 

<"Saitl igilui pandaxt modcttl*. ei qui non cb cognoTCtliil. led ciidojca ct 
ealodom «cicntibiu. mihi vet« «rittodox»." 
•Luke ixil. 11. 



fore ht not afraid; it is the Lord who does this. Praise 
and love fiim and pray him for this poor man and for me 
more devoutly. Farewell. 

Brotiiek Martin Luthes, Auffuslinian. 

Enders, i. toi. WiTTEKsexa, July 16, 1517. 

I am preparing six or seven candidates for the master's 
examination, of whom one, Adrian,' is preparing theses to 
shame Aristotle, for whom I want to make as nian^ enemies 
ami as quickly as I can. . . . 

Ender», i. ros- (WiTTExatKC, end of August. I5i7.> 

Greeting, Do you and the confessor,' with his friend, come 
about nine o'clock,' If Christopher Scheiirl, as ambassador,* 
is with you. let him come, too; otherwise. I have asked Beck- 
mann to invite him. rarcwell. Try to get some wine for us, 
for you know you are coming from the castle to the cloister,^ 
not from the cloister to the castle. 

Brotder Maeitin Lutrea. 

39. luther to john lang at erfurt. 

■r>, i. «KSt WrrrrNnnic, September 4, 1517, 

Greeting, t have sent to you by Beckmann' my Theses 

against Schofastie Theology/ and my sermons on the Ten 

Commandments,^ but I did not have time to write then, as 

his departure was announced to me suddenly. But I am 

'Adrian of Anlwcf|>. mcntionn) in Ihr Itttti of October, iji6. »tic died « mtitTT 
(a ihr tviriBrlic (■■lb in I5]>. On the theiH tf. i»f'a. na. jg. 

■Jftinca VoB<- H« ud Spaltiin wer« bolb •tHndini the cImiot u (b* eatti*. 

■T*n in tbt f&omtnt oai the mual hour tm (he principal meal, (upper brint 
•baul five p. m. tl mad be fcmcnbcrod Lulber and bi> eontempararii* roM •■ 
(our or Aie in the marniiiB. 

*ll it nnl hnaiftn wbai Sebtarl** biulneti At Witl«ib«*g «u. He bad pi«vlA«wl|t 
taut hi jur »prudence Ihrrc. 

'Wbo maa now f,aint lo iWdlr «I Eriufi 

♦Thi» wa» lUe ilitpulallon uiMer l.utbct'n nriidCRtr by Fiancia Giinthtr of 
Ifnrdliiiiio on bii pivmulion lo ihe fiiM lbcoV>t>caI degree (baccstaurciu ad BibUa}, 
held 0(1 Ih« Tcrj day tbii Idler ma «ritDcK Printed, Weimar. L an. 

*Tb* Dttrm Prettrfi* Wiitfhfrfrnti f»«»*S(«M piffnlo, lermon» detirercd (tota 
ibe ■unraer of isiA l« 1-tnt iji?, but nut piinled until ijiS, Wtiaut, 1. jy^ 



waiting with Ihc greatest ragcrncss and anxiety to know what 
you think of these paradoxes. Truly I fear that they will 
seem not only paradox, but heterodox, to your teachers, which 
can be only orthodox to us. Please let me know this as soon 
as possible, and assure my truly reverend masters in the the- 
ological faculty and in the other departments, that I am most 
ready to come and defend the theses publicly, cither in the 
university or in the monastery, so that they may not think I 
am whispering in a corner, i f , indeed, they esteem our 
university so meanly as to think it a corner, 

1 am sending you the Ten Commandments in both Latin 
and German,' so that if you wish you may preach them to 
the people, for it is that I did according to the gospel precept 
as I understand it. . . . Farewell. 

Brothiui Maktin Luder. 

P. S. — Please send back as soon as possible my lectures 
on Galattans,' for the copy belongs to Brother Augustine 
Himmel.' of Cologne. 

Endcrs, i. loR WamsNEEKc. September it, 15]/. 

Greeting. Sweet Christopher, even if tliis letter has no 
occasion worthy of a man so great as you, yet I thought I 
had sufficient reason to write only in our friendship, not 
rt^rding the titles with which you are worthily adome<l, but 
only your pure, upright, kind and recent affection for me. 
For, if ever silence is a fault, it is silence between friends. 
for a little nonsense now and then fosters and even perfects 
friendship as much as graviiy does. . . . Wherefore 1 pre- 
ferred to write nonsense, rather than not to write at all. And 

■Lulker't text U kiMwn only ir Latin: whrn ■ GermaB vemion kp»«ared at Bui« 
[b iSMk it wm« mi4> !>)> S*lna!l>n MiinitlFr, 

*T;b««e wr the Ircimr« on (•aliitsm bi-jiiin October »j. t{i6 (ff. mfnt. p. 49). 
kot not firinTtil titillt isid. und thfo in ■ riviicil lotDt. A topf ot th* ori«lnal 
tfciutc« by an unknown itililent it clill ]n raiitrmv. K'llllin-Kattrimti, i. tor. 
nolr * Accördinf In Ihii ihr iMtuir« mt finishH March tj, 151;. 

*IIo(n Bl Emmrrich am KliHn. oiatrlculiled >1 Wiltcribrrt iti6, returned ijii 
to ColocnT* «hcie bis Icctutn wrn- fucbidiltn. ibcn Id WitletibcrE aialn. He ns 
■I IjiUKr'i rrcnRinienilatJDn rnnile panci fir» o[ Keuiudt amOdor and Ibca »( 
Coldlu 15*9- Bt siKtMdtd Sialatin <t5«i> at Ahnibiin and rfied (here isss- 
Eader«. <ri >«■. 


how, ye gods, could that Brother Martin, falsely called a 
theologian, write anything but nonsense, since he has Wen 
reared amidst the hissing and frying of syllogisms, and has 
had no time to cultivate his pen ? . . . 

Of the valuable' books of Slaupitz, which you sent m« by 
Ulrich Finder," I sold part ; part I gave to good friends 
of tfie reverend author, and as you bade, 1 devoted the money 
to the pour; that is, I spent it on my brothers and myself, 
for 1 know none poorer. Please send mc, if possible, some 
more books with the same command, worth a gulden, which 
I will repay you. For some persons still want the books. 

I am sending my propositions,* which will seem paradoxes, j 
if not heterodox, to many, which you may show to our Icamcrl 
and ingenious Hck, so that I may hear and see what he has 
to say about thetn. . . . 

Brother Martim Lüder, 
Auguslinian of IVUtenberg. 


Endcrs, i. ill. Nuiuuboc, September 30. mj. 

Greeting in Jesus Christ. You have certainly done well, 
reverend and learned Father, to write and excuse your silence, 
for it is known to many that I am an Augustinian who think 
it base to be conquered in lo/e. Our special friend, Wenzel 
Link, a good and learned man. bears witness to this. , . . 
Among others, the most conspicuous for learning and sanctity 
Is Jerome Ebner, the honey and darling of Nuremberg, a 
duumvir.' and of all men the kindest and most upright, lie 
is most devoted to your eminence, at table he hears and speaks 
of you, he has, reads and admires your Decalogue, Proposi- 
tion^ and other publications.* ... I will send you fifteen 

'"FerBi pro » »utelt." wOflh aboul two (tulden. Or one dollar, Otn pgrchaÜnK 
f^vft of innn*y it t}ul timr being neirl]r Iwrnly hmn whal it [■ now. 

*Or Nitr«int>«rf. inairicttlucd at Wiit«nbert i;ii. sttidlfd Iaw, and (»eanv 
ffoftsKtr of It 10 \%ts. Tte neitl j««r he ww »ent on vt embuiy by th« «leclo« 
IS lb« Emptor In Srai"' 

•On HfaelMtie phflMaphy. rt. \m*\ Irllrr. 

*Nar*nb«rB. > fr«« dir, *>• ruled by i«o olScen call«) in C«r>n*n "T..iwtins«T.'* 
E%n«T <Januu7 j. i4T7-Aututi 36, is»), bcmnc «econd ijMUBfvr 1115. Bnl 
IjMiioit^ itid Iflilt« of the Kmpirc ii.*4. 

*S(« Ihi letter. 

*rbc Gtrmun T/iMiefy or the Snren Ptntltnlitl PmIhu. 

I^eL 4* 



copies of Staupitz's tract as soon as I can and for a gift. I 
will send your Propositions oh Scholastic Theology to Eck, 
and would like to scud them to the theologians of Cologne 
and Heidelberg, for 1 know several of them. Farewell. 

Eadcrs. L »t. 


(Earljf in November, 1517.) 

Greeting, I have determined, dear Spalatin, never lo com- 
municate the Dialogue' to anyone. My only reason is that it 
is so merry, so learned, so ingenious (that is, so Erasmian), 
that it makes the reader laugh and joke at the vices and 
miseries of Christ's church, for which rather every Christian 
oufht to pray and weep. But as you ask for it, here it is, 
read it and use it and then return il. 

I do not wish my Theses' to come into the hands of the 
illustrious elector or of any of the courtiers before they are 
received by tliose who believe that lliey are branded by them, 
lest perchance it be thought that 1 had published them at tlie 
instigation of the elector* against the Bishop of Magdeburg,* 

'F. A. F. Pettaf Stgii libtltut de obitu Juiii P. M. t jij. Kcprintfil In Backing: 
Hwtttmi aftra <(S)i9-6t), i*. 4>r, >(i<l in Jailin'a Life a( Eratmiu <i7]!<-6a), ii. 
Ao«'^». TriD*UI«l in Frouilc'a Brcimii4. Th« sn4hnr«hi|> i« much disputed. 
^"■»fc" (Weimar vi- 30j) »n't PMtar: Hittery sf ihr Puprt. Entliib tranililion 
tr Aniretai«. *1. 43)1. nolp. ailribuie it m Fiuitui Andrrllnui Karllvieiu^a; 
JafMn. Ut. ri*^ ond Kichol«* EpulUt cf Eraimui dooi-*). li. «So, eive ii lo 
III ni»iM. on Ihr (rmiiKl of a Ult« from Mar« to Kroimii*; to iIoH Allen: Opvi 
fpistcltnim E*iumi, Ep. iot. Bui ef. Mr<rc*i itsicmenl. Jonia ii. 666. Luther 
M ene liMc tkonihl of InnsUiini ihc iÜbIoeuc. but t^it It up Uuitit be eonlil 
a«t d> li jmtict. Kroker: ttuhtri TitehrtJtti (190J) no. •$■ C/. infn, 
Fdamwy »o, i;i9. do. ijd- 

The ftmxit Kifictj'Ri'c ThcK* on tndulncncts. ürprlniH Weimar, t. aj], uid 
is Lttthfrt fi'i'ir in AiumSl, cil. O. Ckmcn, ifjia. i. t. Th«T w«n firft printed 
is Ocwbcl and «enl »ound to vnioi» Chiircli disnltuU«, loctudint Allwrt ol 
thyvno«. On Odabn )i Lulfcer putrd Ihem en llie door of ihs CauU Churcfa. 
Cf. Snilh, of ril.. 4i>fl. 

VAIbcrl wa* a rival of Fredciic in other tnttter« bctidei toltcellnf reliu. tt( 
«kicli Lather iftäkm In hit ]*eiaft-i an Romona. Xtkntia. ]«f, Lnih^r Mi«ral 
lUDei dcfmda kiniclf ■riiiut ibe chirs« hert tDcntionod. «. g., in bU Wi4ir 
How 14 nr)!. \na. 

*Atlwrl rjnnc so. tiioo'Sefl ember 11. i;«;). wai tbf lecond ton of the VXtttm 
|»b« Cirero of RrftiwIrattiirB and M>r|[i»rl. a ditmhter of William o( Saxonr- 
Dtx^ned Eo ttie CbiiTch, hii fiRTily iRUunice caily «ccitrcd htm advincernmt. 
I* liij he tM<an<e Atcbbimhop of JIaRdebiirt *n<l AdmlnNiraior of ttiltieniAitt. 
asd on Uarch 0. 15)4. vav elected Atchbi9hi>i> and Kleciof of Mayener and 
Pmoate o( Gennany. Fur parol confirmatiori in Ihew illcEal pluratiri» he had 
10 o«r cav(in»ua «utu, far raisini whlcb Pope Leo X, in Auiruil, i;i5, itrKnicil 
an IndulRtaec nie f°T ciiht jKvt. Luther, wht> iiad «trendy prtMhf^l asainn 
IfH^'f***' My<ial lini«i, on (Jclobre 31, 1517. potted Ibr famout Nioftj-fvt 




as 1 already hear some persons dream. But now, wc can 
even swear that they were published without the knowledge oi 
Frederic. More at another lime, for now I am very busy. 
FarewelL Brother Martin Eleutherius/ 

Augustinian of Wittenberg, 

P. S. — You wrote mc that the elector had promised me a 
gown; I would like to know to whom he gave the commission. 

Enden, i. 124. Wittenbeho, November n, IJJ?. 

Greeting in Christ, Behold I am sending you some more 
paradoxes,' reverend Father in Christ. Even if your theolo- 
gians are offended, and say, as tliey all continually do. that 1 
am rash, proud and hasty in condeinninig the opinions of 
Others, I answer through you by this letter. 1 am much 
plea.<icd with their ripe moderation and long-suffering sobriety, 
if only they would show it now instead of blaming' me for 
levity and hasty rashness. Em ! am surprised that they do not 
look at their Aristoile willi the same eyes, or if they look at 
him, how it is that they do not see that Aristotle in every 
sentence and clause is nothing but Momus, the very Momus 
of Momuscs.' If that heathen, in spite of his cutting bold- 

Tktit* icalnM thrm (Wrinar, {. >ig) and cent Ihcm «rltb a leitet to Alli«n (<f. 
Kmilb. r. »old. Thr prelate did niit anawer Ihc Idler, but began a proceii aitainai 
Liilli*r which waa tnoo ilrnplwd In «icv of the proccii at Romt. In ifiS Albert 
Ka< (nadc cardinal. At Itiia time lir paMd a» * ixitron of arc and iFiTnlnc. and. 
fiom rniirtljr *arlill|r motive), took a mcdiaiini stand in ihr Lutlicran aflaif 
t)itD;)Khoul ijio anil at tti« Diet cf Wotmi, is'i. In ijaj Ik liad thiruKlita ol 
becORitoK I^tbctan in oriler lo turn bia bitboprict inM tcaip«tBl citatea, ■* hit 
COii*in Albert at Pruisia bad done, but he d«lded aitaiTKt Ihia courac In 1530, 
ai Aufffburs, fc« a^iB mediated twlwcr« the fau&tilc iiartiea. The Refonuatiop 
Itraduallr eneroa<ht<l On hi! dominicn« and h« became tnor* eoniialciilly oppeved 
lo it. Sec Rnltntrti^fii'f. D«eliiner; Lultifr tm LitMt in rte^rrtn PcrteKmrng 
Il.eir«i2. »d «d,, 1910). p. 66fl, and Hre«ef«d Smith, chap, f 

'F«>«n Ih* r.reelt IM^pof nieaninR Irtt. The eiutcim ol tufttint their name« 
inii> t.atin nr Grerk wji very pre*alent anong tKt humaTiiiii. Ii his otten been 
noticed thai Luiher adoiilnt ihit name itnnieiliately atier publtthiriK hii Thmea on 
Indulgrncta. ihaugh he liiftr dropped it. Kutten adopted a almllar nam« in hii 
fUtalhtrm Bytlia in teil**iu tncaiUum triunfhaiid CufmVni Jtcamlatam . . . 
Prar/aJwt. (Capnio wa> Rtiicklin. Erasmu' alio wtole an apoibeoiia of Reuchtin, 
ija^) Thh It put br Häcklnc (lluntiu cftra, i. ajt] in ijiS, So Hc*i inltea 
I« L*nt fi'hi^. 110, iiil?k, "UutCCDua noitcr lauiu eat Elentbcrina." 

The Ni^ety^rt Thelfi. 

■According to Cfwrnnt' t4«sc, wbich Luttier welt tRiew, Momua waa tb« cotf of 
(■nll.£ndi'v. bora of NtB^t and Sleep. 





ncss, 50 pleases them and is so much read and cited, why 
shottld I a Ginstian so displease them by ^ving them a ta$te 
of something like their gentle Aristotle? Does a drtJp of vice 
di&plcase in me. when a whole sea of it pleases in Aristotle? 

Then I wonder that they do not hate and condemn them- 
selves. For what arc those schoolmen of yours except critics. 
Anslarchuses' and dumb Momuses? They may judge the 
opinions of all, only to mc is it forbidden. Finally I ask. if 
my judgment displeases them and they so praii^c moderation, 
why do they still judge me and exercise moderation in waiting 
for the end ? . . . 

Thus you see that I do not esteem those ghosts of Momuses 
more than the ghaits they are, nor am I moved by what they 
think or do not think. ... I only beg from you and your 
theologians, t>iat, apart from tlie faults of the author, you 
would let me know what you really think of my theses, and 
show roe whatever errors may be in tlicm. . . . 

1 do not wish that they should expect from me the same 
humility — that is hypocrisy — that they once thought I ought to 
show towards their advice and decrees, for I do not wish that 
what I produce "should be by the operation and advice of man. 
but by that of God. For if the work is of God who will 
forbid it? If it is not of God who will bring it to pass? . . . 

Brother Martin I^i-eijtiiekius, 
or rather the servant and captive. Augustinian of Wittenberg. 


Ed. Henmann, Zeits<hri{l füf 

Kirtkrngettkkhtr, xxiiiL 266. Mavrwce. December t7. 1517. 

Albert on D««nb«r i sent Luther's Hinfty-fivt Thetft to the Utii- 
rrrsity of Mayencc with a request £or an opinion, and received the 
following answer: 

Most reverend Father in Christ, most illustrious and gra- 
cious Prince and Lord! We promise our devoted obedience. 
We have received with due humility the theses posted at tlie 
famous university of Wittcnbci^ by a professor of the order 

tAaotbef ptvrtttnaUy terem eritie. 



oi St. Augwstine, wliicli were sent us by your Rtvcrcncc. Wc 
have read them and among other tilings we find that they 
limit and restrict tlic power of tlie Pope and the Apostolic See, 
in which they contradict the general opinions of many blessed 
and venerable doctors. Wherefore we offer your Reverence 
the following humble opinion: {Here follows a restatement 
of the same objection with citations from the Canon Law to 
prove it] . . . 

Enden, i. 131. WiTrawBEitc, December 30, 1517. 

[Luther answers a question about the women who visited 
Christ's grave.] . . . 

I hear that Conrad Wimpina is doing something or other 
ajrainst the preacher of Zwickau' on the same question, for- 
sooth he confutes the history of St. .^nna and restores those 
three Marys. He seem& to me to liave been hardly able to 
confute him, though I would not take the legend away cod> 
tentiously on account of the people, but rather let it cool down 
and cease, especially since an error like that, born of piety, is 
not to be so severely condemned as that which leads men to 
worship the saints for money. Farewell. 

BROTiiEa Martin Eleuthe«ius, AuguslifiiaH. 

Endcri, i, 135. 


WiTTTMBEKo, DccembcT ji, 1517. 

Greeting. You ask mc, excellent Spalatin, what I would 
think of publishing some theses asserting that the worship of 
the saints for temporal goods h superstitious. It was never 
my idea. Spalatin, to call the veneration of the saints super* 
stitious, even when they are invoked for the most worldly 
causes. For this is what our neighbors the Bcghards* of 
Bohemia think. At least it is )>ctter to pray God through his 
.«aints for anything whatever, seeing that every gift is of God, 
than to seek it, as some do, from the devil through magicians 

'Jttkn Sylfiiu Ecruin* «lote agaliui ibe Iriend (bat St. Arini, Ihc molhcT of 
(bt Virgin, fciil married tlirt« bu>1i*ii<l*, ^o»;hiiD, Clci^ib*! uiil SataDlc (t) and ktd 
boin« • dauchlcr named Uary to ttxh «( tti«(n. Wlmplna iiuweied tliii snack. 
ädtnUng Ibc Iccdxl. Cf. K>w«i«B, «rticlc Wtnpiaa ia ftt*lfmtj<Ufidif, 0* 
EICTkn-n», ef. i'fra, no. 51. 

■Tk« «nirtne UiukiMs. 

[let. 4« 




and «Fizards. But I would say that it is superstitious, or 
niher nnpious and perverse, to pray Cod and the saints for 
temporal goods excliisively. and not rather for the goods of 
the soul and salvation and the wilt of God, as though forgetful 
doubtful of his words: "Seek yc first the kingdom of God 
'and all these tilings shall be added unto you." Indeed Christ 
teaches us to despise our vile bodies and tlicir needs. If it is 
lawful to seek such things, it is only permitted to those wlio 
are of imperfect faith and live rather under Mo'^es than under 
Christ Wherefore such worship of the saints is a thing to be 
tolerated only on account of the weak, not to be extolled as a 
thing worthy of a Christian life. Think a moment, whether 
any saint is famous among the people for giving chastity, 
patience, humility, faith, hope, charity and other spiritual 
goods. Th«se Uiings are not souglit, nor have wc any saints 
who, for the sake of such things, have crowds of worshippers, 
churches and special services. St, Lawrence is worshipped for 
fire, Sebastian for the plague, Martin and even that unknown 
St. Roch on account of poverty, St. Anna with her son-in-law 
and the blessed Virgin for many things. St. Valentine for 
epilepsy. Job for the French itch: and thus Scholastica, Bar- 
bara, Catharine, Apollonia, in short, all famous saints are 
fan*ius for some temporal goods, and so famou.s that they arc 
preferred to the apostles, though they would be little esteemed 
if no one needed temporal goods nor cared for them,' Why 
should we not invoke St. Paul to bring our minds out of the 
ignorance of Christ, just as we do St. Christopher, for f know 
not what nocturnal folly? Such worshippers 1 say. if they are 
weak, are to be tolerated, and gradually instructed to know 
better, condemn corporal and seek spiritual blessings, so that 
wc may not always be children under Moses, but may at last 

TM« «feok C4MHJC Ü ck«lr VI echo of Enirntw' F.wcAiritlhm mlKlii CS*ü- 

roMitbcdfint lio), and often. Rcprlmril. Eraimi aprra fLuciluna Bmtiramm. 

joj), ». tt. Thett «re stYeral pasaai:» tn Lmhfr'i wruinn» iivir»liel in \i. r g., 

cJnar, i. ijo-i <Pebriiair i, i ]■;>; Ir. Sj« «t (DMcmbcr 4. lJ>7^);(^d tiioftirit 
•I •IW i. •**- tn this p4BHj[< Lnifaec lajs iliai ilic «orthip o( the hiiiij bas 
fOD« wa l»t ()■■< )■ wou1<] be bellet (hai tfaeir naion wrn nut known and thcii 
ftMIV sbolbdiccl, Tbc temoni ol which I hi* i* ddc were firvt fi^rn from thr 
famoKt •( IJ16 to L<«l i}!?. but were nol pubtithtd until Jul/. ijtA. when they 
«ere WKtrr or W«* retAt)che<!- I »m inclined 1u Af rve with Hirgi* 1/fut<WfA#r 
iAUtlir\ft, it. *;i> thii piuac« like tbe onf Ju*t qttot«d *tn probkblj pal in 
>i til« lattr (Um. 


lay holii on Oirist a tittle. Tf the worshippers are of better 
faith they are to be convinced that they seek unworthy things. 
It is 3 mistake to foster the worship of the saints by the fears 
of evil and desire for temporal goods. But this is not to be 
taught to all at all times, but only to the little ones and to the 
weak; the other should be taught to ask for just the contrary 
things, punishments, diseases, scourges, crosses and divers 
torments, as he says:' "Exaniuie me, O Lord, and prove me; 
try my reins and ray heart." . . . Thus the Lord's prayer 
teaches us to seek for spiritual gifts in the first three petitions, 
and for the things of God. and afterward for our own. . . . 
Brothek M.\rtik Eleutherius, Aiiguslinian. 

Endcrs. i. 1401 WirrENncRo, January 18. 1518. 

Greeting. Hitherto, excellent Spalatin, you have asked n:te 
things that were u-ithin my power or at least within my daring, 
to answer, but now that you ask to be directed in those studies 
which pertain to knowledge of the Scriptures you demand 
something beyond my abililics, especially as I have hitherto 
been able to find no guide for myself in tliis matter. Different 
men think differently, even the most learned and most gifted 
You have Erasmus who plainly asserts that Jcrumc is the 
great, almost the only, theologian in the Church,' If I oppose 
Augustine to him I wilE seem an unjust and partial judge, 
partly because I am an Augustinian and partly on account of 
the long established judgment of F.rasmus, since he has said 
that it is most impudent to compare Augustine and Jerome. 
Other men think differently. Among such judges of such 
things I feci unable to decide anything on account of the 
mediocrity of my learning and talents. But among those who 

■pMlm xivi. >. 

■I.uIImt mj» he antwcrs Spalalln'» Inter on Ibe iay II waa wiitlcn, «bleb 
voulil implr il>*l SpftUlin tniut al Icut Ik vcrr near Willcnbert. 

'Luther cKpiru«) *imiUr iboukiliti In bb letter of Oclobcr 19. ijiä. T\tt 
T]ii.<[naioni in Uic pretriit kttcr icim Id indicate itial he had teai the Inimduc- 
liuiu to lb« «dilton ol Jrtom* «tiicli apiwarcH id tjiA (P. S. Allen, «pp. ]]£, J91I). 
Cf. Lvtber ta Spalatin, Auguil r-t, iji6. It it nAticMlilr (hat tbt direct Gtunpariion 
al Aufiutine and J^iwnr. which I havt not (ounJ ci»vrh«e la Eraanua, waa 
dearly 4*lifi#<l in Ibe Irlirr al tlic humanitt 10 Eck. May tg. ijiS <Atlfn. «p. 
t44), 6ni publiihtd in AuBUM, ijiH. Tfaer* U ■ food dca] abaiu Jtr«me aad 
Aufuatine in the Afehty nimtioned brloir. 




1 in 


other hat* or sloihfully neglect good letters (that is, among all 
men) I always praise and defend Erasmus a5 much as I can, 
nd am very careful not to ventilate my disagreement wilh 
im, lest perchance I should thus confirm them in llicir hatred 
of him. Yet there are many tilings in Erasmus which seem to 
m« far from the knowledge of Christ, if I may speak as a 
theologian rather tlian a grammarian : otheru'lsc there is no 
man more learned or ingenious than he, not even Jerome whom 
he so much cxtolls. But if you communicate tins opinion to 
others you will violate tlie laws of friendship. 1 warn you in 
prudence. There arc many, you know, who search oiil every 
occasion of defending sound learning. What 1 tell you is 
therefore a secret Indeed you should not believe it until you 
have proved it by reading. If ycni extort from me the result 
of my studies E will conceal notliing from you. as my dearest 

icnd, but only on condition that you will not follow me except 
in using your own judgment. 

In tlie lirst place it is most certain that tlie Bible cannot 
be mastered by study or talent. Therefore you should first 
begin by praying that not for your g3or>'. but for his, the 

rd may be mercifully pleastd to give you some comprehen- 

<n of his words. . . . You must completely despair of your 
own industry- and ability and rely solely on the influx of the 
Spirit. ExpcrtQ crcde. Then having achieved this humble 
despair, read the Bible from the beginning to the end, that first 
you may get the simple story in ynur mind {as I believe you 
have already done) in which Jerome's epistles and commen- 
taries will be of great help. Blit for the understanding of 
Christ and the grace of God, this is for the hidden knowledge 
of the spirit, Augustine and Ambrose seem to me far better 
guides, especi-iJly as Jerome seems to Origenize, thai is, alle- 
gorize, too much. This I say saving Erasmus' judgment, as 
(•ou asked for ray opinion, not for his. 

YoQ may begin, if you like my course of study, reading 
.Augustine's The Spirit and the Leiter, which now our Cart- 
>tadt, a man of incomparable zeal, has edited and thoroughly 

11 annouted. . . . Finally I am sending you the Apology^ of 

*At«tet^ cimira Pabtum Sl»»ltmtm. Antn-irp, Ktiittni < 1 1 1;>. Lettre 
apka, in ii* editloo of Utbrtvi (ij") hid i>roiiuae<] rcKdinc "Ttaou but 


Erasmus, but I am very sorry that such a war should have 
arisen between two such princes of letters. Erasmus, indeed, 
conquers and speaks the better, even if a little bitterly, though 
in some things he acts as if lie wished to keep his friendship 
with Lcfcvrc. Farewell, dear Spalatin. 

Brother Martin Eu^utuejuus. 

Enden, i. 153. Wrtenbemi. February 15. 1518. 

Greeting. What you request, or rather command, exeellcnt 
Spalatin, I now do, namely, send through you my thanks to 
tlic most illustrious elector for the splendid and princely gift 
of game donated by him to our students newly promoted to 
the degree of master. I told them all it was from the elector. 
And personally [ am wonderfully pleased by the kindness of 
the clement and generous prince, for even a man lovcth a 
cheerful giver. 

You again subjoin two Httlc questions. First, as to what 
should be the attitude of mind of one who is about to sacrifice^ 
or to do other pious works. I answer briefly: You shouht be 
at once despairing and confident in doing any work, desp.iiring 
on account of yourself and your work, confident as regard.« 
God and his mercy. ... To speak plainly, whenever you 
would .%acriüce or do a good work, know positively and firmly 
believe that this work of yours will not please God at all, no 
matter how good, great and difficult, but that it will be worthy 
of reprobation. Wherefore judge yourself first, accuse your- 
self and your work and confess before God. . . . Therefore 
when you are thus desperate, and have humbly confessed be- 
fore God, you must without hesitation assume that he will be 
merciful. For he »ins no less who doubts God's mercy than he 
who trusts in his own efforts. . . . 

Secondly, you ask me how much indulgences arc wortli. The 

atd« fcim ■ linU ItMrar llMn Tiod" iiulraid of "thin iIib inc«!*.** Knumut br 
Njetlitia <>'*■ iniFtprrialion in hii Ntv Tnamcnl. had drawD down the uiiauid- 
TSnioiu of tbt rcr'icb wli'ilir in thr Mconrl edition of riul'i Epiwlri. I'lrU. 1117. 
•nd It is to Lbi* ibat hii Afattgy b dinct«!. Loibcr got (he waik vert Pfwaptly. 
w h onir iMwartd l*i< In isiT. C/. BMielhtc» EtMmtant, «tdnMiiilt«, cK. 
(Gio^ looo), p. BqH. 

■Tbc RoRisn C^ibollc* regard tk« n*M m a Mcribc off«rt<l br tbe yrieit to 
Ca4, «ad m a Koo4 »imIe. 



matter is still in doubt, and my Theses overwhelmed witli abuse. 
Yet I may say two tilings, the first tr. you and my friends 
only, until the matter shaü be decided publicly. Indulgences 
now icem to me to be nothing but a snare for souls, and are 
worth absolutely nothing except to those who slumber and idle 
in the way of Christ. Bven if our Carlstadt does nut share this 
opinion, yet I am certain that there is nothing in them. For 
the sake of exposing this fraud, for the love of truth 1 entered 
this dangerous labyrinth of disputation, and arouseil against 
tnyself six hundred Minotaurs, not to say Radamanthotaurs 
and Aeacotaurs.' 

Secondly I may say, what is not in doubt and what even my 
adversaries and the whole Church are forced lo confess, that 
alms and helping our neighbor is incom|)arabIy better than 
buying indulgences. Tlicrcfore take heed to buy no indul- 
gences as long as you find paupers and needy neighbors to 
whom you may give what you may wish to spend for pardons. 
. ■ . God willing, you will see more of this when I publish the 
proofs of my Theses. For I am compelled to do this by those 
men more ignorant than ignorance itself, who proclaim me a 
herrtic in all their speeches, and arc so furious that they even 
try to make tlie University of Wittenberg infamous and hereti- 
cal on account of me. I labor umch more to restrain myself. 
and not to despise ihem. though by thus doing T sin against 
Christ, than to triumph over them. ... I am particularly 
sorry to have to inform you that those brawlers and others 
with ihcm liave constrncted another engine against me, by 
spreading the rumor that all that 1 do is at the host of our 
prince on account of his hatred to the Archbishop of Magde- 
burg.» . . . 


Ender«. i, I57. WirrtKBEBC, February 19 (1518). 

Greeting. Wolfgang Capito' writes, reverend Father, that 

TkcK«» altw ihr Bull of Uinoi (Minotaur) la ike Libinimh ol CrcH. M'nM, 
BadwaMlM» *nd Amcu* wrrt thr ihr«c juiltrt «f tlir inf«rii«l iFSion*; Lulbc* 
mtma* Uul he lad eitiwd ill ilic muiutcrs ot bdl atiainit hlmicll. 

'I. f,. Albert «f Uft)rtn«e. Lulbci rntntlon« tliii (tisiite el(««h«r<. 

'Wolfctos PabriiiiM KSpM ol H&ceuu Curfl-'-iIiO. «ludicil m Freiburg amA 
tiTltaUiblt, ■■boe 1» lonli hii ^«ctorit* in diTlnily tjr ijii. In iji] he m»! U 
BuU, wbcie be bccaoM catlKdnl preacher uul ptofeiMr of Ibcoleoi la ike 




Let »»^1 

Erasmus's Adages' are being reprinted in an enlarged edition, 
besides the Querela Facis,' The Dialogues of Lucion* the 
Utopia' of More' (nientioned by Richard Pace),*Morc's Epi~ 
grains, the Itistitutiortrs Ilrhraicae'' of Capito himself, and that 
work on account of which I am now writing, Erasmus's 
Apology against Lejh/re d'£tapUs.* I mention these books 
that you may know what to recommend to your book-dealers 
who are going to set out to tlie Frankfort Fair. 1 muth desire 
Morc's Utopia and Capito's Hebraic I nsiitutioHs, but especially 
the Apology, unless it is the same» that we have had here for 
some lime. . . . 

Enders, i. 177. (Wittemukkk, middl* of March, 1518.) 

The dating ni this IcUer is a putzlc RiiiWt dat^s "end of M:irrh 
or beginning o{ April" and this is defended by O. Clemen : Luthtrs 
Wttkt in AusimM. n)i2, i. p. 10. broinse llic letter assumu that the 
Strmon oh ittdttSgettee and Grace hid already been pulOished ; as this 

Vnncrtity. In ijjo he «i>tcr«d ih« M'rvi«« »I Archbithop AEh«rt of Mayrnc«. 
Tbree retM later h« declared tar tbe Kefonnkti«« and went 14 Sltftidburf. mt 
*hich place, in comf«n]i with Buccr, he ncciipi-N] ■ l«ading poKition tor the tut 
of hit lile, UlrinM p»n in the Synod of Brfo in isj), ond in the Wittenhtrr 
Conrnrd «f i <i)(i. Hli rfllcfaiii vl<w« avre ilrrady >.it**nrfd in i$>i. fmm which 
(line on fur ir>-eral yari h« wai an ar<I«til admirer of Etanniii. Cf. Baum: 
Capiio und Buurr (tHfio). P. Kalkcif: Cafiio im Difmlt Albrrcku fpn Woiar 
(1907) and Rftilfwr yrliff all ir. Tht) Iclier to I.uthci if Icwi; Lulbtr aniwcrcd iu 
(/. infra, Srvtcia1>tT 4. 1518. no. ;8. 

'Tlir jldtt—- fi"' P'Iniwl In ijoiN were rtptmdlr rcvUed atid cnterttd^ the 
cdilion hci« referred to bcinx tL»t of Proben. i]'S. Bibltrlhtca ErOMmiaia, i. a. 

*rirtl Uncd 1516, rtprinMd by Ffoben, Pecembcr, iji)>: ef. <il., t(6. 

*Luii»''i 5a'i""a'üa (( tomfiiirei JialPii Ermne üil/r/rfl«, ptiaicd M (be end 
el the Qutrtla Pmii of is'J- 

■TIiIb Ummn sark, 6r(l pubtiUicd at LoovBla, Ijitf, vai icprlnlcd *lth More** 
Efigrtmi hj Fnthtn In March, ifiB. 

*Th«aiaa More (i-t?? I!I5>. laler Ctianrrllor of Henry VIII. lie wu con- 
•iuenily op[K>«e<1 tn ihr Rcformatinn. taking an activ* pan In Iha tvntrmtwwf 
between hii hing and l-ulher. Livca by Brirelt and Hutlen and by Sidney Lm ia 
Dtt%t»nAry of National Biat">phy, 

■Pace (i48>?-iu6>. iluditd in Italy, «tirre tit mci Eraimut (ifoy-S), and then 
cnlcred the diplomatic (crvice. Tic «ra> xnt on a million m Swttmland in 
0<lobtr. ijiik While Bi Conxance he eompoünt hii Ue t'mtlu qwi e.t rfoririiM 
ptrrifitar, Bailc. Frobtn. Oclober. ijiy. Lnrins Coniiance in October, ifiy, he 
fa fonnil in England in January, 1511 ILttlert anj Paprrt of Htnry fill, ti. 
tuitx), «a tbe Irlp *«ry probably p>»ini iliraugb EHuit (Endert, li>t, citi}. 
Ilii nIctrBtt to MfiTt'm I'topU in»y h»»e been ai ih>» lime oralty or in bi) 
Pr ftiKlm. tie w» «n|iln7«d by Henry VIII to netoliale for tbe imperial el**- 
tloin In iji«. and b« Woliey In Ibe endcaroi to fcl Ih« Mpaty la ifsi aad t}S). 
Dieti^nary of NoUomel Biofrapliy. 

tBule. Kr»lefi. 1518. 

*Afeliieia iiv. Faimn Stafatmi^m. AMmmf, ijiy: Bail«, tJlS. 

■li wit 111; Mm«: tf. tfpra, no. ay. 

htL S« 



•cnnon contains allusions to the theses of Tetxtl-Wtntpina. defended 
at Frankfort oa the Oder on January aoth. which Clemen Uiinka ar- 
rived in Wittenberg not earlier than March 17th, the sermon and con- 
Mqucntly ihe letter must be «oine lime after that dale, 1 think it 
possible, however, that the Tetiel-Wimpina theses may have coit>c 
to Luther's hands before they were ofTered for sale at Wittenberg 
and fcixcd by the students, on which see next letter, 

P. KalkolT. on the oihcr hand, puts the letter early in Mnrdi be- 
«ose he believes that ihc visit of the Abbot of Lehnin, which Luther 
says look place "yesterday," came soon after March 5, Zeitschrifl 
fur Kirehrngtstkichtf, xxx\\. 411. note. As KalkolT, however, ad- 
mits that the Strmo» on Indilgmet and Grace was published during 
the Ust week in March, he must intrri'^et the passage leferrins to 
that •ennon differently from my understanding of it. The tnatter is 
further complicated by a letter to Spalatin, March 2Slh (.infra, no. 5j), 
assaming that the visit here recorded has already been made. Pef- 
baps "middle of March," makinic ihe sermon ns early atid the visit 
of the abbot as late as possible, best saitsfies all requircmeiitt. 

Greeting. Having received power of remission and absolu- 
tion in all cases save a few. you should be thankful to him who 
gave you this power.' I am glad about the power of judging 
cases, but as to the remission of penalties, that is indulgences, 
you know what I think of them, though even here I say nothing 
positively. My opinion is the same about the weekly fasts* in 
the city of Rome, since they arc nothing but indulgences. For 
I think the prayers said or works done to acquire indulgences 
worth more than the pardons themselves. , . . 

Yesterday the Lord Abbot of lehnin' was with me on behalf 
of the reverend Bisitop of Brandenburg.* from whom he 
brought me a letter. He also expressed to mc the hope and 
request of the said bishop Ihat I should defer for a little while 
the publication of my Reiolution/ and of all other lucubra- 

■ ll i* **tl knovn ibai f<-rul)i tin* mtTt Teim«4 Ut abtoluiloB by Ibr Put*. 
*b* oeeMioBkTIr ()«ltriM>J Itiii tvwcr to other*. 

vSudOMB." Cf. lti4ltKijeliiHdU' y. jjt. 

■TW AU»M ValcnriM', »hinc fimily ntmp it UTiknown. of t^cHnin. ibca« lifmn 
■wnbM«! of Wittftih««!. w*i nude aXihvt ifo«. «nd died i%tt. He to»k 
»iwiili I iMi pan ifsiRfi ih* ltcti>rin>Iloii. In ihc employ ot tClMlor Joathlm I of 
BrHidtnlNitg. Zrttiiknit fit KirtkrKcriihKhtr. xxxii. 410. note. 

■Jcronte Scoltcdtt, «on of a viltitc jaisr (fkbulthris. brti» bti name} at 
fTriiwrWlr la Ibc duchy of (>li<|au. wm mtilr Rishap nS Bnnilrnbuis in ijoj, inrl 
U uxnllKrc «Ito in 1510. He died t$tt. 

*fC*i«littirm4* dufiatio'itm, ■ defence «( the Ttttttt. Weimar, L (ij. A« 
Wlttciihcra wa* In tbe dieecae «f Brandcnberc. Lulber (ubmitted thit work 10 U* 
wlriival lupcrioT befon piAlttkioi it. 



Let. 51 

lions I might have on liand. Moreover he was very sorry that 
J had published a Sermon on htditlgencei in the vernacular, 
and he begged that no more copicä be printed or sold. I wks 
overcome witli confusion to tliink that so great a bishop had 
sent so great an abbot so humbly to me for the sake of this 
only; I replied: "I am satisfied; I prefer to obey rather than 
to work miracles even if 1 could," and otlier things to excuse 
my 2cat For ahhough the bishop thought there was no error 
in my work, but that all my propositions were catholic, and 
although he himself would condemn the "indiscreet" proclama- 
tions o( indulgences, yet for fear of scandal, he judged it better 
to be silent and patient a little while. Farewell in the Lord. 
Brother MARTtN Eleutherius, Augxtstinitm. 

Enden, <■ 16S. Wittenberc, March at, 15 

Greeting. Reverend Father. I sent you some sheets 
Carlstadt's edition of Augustine's The Spirit and tht Letter, 
as 1 did to some others, but 1 foigct to whom I sent which 
ones. . . . 

The false preachers of indulgences are thundering against 
me in wonderful style from the pulpit, and as they cannot 
think of enough monsters «-ith which to compare mc, (hey add 
threats, and one man promises the people that 1 shall certainly 
be burned within a fortnight and another within a month. 
They publish Theses against me, so that I fear that some day 
they will burst with the greatness of ihcir wrath. Everybody 
advises mc not to go to Heidelberg' lest perchance wliat they 
cannot accomplish against mc by force they will do by guile. 
But I shall fulfill my vow of obedience and go thither on foot, 
and I shall pass through Erfurt, but do not wait for me as I 
can hardly leave here before April 13.' Our elector, with 
great kindness, as he is inclined to favor our theology, unasked 

V, r., lb« S4rmi i n wn Ahtait unJ Cm»df, «kicb La<li«i bid dpT«H«4 tkc 
inleiriion ci pubtiihmn in > WHtt to Scbrud of Mitth 5. Uimiltlrd ia laj 
Ltilktr, p. 4]( Tbc "Serraan" <•■■ r«>lt]r m *nit» of Qrraun llm«« on indul' 
ftfae*t. Wrimir. j. »4j. 

)A fciitril chapter of tb« Suon Pn>vin«« of Aafnitin iiai w«i u b* hdd u 
HriiVtbni In April and Mir- Habrl«! <l«llm Volta. Onri«! of Ih« otitt, ki4 
iaMnjclH SuuiiilE to force Luibn Id rccsDl M Ihit mrMinc- S«llfc, p. t/S. 

>ln (ut L.»th(T IHt on Ssiid»]r. April 11. 



er. ' 


took me and Carisladt complete!/ in his protection, and will 
not suffer them to drag mt to Rome, which greatly vexes my 
^^eacmics who know it, 
^H If nrnior has perhaps told you anything about the burning 
^^ of Tetzel's Th/'ses' lest anyone should add anything to the 
^^ truth, as is usually the case, let me tell you the whole story. 
^BThe students are remarkably tired of sophistical and anti- 
" quatcd studies and arc tnily desirous of the Iloly Bible: for 
this reason, and perchance also because they fa%'0red my opin- 
ion, when they heard of the arrival of a man sent from Ilalle 
by Tctzcl. the author of the Theses, they threatened the man 
for daring to bring such things here ; then some students bought 
copies of the Theses and some simply seized tlicm, and, having 
given notice to all who wished to be present at the spectacle 
to come to the market place at two o'clock, they burned them 
without the knowledge of the elector, the town council, or the 
rector of the university or of any of us. Certainly we were 
all displeased by this grave injury done to the man by our 
students. I am not guilty, but I fear that the whole thing 
will be imputed to me. They make a great story out of it, 
and arc not unjustly indignant. 1 know not what will come 
of it except that my position will be made still more ijcrilous. 
Everyone says that Dr. Conrad Wimpina is the author of 
^_ Theses, and I think it is certainly so. I send one rescued 
^Bfrom the flames lo show you how mad they have become 
^^ against me. . . . 


^■Endrrs, !. 17z. WixrENOEiiiti^ March 24, 151a 

^H John WUdenhaucr (Sylvius) of Egcr in Rotittnia (fjune 11. 15.15) 

^Bte^tncubted »t Leiptic 1500^ B. A, 1501, M. A. 1307. He wnx prncher 

^^H ZwicVati IS16-1521, when a quarrel with Thoniai MiiriErr fore«! 

htm lo leawe. For two years he pieachtrl at Joachimsihal, and ih«i 

resumed a wandcrinK u'c At lir»t a warm friend of Ludicr he 

aflenvardi became alicnainl. Allen, Üi. 40g. ^Hgememe deuttcht 


lMhei'% TH*u* cut inio Teilet'« prolilt am} fortKl hifn (a ilop selling Indul. 
■mces. Hoping lo cambal Atm on tbtir ourn irotind. he weni to tbe Unlvenlijr*! 
FnAk(ort-an-ibe-Odcr. ind wiih thr brtp cif CunT*d Winipint roiiiiimcd a let 
of counlcr ili»«. minlly rrvtinttd by W. Kohltr: Lmhtri 9) Th4im lani 
Mtarm Rtt'lmtismrn, «eane dif GtgriuikrtiUn van Wimpiti»TtU€i, Eth «md 
,/Ywriu, aitj iie AiUuxrltn L\ilhtri J«faa/. Lciptii. ■>«). 



Biüffrttfhit. Ltfr by 0. Demra in MitUilungt» det AUtrtumsvtreiv 
fur Zntdan, rl, \ii. (1899. 190a). Cf. slso C. BtichwoM: Vngt- 
irmeku Predigten des J. S. Egranus (at Zwickau 1519-22). Leipiic. 
1911. C/. mpra, no. ^6. 

GreetinfT. 1 have seen the theses of Dr. Düngersheim of 
Ochscitfurt,' apparently directed against you, though wiihout 
mentioning your nanie. Be strong and constant, dear Egranus, 
as you ought. If theie things were of the world, the world 
would love its own. Whatever is in the world must neces- 
sarily perish in the world, thai the spirit be glorified. If you 
are wise, congratulate mc, as I do you. 

A man of signal and talented learning and of learned talent, 
has recently written a book called Obelisks against my Theses. 
I mean John Eck, doctor of theology, chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Ingolstadt, canon of Eichstatt, and now, at length, 
preacher at Augsburg, a man already famous and widely 
known by his books. What culu nie most is that we had 
recently formed a great frlencUhip. Did I not already know 
|hc machinations of Satan. I should be astonished at the fury 
with which Eck has broken that sweet amity without warning 
and with no letter to bid me farewell. 

In his Obelisks he calls mc a fanatic Hussite, heretical, 
seditious, insolent and rash, not to speak of such slight abuse 
as that I am dreaming, clumsy, unlearned, and that I despise 
the Pope. In short, the book is nothing but llie foulest abuse, 
expressly mentioning my name and directed against my Theses, 
It is nothing less than the malice and envy of a maniac. I 
would have swallowed this sop for Cerberus,' but my friends 
compelled me to answer it. Blessed be the Lord Jesus, and 
may he alone tw glorified while wc are confounded for our 

ijeromc Däiifnabfini (i46j'iS4')), sf Ochi^Iirurl on the Main, niilricuUteJ tl 
LHptic 14K4, wu It. A, In I4)l{, H. A. uHo. Ori1ain«d pjitM 144S. »"I loi>l! a 
detTBB in tliFoloay ■! Coloxnr in imS. afirr which he Itctttnd it Lririk ijai he 
bManc |i[lcM 41 Zwickati. in 150^ «cnl lo Italr. iiog rrttimcd to Imurv at 
Leipdc. He wrote «(*enl work*. Wrote la Eraimui abont Ui New Toiaaient. 
March id, isir (Alton, op. lit., ep. sm). I-lte In tba AUt*mfimt DuMtk» 
Bioiraphir. The thctc« ritcncl ta hcrr wet* dirrclcd aKatmt aome propontiona 
■ada hr t^ranua In Ihc Zviduu puli'it. Entiniia simnirrd Ihcin In *n artiele 
publlshol «ilhin iwu <K«eka afttt Ibia Idler vat wiiiicn, far which Luiber wnH« 
an IntnittMtMB. Weimar, i. 3x5, On I>üinicr>h«iBi*» rclalinix» witb Luther, 
■n/ra, IM. 

*Aa ButIcc wold biT« »aid: "ThU honcjcd «pi*l« caiii|^uii<lc4 of trcaaon and 

Let. 53 



sins. Rejoice, brother, rejoice, and be not tcrriüed by these 
whirling leaves, nor stop teaching as you have bcfun, but rather 
be like the palm tree which grows better whtn weights are 
fliung on it. 

The more they rage, the more cause I give them. 1 leave 
the Joctrtnc lliey harked at yesterday far one dicy will bark at 
more fiercely to-morrow. ... I wrote to Dr. Düngersheim of 
Ochsenfun tliat your assertions did not seem to me errors, but 
truths, and that his propositions appeared to me for the most 
Lpart erroneous, and ] dared say with confidence that you would 
defend both your "errors" and mine. But if he offered argu- 
ments from the schoolmen, I said that he knew he would only 
[waste his words. 

I vow there is hanlly any theologian or scholastic, especially 

Bt Leipsic, who understands one chapter of the Bible, or even 

le chapter of Aristotle's philosophy, which I hope to prove 

triuniphamly if they give me a chance. Conning over the 

words of the Gospel is not understanding it. Wherefore flee 

not before the face of ignorance, and foi^t this clamor of 

"doctors, universities and professors, for they are specters, not 

mcr. but apparitions, which you would not fear if you could 

see them clearly. The Lord teach and comfort you. Farewell 

^Un him. 

^K Maktin Luther, AuguslitUan. 






.. i. 170. CWnTKNiiEw;, c, March 35. iSiS) 

This letter i» placed by Endcrs "shortly btforc Easter, April 4, 
1518." TTie more exact tbtc given ly Kalkoff, in ZeiUtlirifl für 
KirchfttgftiuhithU, xxxii. 41t. 

Greeting. Briefly, I will do all you write. For the reverend 
lord bishop' has answered and freed me from my promise. 
Only I do not know whether I can preach on these three 
following days, but I will see; if not, my colleague Amsdorf 
will supply my place. 

Bbothrr Mabtin Eleutherius. 

V. ».. of BrandcDbiir(. Tlla refer* la his probjbition la Lutbcr to prim Ui 
_ an which ct. »■fra. no. 10, I.uchet »ppatcntly »cnl theni la Ibc picM 
dnee; tt. 0. Clemen, to IÜ1 rdiiian <il lotArrj Wtrk*. 1. ij. 



Lrt. S* 

Endcr», i. 175. Witten Buc, March 31, 1518. 

Grecling. Dear Father in the Lord, 1 am so busy that I 
must write Lricfly. First, 1 know perfectly well that my name 
is in bad odor with many, so much have even good men found 
fault with mc for condemning rosaries, tonsures, diantinf 
psalms and other prayers, in short, all "good workä." St. Paul 
had the same experience with those who said that he said: 
"Let us do evil that good may come."' Truly I have followed 
the theolog)- of Tauler and of that book' which you recently 
gave to Christian Daring to print; I teach that men should 
tnist in nothing save in Jesus Christ only, not in their own 
prayers, or merits, or works, for we arc not saved by our own 
exertions, but by the mercy of God. From these words ray 
opponents suck the poison which you sec Ihcy scatter around. 
But as 1 did not begin for the sake of fame, I shall not stop 
lor infamy. God will se« to it My adversaries excite hatred 
against mc from the scholastic doctors, because I prefer the 
Fathers and the Bible to them ; they are almost insane with 
their leal. I read the scholastics with judgment, not. as they 
do, with closed eyes. Thus the apostle commanded: "Prove 
all things; hold to that which is good."* t neither reject all 
that they say nor approve all. Thus those babblers make the 
whole of a part, a fire of a spark and an elephant of a Ry. But 
with God's help I care nothing (or their scarecrows. They are 
words; they will remain words. If Duns Scotus, Gabriel Biel 
and others had the right to dissent from Aquinas, and if the 
Tliomists have the right to contradict everybody, so that there 
are as many sects among the schoolmen as there are heads, or 
as hairs on each head, why should they not allow mc the same 
right against them as tlicy use against each other? If God is 
operating, no one can stop him. If he withholds hts aid, no 
one can help the cause. Farewell and pray for mc and for the 
triKh of God wherever it may be. 

Bkotbeji Martin Eleittuerius, /lugustmüm, 

'RonMiia iik 8. 

m»<KtIr, SUopiti't ««ii beok. "Von 4cr Liebe G«ttM.'* 

■i Tlieiuleokai, *. tt. 




' me: 



Enden, i. jSj. Cobukc, April 15, 1518. 

On April tith. Lather set out 10 attend the General Chapter of the 
Aoguttuiians at Hcitlclbcrg, whither he had been Humiiioncd by Slau- 
pit£ at ()vc rtqurst oi the Gcncml VoJta. in hoprj of tnaking bim 
recant. He did not do so, but rciigtied hi* office of District Vicar, to 
which hia (ricad Lang was elected. Cf. supra, no. 51. a.nd Smith, p. 46. 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, i expect you have heartl from 

r friend Pfeflinger' all that we said to each other when I 
fDct him at Jtidenpach. Among other things I was glad to 
have a chance to make a rich man a Utile poorer. For j-ou 

low how picas«! I am, whenever 1 can do it conveniently, 

be a burden to the rich, especially when they are my frieucls. 

took care that he should provide supper even (or my two 
jitrange cotnpanions, whicli cost him ten grossclieit apiece. 
Even now, if possible, I would make the elector's steward' 
at Coburg pay for us; if he will itot do so, still we sh.ill live 
the elector's expense. I have not yet seen the man, nor 
do I know whether I .Tm to see him. For when we arrived 
in the evening verj* tired, we sent him the letters by a mes- 
senger. But he went late to the castle nor has he returned 
yet. I do not know why he did it : perhaps he la too busy to 
take care of us. Urban himself, our messenger, remembers 
perfectly that he was ordered to go to Würzburg with U!. 
But whether he comes or not with God's favor we shall 
tinue our journey to-morrow. 

Everything else is all right, by God's grace, except that i 

confess that I sinned in coming on foot. Since my contrition 

!or this sin is perfect, and full penance has been imposed 

T lU I do Dot need an indulgence for it. I am ternbly 
fatigued, but can find no vehiclen free, and thus ] am abund- 

Ktly, much, greatly and suf^ciently contrite and penitent . . . 
Brotuer Martin ELi:tniiERius. 
den, i. 185. Wliuzburc. April iq, 1518. 

Greeting. Wc arrived finally at Wiirzburg yesterday [Sun- 

*1I« ma ftohMj amx by th« eicelec la nalcc «are that Ln(h«r would Iw 
pcrtccllr *•(« 'n «"«"I '•> HeidilberK. 

TrihMpt faul Bader whom LitUicf I«ain«l la know »bm in rjj» he (finil ii> 
iha al tfc* A)tle «f Kmm Colurg. 

1 iron* 




day], dear Spalatin, and the same evening presented the 
letters of our illusirious elector. . . . Tlte reverend lord 
bishop bim&elf,* when he had received the letters, sutiunoned 
me. and having talked with me face to face, expressed the 
wish tu send a messenger at his own expense to accompan/ 
mc to llcidclbcrg. hut as I found several of my order here, 
especially our I£rfun Prior John Lang, 1 thanked the clement 
bishop, but said 1 thought il was not necessary lo send the 
messenger for my sake. I wish we could all get conveyances, 
since 1 am very tired walking. I only asked that he would 
deign to provide me with a letter as a passfiort (as it is called). 
I have just received this, and will set out in a wagon. . . . 
Farewell. From our monastery at Würzburg. 

Brutue^h Mastin Luther. Augustinian. 


Britfwethsel dft Beaiui RhenaHUi, geiammeil und htravigtgtbtn von 
A. Horawiu ind K. llüttfeidtr. Lctpiig, iS8ä, p. io6ff. 

Hejuelbocg, May t, 1518. 
Martin Bucer wat born at Schlcttttadi, J4gt, and «mered tb« Domini- 
can order there in 150& Aflcr hb transfer to tlcidclbcfK, he took 
much intcrtsl in the humanists, and especially l^rasmiis. He met 
Luther at the time this letter was written, und from then on was his 
devoted follnwer. In 1531 he left the cloLsler and became chaplain 
to the Elector Palatine, at Landsdihl, coiuini^ into cloae relations with 
Hutlen and SickinKcn at Ihc lime of the Diet of Worms. From lSii3'49 
he wat the leading Reformer af Strassbiirg, making it his particular 
aim to retoncile the Lullieran and Zwingliaii branches of the Protestant 
Church, in which h« attained partial success in the Wittenberg Con* 
cord, 1536. In 154g he was called to Enjcland, where he taufdit a year 
at Cambridge, dying in 1551. See J. W. Raum: Cap'tlo usui Butatr. 
Eberfeid, i860', Harvey: Bnctr in EnyUinJ, 1907. Many of Ba<«r't 
letters have been published in M. Leni: Briefwechsel des Landgrafen 
I'biliff t*on Hessm mil Butstr, iSSofT, 3 vols., and in T. Schiess: 
Briefwechitl der Blanrer, igoBfl. 

Bealui Bild, of Rhetnau tt485<May », IS47>. malrfculaied at Paris. 
ISOJ, B. A. 1504. M. A. 1505. He then bcKan wurkuig as proofreader 
for Henry Esliennc; in 1507 returned to Schlcttstadt, and in 1506 
to Stratsburg. From 151 1 to 1536 he worked at Bn&lc, publishing and 
editing books for Krobcn. From 1526 to his death be lived at Schien- 

'Lawrence ron Bibri. Bbiiop i4Qs-Febnu(r 6, ttio. wu a «im admirer af 
LatbM. On one mcbiIqii. ituntlj tMdirr kii detth, be adraed the tlwtar not 
to kl LuÜici b« ukou away (tan Wiiwnbcrg. 





■udt. Hit hiuorka] work was large and good (E. Fitcirr; GttcHrhu 
dtr »eufrta Hislorivgrafhie (igii) l9o-a), and he was also a filcnd 
and assistant of Erasmus, vrhoso rcliipous views he shared. His lettcfs 
pablished, of <it. tvfra, with life by hi* friend John Sturm. C/. P. Si 
AUcn, Of»t epist(^rnm Erasmi, ii. (n. 

I have read your attack on our theologians, and I sliould 
»avc been sorry had it been vain. Wherefore, lest you should 
seem to yourself to have triumphed, after wc Heidelbergers 
had deserted the cause tfor it fared otherwise with our elder 
Wimpfeling,' although he defendctl us nobly), I will oppose 
to you a certain tlieologian, not, indeed, one of our number, 
but one who has been heard by «s in the last few days,* one 
who has got so far away' from the bonds of the sophists 
and the trifling of Aristotle, one who is so devoted to the 
Bible, and is so suspicious of antiquated theologians of our 
school (tor their eloquence forces us to call them theologians 
and rhetoricians, too), that he appears to be diametrically 
opposed to our teachers. Jerome, Augustine and authors of 
that stamp are as familiar to him as Scotus* or Tartaretus' 
could be to us. He is Martin Luther, that abuser of indul- 
gences, on which we have hitherto relied loo much. At the 
general chapter of his order celebrated here, according to the 
custom, he presided over a debate. at]d propounded some 
paradoxes, which not only went farther than most could 
follow him, but appeared to .■iome heretical. But. good 

1X*DC| Wiaipfflinj of Schlettaudl Cuso-November 15. isi8), matriculated si 
f wi fcwoi. 1464. B. A. tibd. then in KrIuM. In i4Cio hv vreot lu Heitltlberit. wlirre 
ba sttidicd and tauihc [<)ulft»|ib|r, ^ccclIIliIl|[ Rector in 1481. From i4S4-gB be wu 
M Spin», «liilc Uere «ritins in favor ot (be ImmacuUtt Coccepiioa. The nrit 
dlrec jcan be S|icnl at Sii&^iJiiitK. where be >rolc a hi»lor)' of Germany. Tben 
kc IBUKbt al FteibuiE and IlfUIelberi: uniil tsio, when he rctutned In Sltusb-uiK 
far five ixara. Frum \^i^ liU bi* dcatfa be hvcj at Stliletutadl. taking tume pan 
1b *p9«aIiMi Lnlbei. Life br ], Kncvpci. 

Tbc l>i(putaliDn look pUce April ij. 

*l Frankly eanfii* I aia unahlt lo mtor« tb« etrtaioljr eoirupt lc>l of ■!>'■ 
yaaaacc, «f wbicb I belifr« I am eirinB <t>e wnM. For "volvcr* iiuiiit" I have 
t&oMfkl o( futtinf "valsali* vt," but tbi* would tiuilijt do. Rucer'a hsml i* 
«UrtiBetjr difficiitt to t**A, which cai»e< »nm» of the (eM of hi« leElcn lo be 
BDcanai« N« h«lp lavttd« roeoBiinutinr thii piuinae li invon by Ibe eitremdy 
tnt tnnttatlon ol ibe letter from tbc MS, in Baum'i CafUti und Buttir, p. «6. 

*Diin< S«o<ui. ihr fanoui oppinient of Aitnina« (1174'ijoSI. 

*PM«r Tvtarciua (TataTciiw) one of the moir emlnenr af the Uirr Staiiitt. 
tMlgbl at Piril 1490. Eitit<4 coRimenUtiea on Ariitotle I4Q4. Etpaiilia in Sum- 
—fill Priri Hiiftasi. first ed. wHbaui date, Ibcn tsoi and tsoi, ciniimemaTy on 
Sconu' Quo4libtlic» ijtt. anJ on SoMu^ Miinmenlarjr on Ihc Stwitencn isi-o. 
Wcucr und Weites: Kirt^tnitsitfrn, t. v- 



U«, 57 

Heavens! what real authentic theologian would these men 
approve, whose touchstone in approving or condemning doc- 
trines is Aristotle, or rather the pestilent poison disseminated 
by his corrupters? Why should 1 not say this frankly of 
the foolish trifling with which they drench and foul the divine 
food of our minds, the holy oracles and their most holy 
interpreters, and thus make men forget (he noWe artificer oi 
celestial splendor? Uut 1 repress my most just wrath against 
them lest they should make too much of sportive begin- 

To return to Martin Luther; although our chief men 
refuted him witli all their might, their wiles were not able 
to make him move an inch from his propositions. His sweet- 
ness in answering is remarkable, his patience in listening is 
incomparable, in his explanations you would recognize the 
acumen of I'aul. not of Scotu»; his answers, so brief, so wise, 
and drawn from the Holy Scriptures, easily made all his 
hearers his admirers. 

On tile next day I had a familiar and friendly conference 
with the man alone, and a supper rich with doctrine rather 
than with dainties. He lucidly explained whatever 1 might 
ask. He agrees with Erasmus in all things, but with this 
difference in his favor, that what Hra.sntus only insinuates 
he teaches openly and freely. Would that I had time to write 
you more of this. He has brought it about that at Wittenberg 
the ordinary textbooks have all been abolished, while the 
Greeks, and Jerome, Augustine and Paul are publicly taught 

But you see there is no room to write more. 1 enclose his 
paradoxes and their explanations, as far as I was able to lake 
them down during the disputation or was tanglit them by 
him afterwards. 1 expect you will be much pleased to see 
them; if not, take them in the spirit in which they were 
acnt. . . . 

(Among the Theses tor the Heidelberg Disputation enclosed 
by Buccr. are the following:] 

I. The law of God, that most wholesome instruction unto 
life, is not able to justify a man, but rather hinders this. 

HI. It is probable that the works of men which seem to be 
specious and good are really mortal sins. 

Let 59 



XIII. Since the fall, free will is a mere name; when the 
I'wilt docs what is in itä power it sins mortally. 


iMthwrs Sämlliehe Stitrifttn, hg. von J. G. Waldi, HaUcj 1745, xv., $17, 

Gennao. HEiDEUBERr., Ma/ i, (518. 

Wolfgang (1404-1558), broiher of the FJector Palaliiie Lewis V, 

cduc&tcd for the Church, matricuUtciJ al Wittenberg in March, i5tS> 

and ifl the followins summer was niiulc Rector of the University. 

My kind set^-icc and love to you, highborn Prince, kind, 
dear Lord and Cotisin: Wc have reecivcd and carefully 
read your Grace's letter requesting us to heEp according to our 
power Dr. Martin Luther, Augu.'itinian, lecturer at Witten- 
berg, in case he should need it. We give your Grace kindly 
to know that wc, as a member of the said university, at your 
Grace's request, arc anxious to help the said doctor in all 
that is in our power, should he desire anything, but that he 
has shown us nolliing in which he needed our help, as you 
wilt doubtless learn from himself. He has acquitted himself 
so well here with his disputation, that he has won no sinall 
praise for your Grace's university, and was greatly lauded by 
many learned persons. This we would not withhold from 

!your Grace, for wc arc always ready to serve you. 
by Cod's grace Count PaiatiM of the Rhine and Duke of 
Enders, i. tS?. ExrukT, May 9. 1518. 

, On itie reium journey from Heidelberg. Luther passed throosh 
Exfart, where he 1ric<l to s«« his old profestori, who were noiw his 
opponcntf. Usinsrn and Tnilfcllcr. His Ursi ailcnipl wa» unsuccessful, 
«rhertapoa he wrote this letter to Tnitfetter. fiiily explaining his posi- 
tion in regard to indulgciicca and other matters; Utcr he got an 
mierview, b«i effected only a temporary tccom'itialioR. The most 
iatcTCGting passage in the letter, showing how far he had already 
prosrcssed in Ids programme for a general reformation of the Church, 
» the foUowinj:: 

To explain myself further, I simply believe that it is irapos- 




siWc to reform the Church unless the Canon Law. scholastic 
theology, philosophy anj logi«, as they are now taught, are 
thoroughly rooted out and other studies put in their stead. 
I am so fixed in this opinion that I daily ask the Lord, as far 
as now may be, tJiat the pure study of the Bible and the 
Fathers may be restored. You think 1 am no logician ; perhaps 
I am not, but 1 know that I fear no one's logic when I defend 
this opinion. . . . 

Enders. i. it}i. WimNBEiir., May 18. 1518. 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, with Christ's favor I have 
returned home, arriving at Wittenberg on Saturday, May 1 5th. 
L who had gone out on foot, returned in 3 wagon, for my 
superiors forced me to ride with the Nurembergers almost to 
Würzburg, thence with the brothers, of Erfurt and from 
Erfurt with those of Eisleben, who took me at their own 
expense with their own horses to Wittenberg. I was well all 
the way. The food and drink agreed with me remarkably, 
so that some think I look stronger and fatter now. 

[.^t Heidelberg] the most iilusirious Count Palatine Wolf- 
gang and James Symler*^ and Haiius,» Master of the court, 
received me. The count invited us, i. e., Slaupitz, our I^ng, 
now District Vicar, and myself to a meal, at whicli we had a 
very pleasant conversation. We saw tile ornaments of the 
castle chapel, ami then wandered around that royal and noble 
castle, surveying tlie armor and almost everything it contains. 
Syniler could not sußiciently commend the letter given by the 
Elector of Saxony in my behalf, saying, in his dialect: "By 
God. you have a fine passport."* We lacked nothing which 
kindness could supply. 

Tlie doctors licard my disputation gladly, and answered mc 
with such moderation that I was much obliged to them. For, 
altiiough my theology seemed strange to them, yet Öiey 
skirmished with it subtly and iiolitcly, except one, who was 

>A frictid of Wimprdmi, «bo bad been tuioi to Count Wolffinc snil btd «Im 
■««mponltd tim to Wilimüftg. 

■Otberwi*« unknown. 

*Dlcni« (ua Metcbircni linen: ibt lubi bj Godd cirm kjrtdkhU Crodeni. 
(HtuMbwv i« OD tbe Ncclur.) 




liie fifth and younger doctor, who moved the laughter of 
t)ie whole audience by saying: "If the peasants heard this 
they would stone you to death." 

To Erfurt my thcolog)- is poison ;' Dr. Trutfcttcr especially 
condemns all my propositions; he wrote me a letter accusing 
me of ignorance even of dialectic, to say notliing of theology. 
1 would have disputed publicly with them had not the festival 
of the cross prevented. I had a conference witii Trutfetter 
face to face and at least made him understand that he could 
not prove his own position nor refute mine; rather that their 
opinion was like tliat beast which h said to eat itself. Gut in 
vain is a story told to a deaf man; they olistinatcly stuck to 
leir own little ideas, though they confess that these ideas 
are supported by no other authority than natural reason, 
which wc consider the same as dark chaos, for wc preach 
DO other light than Christ Jesus, the true and only light. I 
talked with Dr. Usingen, who was my companion in 
the wagon, more than with all the ntlicrs, trying to persuade 
im, but I know not what success I had, for I left him pensive 
and dazed. This is what comes of growing old in wrong 
opinions. But the minds of all the youths arc tremendously 
different from theirs, and I have great hope that, as Christ 
rejected by the Jews went over to the Gentiles, so this true 
thcoli^y of his, rejected by those opinionated old men, will 
over to the younger generation. . . . 

Brotueb Martin Elcutuerius. AugustiHtatt. 


Oders, V. I. WlTTENntK«, May w, 1518, 

Certain Obelisk/ have come to me by which you have tried 
refute my Theses on indulgences; this is a witness of the 
friendship which you offered mc unasked, and also of your 
[tiril of evangelic charily according to which we arc bidden 
warn a brother before wc accuse liini. How could I, a 

'Hpf* and rl«cvibirf In the leiier l.ulhct u*n » provtrb wliicb ht found In 
Enwanu' jidocfi. •» ihcie «re the firil <jiioi»liun» from that wotk I h«Te tioticed 
In tiU Irlfni li is pcolutik tlul be bvl rcrrmlr bouihi the new cdLilnn which he 
had «KihcB »t in bl* Iciier la Lanf ia Felj(uar)-| lufra, no. 49. 

■lull K«Tc Üin nam« (liicrally wnall daeRcra with whkh nolo ace marked] ttf 
ku Miack uD Lulktr'* Tkrm, Lvlhir mrlvtd ll from hi( fricoi) Usk n»l lonj 
,fe*(e(c liarch 14- C/. Pfonvetl Sinilb, ^t^. 




simpl« man, believe or suspect that you who were so smooth- 
tongued before my face would attack me behind my back? 
Thus you have fulfilled the saying of Scripture: "Wliich 
speak [icarc to their tieighbors, but mischief is in tlicir hearts.'" 
i know thai yoii will not admit that you have done this, but 
you did what you could ;' sec what your conscience tells you. 
I am astonished tliat you have the effrontery alone to judge 
my opinions before you know and understand them. This 
rashness of yours is auflScient proof that you think yourself 
the only theologian alive, and so unique that not only do you 
prefer your own opinion to all others, but even think that 
what you condemn, though you do not understand it, is lo be 
condemned because it does not please Eck. Pray let God 
live and reign over us. 

But to ait the matter short, as you are so furious against 
nic, I have sent some Asterisks against your Obelisks, that 
jou may sec and recognize your ignorance and rashness; I 
consult your reputation by not pubhshing tlicm, but by send- 
ing them to yoti privately so as not to render evil for evil 
as you did to me. t wrote them only for him from whom I 
received your Obelisks, and sent them to him to give you. 
Had I wished to publish anything against you I should have 
written more carefully and calmly, though also more strongly. 
If your confidence in your foolish Obelisks is still unshaken, 
pray write me; I will meet you with equal confidence. Pei^ 
chance it will then happen that I shall not spare you, although 
God knows that 1 should prefer to convert you; if anything 
in me displeases you. write me privately about it, as you 
ought to know a theologian is bound to do, For what harlot, 
if provoked, could not have vomited forth the same curses 
anil reviling against me that you have done, and yet so far 
from rqienttng you boast of it and think that you have done 
riglit. You have your choice; I will remain your friend if 
you wish, or I will gladly meet your attack, for as far as I 
can see. you know nothing in theology except the husks of 
scholasticism. You will find out how much you can do against 

(Pulia asiiii. j. 

■Acconlini I« Knder* l!ic wriUnc o' Ihc only ixunl copj cif Uiii Iclur it vtrj 
hard 10 lead; I ifaticturr vtittoit lo alter th« radinc of tbift «enMncc I» th« 
folliminci "Sdo u nolle id • t« fieri, »cd fMimi >i pgtiiiuL" 

Id. «J 



Die when you begin to prefer war to peace and {uiy to 


Ma/ tlie Lord give to yon and to me good sense and may 
he vouchsafe what is good to both of us. Behold, iliough 
attacked, 1 lay aside my arms, not because I fear you, but 
God; after this it will not be my fault if 1 am compelled to 
defend myself publicly. But enough. Farewell. 


tn, i. aij. ( \V nTENBEBc. Msy 19, 1518.) 

Thia letter, the preface tn Lmher's Aiieritks, is «lalnl in Endcrs. 
'August la 1518. This is a laic guess, as the AsleHjks were not printed 
until 1545, when (he date was a<Idcd. Knaakc (Weimar, i. 2r}f } dates 
this Idler Match 23. 1518. ami ihit la followed l>y the Sil. Imw* Wakh 
edition. Clemen, in Ztiltekriff für Kirehtngftchithte, xxvii. 100, 
arsucs for an mtcnacdiatc d^te. In my judemcnt, the tnic date is 

ivcR by comparing this letter with that oi Luther to Eck, of (he 
ic date. no. 6t. 



It seemed g(Jod to mc to go over the Obelisks concocted by 
r friend Eck agaJn&t tny Theses, which you sent me, one 
one, and to add Asterisks to those of my propositions, 
which arc a little obscure. If you wish, you may commu- 
jcale them to Kclc,* clear as they now arc, that he also may 
iderstand how rash it was to attack others' work, especially 
hen he did not understand it, and particularly how treacher- 
ous and unjust it was to provoke so bitterly an unsuspecting 
friend, and one who assumes that everything will be taken 
for the best by bis friend. But the Scripture is true: ".\ll 
:»en are liars."* We arc men and will remain men. . . . 


Endcrs. i. 147. Witt«sbhic, May 33. 1518. 

■ After writiag his RetoiMtions in defence of his Theses, Luther sub- 
initted ihem to his nipcrior, the Bishoi) of Briiidenburg. Cf. supra, 
no. 5a Oa the assumption that he sent this letter with them, the 
date affixed to the letter has been disreeaidcd. and tlic nilisive put 

■L,lllk shewed th« AtUiUhi t« PircVlieimei, but bfncd bini net to show thtB 
to tnjonu «!•«, W. ItTind«!!: H*. Li-d, p. »57. 
*fM>n oitI. It. 

^^^m -B-aV^I VI 




back to Ftbntary 13th bv Enders, and to Febniaiy 6lh by Knaalce in 
tlic Wcimur edition, L 523, and Köstlin-Kawcrau, 169. KalkofT has 
ihown. however {Zeiuthrifl für Kirclungesehichte, xxxii. 411), thai 
the fir« letKr lent with the Retolutions has been Ifl« and that the 
one hire tninitl.itcd is a second letter, intended by the author as an intro- 
duction to that work, which h« was now at liberty to publish. Cf. sufra, 
na 53. He later chanRcd this plan and subilitutcdl dedications to 
Staupitz and Leo X. 

Luther speaks in his Tischrräcn, cd. FÖrstcinann und Bindseil, iL 367 
and iii. 315. of che reccptinn accoidcd his epistle as follows: "Tlie 
BUhop of Brandenburg answered my letter, saying that 1 should not 
go on with the thing, for if I once began I would gel plenty to do, as 
the matter touched the Churdi. There spoke the devil incarnate in 
this bishop!" KalkofT, loc. eil., 409, note, thinks this answer was given 
when the bishop visited Wittenberg, in Fcbruar>% 1519. 

Recently, excellent Bishop, new and utiheard of dogmas 
about indulgences have begun to be proclaimed throughout 
our regions so lliat many learned as well as unlearned men 
are both surprised and moved. Thus it happened that I was 
asked by many strangers as well as by many friends, both by 
letters and orally, what I thought of their novel, not to say 
licentious, doctrines. I put them off for a while, but finally 
their complaints became so bitter as to endanger the reverence 
for the Pope. 

What was I to do? I had no power to decide anything, 
and I feared to cross the indulgence sellers, for I only wished 
that they might seem to preach the truth, and yet their oppo- 
nents proved &o clearly that they only tatight false, vain 
doctrines, that I confess tlicy completely convinced me. That, 
therefore, 1 might satisfy both, the best plan seemed to be 
neither to approve nor to disapprove, but to hold a debate 
on the subject until the Holy Church should decide what to 
believe. Thus I posted topics for debate, and invited the 
public, and urged my learned friends privately, to give me 
their written opinions on the subject, for it seemed to me 
tliat my propositions were contradicted by neither the Bible 
nor the leathers nor the Canon Law, hut only by a few 
canonists who spoke without authority, and by a few scho- 
lastics, who expressed their opinions without giving proof. 
For it se«ncd to me most absurd that things should be preached 
in the Church for which we could not give a reason to heretics 

La 63 



— r 
I an 

wbo might ask it, and tliu« we would make Girist and his 
Church a Kcrn and a mockery. 

Moreover, it is established that wc owe no allegiance to 
the scholastics and canonists, when they only give their own 
opinions, for if it is coninionly said to be base for a lawyer 
to speak without authority, it is surely baser for a tlicologian 
do so, and by authority I mean not Aristotle (for they 
give his autliority far too readily), but the Bible, the Canons 
and the Fathers. Furthermore, 1 thought that it became my 
profession and office to call in question such matters which 
are both very doubtful and if false very dangerous, for during 
centuries no Christian has doubted that the schools have the 
right to debate even the most sacred and awful matters. . . , 

Since, therefore, no one has respondc*! to my universal 
challenge, and since I see that my propositions for debate 
have flown farther than I would have wished, and were 
accepted everj-where not as inquiries, but as assertions. I 
have been compelled against my hope and intention to expose 
jny tack of eloquence and niy ignorance, and to my 
propositions with their proofs, thinking it better to jeopard 
my reputation than to let the propositions fly about in a form 
hich might lead people to think they were positive asser- 
tions. For I doubt some of them, am ignorant about others 
and deny some, while not positively asserting any, but 
«ubmitting all to the Holy Oiurch. 

And since, reverend Prelate, you arc by Christ's mercy 
the bishop of this place, and since you not only warmly love 
good and learned men, zi many are said to do, but even 
venerate and cherish them to such a degree that you almost 
risk your pontifical dignity (far be this from flattery, for I 
praise not you, but Christ's gifts in you!) — it was most right 
that I should offer my work especially to you. whose duty 
it is to inspect and judge what is done here, and to lay at your 
feet whatever I do. 

Wherefore deign, most clement Bishop, to take these foolish 
trifles of nune, that all may know that I assert nothing rashly, 
and that I not only allow, but even beg your Reverence to 
rikc out whatever you wish, or even to bum the whole; it 

of no consequence to me. . . , 


Let 64 


J. G. Oleariti»: Scrinium /intiijttariitm, 
Hille, 167:. p. 30. Ikrolstabt, Miy 38, 1518. 

Most famous Carlstadt, I have heard that you and your 
Wittenbergers are moved against Eck, because J wrote some- 
thing privately for my bishop' against the opinion of our 
common iriend Martin Lulher, thinking that tliis triHing 
effort of mine would never be subjected to the criticism of 
learned men. I suspect, though I do not know, how it slipped 
out of the bands of my bishop and was laid before you. 
Had 1 known this would hAve happened, I should not have 
written tx tempore without consulting any books, just as roy 
thought su^ested, nor should 1 have composed it in so hasty 
and careless style. But as you know, we are all freer in 
writing private letters than when publishing. Wherefore I 
am much surprised that you are so incensed against your most 
devoted Eck. They say tliat you charge Eck wiüi fawning 
on the bishop. You do net know how incapable is Eck of 
such a thing. All who know Eck freely confess that he is a 
man who cannot be insincere. Nor, could I have flattered, 
would I have done so, especially that bishop with whom, I 
believe, from some accidental cause, indulgences have very 
little weight. People also say that you are planning a single 
combat willi Eck. I can hardly believe tliat. If it is true, I 
wonder why you do not gird yourself against your neighbors 
of Frankfort on the Odor, and against the inquisitor, who 
intimates that Luther has erred a hundred times, or rather 
that he is wild, mad and insane, and have expressed this 
opinion in published writings. Truly, if I may presume upon 
my recently formed friendship, I shall consider it a friendly 
act if you will let whatever you meditate .igainst innocent 
Eck fall into oblivion. For it was not my intention to hurt 
Luther. If you think meanly of Eck's friendship, and 
propose to disregard it. I neither can nor desire to impose 
a rule on you : but you will do better to inform Hck as soon as 
possible if you wish to publish anything. When I leam tliat 

■Adolpli of Anbilt. Biihop of UcrMbunr ntti«. Hr> m» a brother of FmrM 
Pi Aellatt (imtra, Novrmbtr 4, i[i9. do. 19]) and of Loou of Anluh, th« bcnins 
ptincc wfaoni Luther hw » Magdeburf in 14^. Smith, p. 4. 

Um. 65 



i have erred I will willingly confess my error without shame. 
But if I see you excited and bitter against me, I will try, 
with the counsel of good teachers and of friends, to defend 
mysdf, as much as truth urges, in those studies which arc 
most regarded througliout Christenttoro. But I prefer tn 
avoid this business. It will be yours to consider this. anJ 
after due cunsidcratioit to advance. Farewell, Carlstatlt, 
whom I truly wish to fare welL 





ders, L tg6. WirrexBEac, May ^a 1518. 

Thi* leher ü on« (»Tefacc to Luthtr's Rttoli'tiont, a defence of the 
Theses, reprinted Wciiiiilt, L 522. Another [iTcfatory Icller was to 
X., truiflated, Smith, pp. 44ff. 

I remember, reverend Father, among those happy and 
wholesome stories of yours, by which the Lord used 
iidcrfully to console me. that you often nicntioncd the 
ord "penitence,"' whereupon, distressed by our consciences 
and by those torturers who with endless and intolerable pre- 
X tatlght nothing but what they called a method of con- 
ion, we received you as a messenger from Heaven, for 
penitence is not genuine save when it begins from the love 
justice and of God, and tliis which they consider the end 
d consiunmatioQ of repentance is rather its commencement. 
Your words on this subject pierced me like the sharp 
arrows of the mighty,* so that I began to see what the 
Scriptures had to say about penitence, and behold the happy 
result : the texts all supported and favored your doctrine, in 
50 much that, while there had formerly been no word in almost 
all the Bible more bitter to me than "penitence" (altliough I 
zealously simulated it before God and tried to express an 
assumed and forced love), now no word sounds sweeter or 
more pleasant to me than that. For thus do the conunands 
of God become sweet when we understand that they are not 
to be read in books only, but in the wounds of the sweetest 

*~P«aflentlB' in«*iu bolb "pentiK*" uid "xpcatuiGc," il wmi mppannllT t4kca 
bi tke (BcnKT mdm br tbc "tontircrt" and In ilic Utter br Staupiu. Prtaemid 
SMA, «t. tit., p. 4*. 


After this' it happened by the favor of the learned men 
who taught me Hebrew and Greek Uiat I learned that the 
Greek word is t^eränota from /uri and mw, i. e., from 
"afterwards" and "mind," so that penitence or ttrdimta is 
"coming to one's right mind, afterwards,"' that is, compre- 
hension of your own evil, after you had accepted loss and 
found out your error. This is impossible without a change 
in your affections. All this agrees so well with Paul's the- 
olog>-, that, in my opinion, at least, riothing is more character- 
istically I'auline. 

Then 1 progressed and saw that ^ttrdwora meant not only 
"afterwards" and '"mind," but also "change" and "niind," so 
that iirrdroea means change of mind and affection. . . . 

Sticking fast to this conclusion, I dared to think that they 
were wrong who attributed so much to works of repentance 
that tlicy have left us nothing of it but format penances 
and elaborate confession. They were seduced by the Latin, 
for "pocnitcntiam agere"" means rather a work than a change 
of affection and in no wise agrees with the Greek. 

\\Ticn I was glowing with this thought, behold indulgences 
and remissions of sins began to be trumpeted abroad with 
tremendous clangor, but these trumpets animated no one to 
real struggle. In short, the doctrine of true repentance was 
neglected, and only the cheapest part of it. tliat called penance. 
was magnified. ... As I was not able to oppose the fury 
of these preachers. I determined modestly to take issue with 
them and to call their theories in doubt, relying as I did on 
the opinion of all the doctors and of the whole Church, wlio 
all say that it is belter to perforin the penance than to buy it. 
that is an indulgence. . . . This is the reason why I, reverend 

'I^tbcr hai iutt bten «pMldBr of )ii( 6nt Mqnalnttn«« «ilk Suapiti during 
\tr [lark fMri In Ibe Kcfort clot*t«f. iS<>S-io: il wst U Ihii lime thai be brg»a 
(D (lady Hebrew, on »hieb iirthapa li« gat lome help (roat a Jev while ha waa at 
Rome, Dcceinbcr, IS'«, tf. Smith, ep. tit., p. >6f, Criiar: Lathrr, I. ij. Gr««k 
he fiiil txican to learn ftiim h» friend Lang dutinE :lie rcjiia tsij-iA, bul h« ia 
ippuentlr referiinf to ifae attidr of tbc Nr« Teatuncnt la Greek «tiled br 
ErMmu In Hanb, i)ifi. In thl» letter he follow) F.iancnat' nutc to Mstthrviu t. 
*"lt«ai(üc«itla," Eraamui Itanalatt* /urai-miit "ReaiiiiKil«." 
*Thc»< wardi in ihc Vulgatc int(t>'l mean cilher "Repent yc" er "Do penaace," 
and were ntuttllir tslien in the Utter aena« by Lulher'a c»ntciD(K>tiTic3. B. g., tc« 
Tbamu y«ee, C»mitätun •/ TyxM* {i5J>) in I4'#rlw (•{!;}. r «tS. C/. 
lufra, »«Ic >t 


Father, who always love retirement, have unhappily been 
)rced into th« public view. . . . 

I ask, therefore, ihat fou will receive this poor book of 
mine, and forward it with what expedition you can to the 
excellent Pope Leo X. ] ask this not to involve you in my 
danger (for I prefer to lake all the risk myself), but that I 
may have at Rome if not a champion, at least an answer to all 

fy opponents. 
G. Olearini: Sermium aniiiitaTium. Hdle. ]67i, p. 3Z 
WlTIENOEHC, June II, isi8. 
Greeting. Most learned Hxk, I am in receipt of your elegant 
letter. I answer briefly to let you know tliat I am greatly 
displeased with the taunts with which you have assailed my 
^^lost learned friend, Martin Luther. For you have accused 
^^lie man of the worst and greatest crimes, l^se majestc. heresy 
and scliism. You have publicly called him a seditious Huss- 
ite. You deny that you published this opinion? Well, your 
own Scotus says tiiat whatever is written is ipso facto pub- 
lished, and you certainly wrote it. Von not only gave us a 
iJiance to reply, but you forced us to do so. Wherefore it 
happened tliat I published a challenge, or rather an apologj-, 
against some of your conclusions. This was printed and is 
sold here at Wittenberg. I weep for the wound your human- 
ity received in forcing on us the necessity of fighting you. If 
things done could be undone, I should prefer to conquer your 
accusations with patience rather than with battle. The reason 
why I chose you particularly for an adversary, instead of 
that unlearned inquisitor or someone like htm, was not envy 
or anger, but was your elegance, industry and acumen, and 
especially your own salvation and that of the people. For I 
hope that you will come over to our opinion ; I believe that 
from Saul you will be made Paul. For I would not have a 
I wild ass or a balking ass, but a noble lion ILcoJ or an 
^Bfoquent Mark. I thought it would nut hurt me to strive by 
^^mitating your arts to become more elegant. Please pardon 
' jrt you. But consider whether you oughl to 


hurt me already wounded; think whether you will thereby 
become the hostile disturber of a man or of the Holy Word. 
I have determined rather to endure war and tyrannical siege 
than a perverse jicace at the price of disparaging the divine 
writings and of my own perdition. 1 will stick to this, what- 
ever may happen to myself. But if you let me I should 
prefer to enjoy your friendship. Indeed. I love you heartily. 
May I perish if I desire you to perish or any evil to befall 
you. It is my particular study by what means God's Word, 
unfortunately for our unhappy skulking in a comer, may 
daily become sweeter and better known, that is, as well known 
as possible. Long live our Luther who gives us a chance to 
extract the kernel of the law of God. Long live Eck, as his 
friend. But if he be an enemy, let him at least be a sincere 
lover of the truth. This is all J have leisure to write at this 
time. . . . 



Enders, ■■ 'vB. Witteksesc, June i^ 1518. 

Greetmg. What you ask in behalf of our Eck, dearest 
Christopher, would have been superfluous from such a friend, 
had there been nothing to complicate the situation and had he 
himself written before you did. But my suspicion that lick's 
mind is alienated from me is confirmed by the fact that after 
he called me such dreadful names, even though only in 
private, he wrote mc no letter and sent me no message. And 
now, since our Carlstadt's theses' have been published, tliough 
without my knowledge or consent, I am not quite sure what 
both of us ought to do. I know that we love the man's nature 
and admire his learning; I am, moreover, certain and bear 
witness to it. that what I did. at least, was done rather in 
sorrow tlian in anger or envy. As for myself. I have written 
him the enclosed letter.' which you see is friendly and full 
of good will towards him. I am quite reconciled to him, not 

■Wbil« Luitn «-u 11 llejilrlbcta C«rl*t(dl publUbcd loinc (bt*fi on free will 
and Ihr lulboiilT of Scripture dircttcil •Kiinvl Kck. «ho »plied «Kb »«mr 
toumcr-rlicBci. On ibu. uid on tbe "dnwlful n»inu" Eck ullfd Lutber, tte 
Smitb. Of. tit., iil. 

'Linker probtbl; nuat a iMIcr, now la«t, Kiit wttb tfan al CarlMMli, 00. 64. 


only tor your sake, but because of his own candid confession 
that it would displease hiin, if not me, to have anything 
[untoward] happen by reason of someone else's guilt or 
malic«. Therefore you have my authority to do what you 
want in this matter, and so does Eck. I only charge your 
kindness to see iliat he does not reply too sharply to our 
Carlstadt, considering, as he ought, that the first fault was his 
in stirring up a quarrel with friends. Since I sent my 
Asterisks to him privately, I believe he will he under no ncccs- 
»ly of answering them unless he wants to. But if he prefers 
to answer, I am ready for him. though 1 should prefer peace. 
Act liierefore so that wc may know that you grieve with us 
that this temptation has been sent by the devil, and also that 
you rejoice with us that with Christ's aid it has been overcome 
and quieted. Farewell, I wrote you before, but 1 sec you 
have not yet received (he letter. 

Brother Martin Luther, Augiutinian. 

Eadcfs, i. 163. (Rous. >iae, 1518.) 

This IcOcr is dated by Endcrs "Erste Monat*. 1518." but as (he 
Dialogvt. to which it it Ihe preface, nppearrd in Jnne (F. Lauchen: 
Dit Italirnitthen tU. Ctgmr Lvtherj, g), it may be dated in that month, 
and b daied by the SL Louis ctlition. xxi. no. Bi, "Zweite Hälfte 
jBiii. I5i8." 

Silvester \faizolini, of Priccio. in Piedmont (l456*t523), entered 
the Dominican order at the age of 15, and was made priest eight 
jnrs later. He taught 31 Bologn.i and Padua. In 1508, he was 
decfed Virar oE the Lombard Province of his Order, and for the 
thrc« following years wai a member o( the inquisition at Br«tia. 
He wrote a good deal on scbobaitc topics. In 1514. he was called 
by L«o X. to teach at komc, and in the following year was made 
Matter of the Sacred Palace; or official Ihcoloiical adviser to the 
Pope, in which capacity he look an »clive pan against Reuchlin. 
Lather's Tktttt wrre sent to the Pupe by Albert of Mayence, rcach- 
iflg: Rone before the end of 1317. Prierla» was asked 10 uiv« an 
opinioo on thetn, which he did with Ktest thorough nri«, and which 
he pabltihcd. of his own accord, nmlcr the title of Dialogut dt 
fostfitalt Pafa*. in June, Iji8. Luther answered, and the controversy 
continued. Life of Prierlas. by F. Michalski, ifSqo- CJ. Lauchen, 
^^1^. tit., jS. and Rratentytlopidie. 

^^ It has been long. Martin, since I have ceased writing. cVvvt^'^ 




because my powers are exhausted by old age, but the challenge 
you vociferate to all athletes, as though you were another 
Dares/ has impelled me again to approach the wrestling 
ring to defend ihe truth and the Apostolic See. 

Since I could not see the grounds of the notice which, it 
is said, )-ou have published, and atUiough you have brought 
no proof to your propositions, and some of them may bear 
both a true and a false sense, I did not wish at hrst to contend 
with you save by supporting and defending the opposite 
sense of your false propositions, so that you may tell us 00 
what grounds you rely. Wherefore, having run through and 
balanced your opinions, I have prepared the way for oor 
future contest by a DiaJogve, in which we. who are to con- 
tend, are the interlocutors. Let us invoke God's blessing! 
Farewell and learn better I 


Endcrs, L ata 

WiTTEKBERG. July lOi istS. 

The date of (hit letter is a puzzle. It is not known in MS.; Ac 
earllctt tdicion by Aurifabcr. followed by Dc Wcttc, dates "die ti 
Fratrum." which would be September 1. Endcrs believe» that 
"XII" was put by mistake far "VII" and dates accordingly "day of 
the seven brothers," ». e.. July la As Luther always used Arabic 
numerals tFiU mistake could bardly have been made by him, bat 
rnaj' have been introduced by Aurifaber. But the letter «peaks of 
Luther's leaving Wittenberg; if this refers to the proicctcd trip to 
Augsburg, as EiidcTs thinks, the letter could hardly have been written 
before September t. as Luther eeriainly did not know he was 
tumnioned (hither until that date. Smith, op. cit., p. 47. If it refer« 
to the summons to Komc, the letter could not have been written si 
early as July lo^ for Luther lirst received the summons to Rome in 
August. Smith, loe. cit.. and Endcrs. i. 2i4if. But 1 believe th« 
reference is to a projected journey to Dresden, which Luther actually 
undertook late in July, tf. infra, no. 117, and about which the Cotint of 
Maosfcld would be more likely to be infonncd than about the citation 10 
Rome For the earlier date also speak two facts: first, that th« 
Rttolutiom were not yet very far along in the press, altbouxh they 
were finished on August aS (infra, no. 7^), and that the 'Yecent" 
•ermon on Ihe ban was one of the cause* of the citation to Augsburg, 
which was determined upon on August ly 

Greeting. I would have sent my Resolutions, reverend 

XjK. 69 



Father, but for the slowness of our printer. I myself am 
much put out at this ticlay. Only eighteen of the Hesolutions 
are as yet printed, which I now try to send. That trifle which 
I lately published against my Timon' has be<n recently 
republished. I was unwilling to republish it myself, in which 
I followed the advice of my friends, although even so 1 did 
not satisfy them. Others attribute it to my impatience, 
although 1 meant it rather in sport than in anger. . . . 

Our vicar, John I-ang. who was here to-day, says that 
Count Albert.* of Mansfcld. has written him a letter warning 
him by no means to let me leave Wittenberg. Snares have 
been laid by I know not what great men,* cither to kill me or 
to baptize me unio death. [ am simply, as Jeremiah says,* 
that man of strife and contention who daily irritate the 
Pharisees with what they consider new doctrines. But as 
I am certain that I teach only the purest doctrine, I have 
long foreseen that it would be a stumbling block to the most 
holy Jews and foolishness to the wisest Greeks.* But I 
know lliat I am a debtor to Jesus Girist, who, perhaps, is 
saying to mc: "I will show him how much he must suffer 
for my name's sake.'"' For if he docs not say this why docs 
he make me so bold in defending his Word, or why does he 
not teach me to say something else? Hts holy will be done.' 
The more they threaten the bolder I am; my wife and chil- 
dren are provided for, my fields, houses and whole substance 
are tn order, my name and fame are torn to bits ; all that is 
left me is my weak and broken body, of which if tliey deprive 
me tliey will shorten my life by an hour or two, but truly 

Tb« AlkaniMn cjntc W wbo« LuUier <eapare« TclicL Tb« "irilte" w«a £i'i* 
Frrik**! 4*t SivmtnM. 

'BarB i«8i>. ypunirr ton of Ermit I. S«e Cr4««le»i Grtf Albmht Vit i-»« 
llm>*f»U. Zritickrili 4tM Hart-l'trrint, xvllL i6i. At ■ nirlv» of bl< dominion* 
LadKT fell parlkul«!; Ii>r>l 'o tiii"' From ts*i to IS4S hr wrote him ■ number 
of lm«Tt, and it va* II hii rrqucii thai in iMs »I'd IS4& he journeyed lo thr 
covatr of Maiutcid to Kille a di^pule bclwcen Albeit and kli broibcr Cebhiril. 
Snnk. of. tit; 417''- 

*Oii L-BthcKa «Bplcu«i( eipcfitncei at Drodcn, «-hiibi* b« «a* ptannini id (o. 
M»d irhiikcf b« ixiit wcni. CI*, ••t/'o. no, iir. Duke C»<it' li*d tUtvij tK^un in 
be if^l'i'^^if w bin, tliou^ be could not liivc oieant (ü |iut bim t9 livatb. 

'Jimnuk, xt. 10. 
I »I C<»)alKiaaa, i, 33. 

•Ac!s of the Ah^Im. Is. i(l 

(RM-tbic "ixt" for "I^L" CI. EnifM. ». f|& 


Let 70 

will not talc« away my soul. I $ing with John ReuchUn: 
Who 19 poor fears nothing, for he has nothing to lose, bm he 
sits in hope, for he hopes to get something. . . . 

I recently delivered a sermon on the ban,' in which, inci- 
dcniatly. I taxed the tyranny and ignorance of the comnxm 
herd of sordid officials, coinmissarics and vicars. All my 
hearers exclaimed in sur])rise they had never heard such a 
sermon before. Then, in addition to whatever evil is await- 
ing mc, we expect that a new 6re has been kindled, but this 
is the sign that the word of truth is being opposed. I wanted 
to have a public debate on the matter, but minor anticipated 
it and stirre<t up some officials, so that they induced my Bishop 
of Brandenburg to send a messenger to put oft such a debate, 
which I have done and still do, especially as my friends advise 
it. Sec what a monster I am, since even my attempts are 

Dr. Trutfettcr has sent me a letter full of jteal (for by 
this name wc must dignify the man's ücrcc passion), a letter 
much more bitter than the one you heard read in my presence 
at the Chapter,' and one which says just what he said to me 
at Erfurt. These men are goaded to madness, because they 
are told to be fools in Christ, and because they are judged to 
have erred by the whole world and the authority of so many 
ages. I don't care a fig for those fools and their threats, 
provided only that Christ be a propitious God to me. to wliom 
I am prepared to yield the defence of the Word. I have 
written at length because 1 like to chat with you. Farewell. 

Brother Maktin LurBBit. 


U. LMlkeri Opera (alina varü argumtnti, cd. H. Sclimidi. Erlangen, 

1865. ii. 345- At-fiSBUKt:, Augn« 5, 1518. 

Most blessed Father and most revered Lord ! We have 
recently heard that a certain Au^istinian Friar. Martin 
Luther by name, has published certain theses on indulgences 

>5«nM dr virtiiU »rt* mmtmliMlomii (Weiniat L tjrfff). w4at*d by LiAhcf in 
AnraM. AcconJint ii> Ka*()ln-KAwcnii, L iv*. t^tlttr delnertd the Mrmwi on 
liiT itA, bui thii lecmi too tarly. 

■7. t.. 11 Ibc GcDMBt Chapitr at lleidctbtTs. April «nd H*y. Ob I.mhet^ 
iniemor with TmlfHIir U ItJiun «it Ibc «ar kosic. tf. tuft; no. 39 and t«. 

Lrt. fo 



10 bt discussed in the scholastic way, and that in tliese theses 
he has taught much on this subject and concerning the power 
of papa) cxcnnununicalion, part of wliich appears injurious 
and heretical, as has Ijctn noted by the Master of your sacred 
^icc. This has displeased us the more liccausc, as we are 
infonntd, the said friar obstinately adheres to his doctrine, 
and is said to have found several defenders of his errors 
anwng (he great. 

.And as suspicious assertions and dangerngs dogmas can 
be judged by no one better, more rightly and more truly than 
!•>• ytMT Holiness, who alone is able and ought to silence the 
lamhors of vain questioiu. sophisms and wordy quarrels, than 
riviiich nothing njorc pestilent can happen to Christianity, for 
Eöicse men consider only how to magnify what they have 
taught, so your Holiness can maintain the sincere and solid 
doctrine approved by the consensus of the more learned 
opinion of the present age and of those who formerly died 
piously in Oirisl. 

There is an ancient decree of the Pontifical College on the 
licensing of teachers, in which there is no provision whatever 
against sophistrj-, save in case the decretals are called in ques- 
tion, and whether it is right lo teach that, the study of which 
has been disapproved by many and great authors. 

Since, therefore, the authority of the Popes is disregarded, 
and doubtful, or rather erroneous opinions are alone received, 
it is bound to occur that those little fanciful and blind teachers 
should be led astray. .-Ind it is due to them that not only arc 
many of the more solid doctors of the Church not only 
jlecled. but even corrupted and mutilated. 
We do not maition that these authors hatch many more 
heresies than were ever condemned. We do not mention that 
Iwth Rcuchlin's trial and the jiresent most dangerous dispute 
about indulgences and papal censures have been brought forth 
by these pernicious authors. If the authority of your Holi- 
ness and of the most reverend fathers does not put an end 
^h|o such doctrines, soon their authors will not only impose on 
^^ke unlearned muhitude, but will win the favor of princes,* 

H^P ■?«%«?• ■ *p«ia1 allwion to tb« Elector Pr«4trk ol «bom Uulmlllut WM 
^^fealoa*- U* ou iMw tuiMLac ilic linpcHjl Diet ■! AugstlUTK. H« VloXtWUf] 


to their mutual destruction. If wc shut our e}'es and leave 
them the field open and free, it will happen, as they chiefly 
desire, that the whole worM will he forced to look on their 
follies instead of on ttie best and most holy doctors. 

Of our singular reverence for the Apostolic See. we have 
signified this to your Holiness, so that simple Christianity 
may not be injured and scandalised by these rash disputes 
and captious arguments. Whatever may be righteously 
decided upon in this our Empire, we will make all our sub- 
jects obey for the praise and honor of God Almighty and the 
salvation of Christians. 

Enden, i. aij. Wittensekg, August 8, 1518. 

Greeting. I now need your help more than ever, dear 
Spalatiii, or rather the honor of our whole university needs 
it. 1 mean that I want you to use your influence with the 
elector and Pfeßingcr to get the elector and his Imperial 
Majesty' to request the Pope to allow my case to be tried in 
Germany.' as I have written the elector. For you see how 
subtly and maliciously those murderous Dominicans* are acting 
for my destruction. I would have written on the same account 
to Pfeffinger, to request his influence in obtaining this favor 
for me from Kmperor and elector, but I had to write in 
great haiite. They have given me but a short time, as you see 
by the Citation, that Lernaean swamp full of hydras and 
other monsters. Therefore be diligent, if you love me and 

winle rhi> Idler at ih« iri*ti|t>(ian tti lh< Pap») Legt«. Cxjcttn. Lutfacr'i «<i«mi«« 
had taken naM* at hU Snnati an Ihr Btti Ut- *>•?'»• no. 69), wbkb tber bad 
rciluceul 10 ■ aeriei of prcpotiHioni. and arm lo Cii«tan. C/. Smxlh, tJf 

■Tb< Knptror MacfmlllBn hHd an ImpcrUI Diel al Au^iburi in ihc suramcf at 
iji!. Spilalin wis iiiFirnt in altcisilanc» on Ihe VAtttat VnArrir,, 

'Miiiinillaa t (llmixrot ftom ttti till bii dcxh, Januity ti. 1510). in tbli 
cue a«t«l u LullieT wi»b«cl. geltinir the cue lianafcrrcd to Aufiburg. not 
tram ihe deiire la help the Saion. bul trparcntlr bteauic tie fell be coulil deal 
vilb bim more aurninaiily *t>. Smith, of. fit.: p. «a. .Vkfra, no. 70. 

Vindlni tbat Lurbcr bad noi manKd M Hciilelberi, (he Caria Mimmoned bin 
to Rome lu rtcnm vrlibin hxit d>TB, wbicb miimnioni. logeüicr «icb Prietiu' 
Diai«gut {ftT'i no. <S), Luibcr b«d jittt receircd, Smiib, p. 47. 

*"PiacJi(atoTci." Ii wDuld be pouible lo trsntUi* tbli "p(ia«ben of tnduV 
Kciic<*," bul it I» mafi libel» tbx Luiher mtuii iLe "orSxt at pre«heTt,"* m tl« 
DominicMiB were catlrd, for tbejr kid, Endnd. bp«n particularly acliva ^altul 
him. Teuel, Exit anil Piieriu were all Di>mmi(«Da- Smith, tftii. 




hi« iniquity, to get the advice and aid of the elector at once, 
«od when you have goi it, communicalt it to me, and sLlli 
more to our re\'eraid fallier vicar Staupitr, who is per- 
chance now witli you at Augsburg, or soon will be. For he 
H in Salzburg, having promised to be at Nuremberg on 
August 15. Finally, I pray you, be not moved or sad {or 
tnc; with the trial the Lord will also make a way o( escape, 
lam answering the sylvan and wild Dialogue of Sylvester 
Priwias,' all o£ which you will have as soon as it is ready. 
The same sweet man is both my enemy and my judge, as 
you will sec by the Citation. Farewell, As I have much (o 

I write I cannot say more to you now. 

^m BRco-iiEK Martin Eleuthehius, Augustinian. 


tinders. L 216. {WiTTENBEKd. about Augtiit m 1518.) 

^m That supercilious Dialogue of yours, very reverend Father, 
^pvritten in the tisual style of an Italian and a Thomist. has 
reached me. You boast tn it that you, an old man. done with 
fighting, are impelled anew by my words to the combat, but 
nc^crtlicless, you say you will get the victory over mc in the 
imcqual contest, as Etitellus did over Dares,* but by this alone 
you show thai you arc vainglorious Dares rather than Entellus, 
because you boast before you are safe and ask for praise 
before victory.' Pray do what you can; the Lord's will be 
done. . . . 

Behold, reverend Father, I am sending your treatise back 
qoickly, because your refutation seems trifling: therefore. I 
have answered it ex tempore with whatever came uppermost 
in my mind. If, after that, you wish to hit back, be careful 
to bring your Aquinas better armed into the arena, lest per- 
chance you be not treated as gently again as you are in this 
encounter. I have forborne to render evil for evil. 
Farewell ! 


iMh^rs li'trke (Weimar), ii. 23. Roue, August 33, 1518. 

By Ihi« bfcve Xhv Pope iraiufer» jurisdiction in Luther's case in 
lOn ktm ud iIm Dialoffuc, tf, nfr«, ap. (8, and infr; no. 71. 


Cajetao. A copy of it was secured by the Elector Frederic's agetitt 
et AufftlniTs and lorward«! to Lutber, whom it reached «t Nufctn-j 
berg Uie in October, infra, no, 93. October 31. Luther incorporsttd | 
it in his ^cta ^ugujtana, und thu); it has reached poMcniy- 
Rankc and olhcrs h.nvc tluublcd its Kenuiiiencss, but on insuftcient' 
gmuiuls. CJ. Weimar, he. cit., p. 22, and Rtci4neycli>fädii, 3. n.j 
SadolctOt I 

Ciacomo de Vio. of Gicta (thenc« known at Cajetan and uiuallrl 
as Thomas, the name he ai^umcd on becominK « monk; Fcbruar^i 
20. 1.169-9 or 10 AuKuat, ISJ4). became a Dominican 11184. studied' 
8t Naples, Bologna and Padtia; 1500 called to Komc ai Procurator 
of his Order; 1507 began to teach at the University, and the nest 
year was elected General of his Order. He was aciive against the. 
schismatics at the Council ol Pisa 1511-3, Made Caidinal bj Leo»! 
July 1, 1517, and Bishop of Palermo tsiS. In December. 1517, h«' 
published a work on indulgences, which seems lo refer to I.uiher't' 
Theses {Zeitichrifi für Kinkengesckichte, xxxU.. »i). In 1518 Iwi 
was sent as legate to the Diet of Augsburg, and here saw Lather,^ 
tnfra, no. 85. In 1519 he was made Dishop of Cacia, and in im- 
le^le to HuniiaT)-. t-'rom 1524. to llic sack of Rome. If37. he lived 
in that city as councUlor of Clement Vll, and again from I5JO-4.' 
Life, by A. Cossio (1002). RcalensychfäJU. Lauchen, of. eil., i^ff; 
ZtiUchrifl für Kircktngrickutttt, jueiii. ZifiSl. 

Beloved Son, greeting and the apostolic blessing! AEler 
it had come to our ears that a certain Martin Luther, repro- 
bate Augustinian, hau asserted some heresies and soitic things 
different from those held by the Roman Churcli, and in a.ddi- 
tion to this, of his own ra>hneäs and obstinacy, forgetting 
the duty of obedience and not consulting the mistress of the 
faith, the Roman Church, had dared to publish some slander-^ 
ous books in divers parts of Germany, wc, dcsiroua of 
paternally correcting his rashness, ordered our venerabl» 
brother Jerome,* Bishop of Ascoli, General Auditor of th« 
Curia, to cite the said Martin to appear jwr.sonally before 
him to be examined under certain penalties and to answer for 
bis faith. The said Auditor Jcronic, as we have heard, issued 
this citation to the said Martin. 

But recently it lias come to our notice that the said Nfartin, 
abusing our clemency and become bolder thereby, adding 

*Jer*aie Ctitnuc«!. of Siini, tttrwrf ol JuTIiu 11.. br wbecn b« «ru maid* 
Bbhop ot Ak«I> Bf 1^0 X. be wM oiitdc AvJitoT, (. I., Suprrafl Jvhkc o( tkt 
Ptpat Curia, and urM >l oac tint u nuacin to KnftsniJ. In ijjS be ■>■■ «»•]* 
ear^axt, UtA dJcd J«lr J, IJtI. Ditt^Mtrt* Jt Ermäinone {Vcaiec, lAff), /. p. 


evil to cvU ami obstinately persisting in his heresy, has pub- 
lished some other propositions and slanderous books, contain- 
ing other heresies and errors. This disturbed our muid 
not a Utile Wherefore, agreeably to our pastoral duty, desir- 

Iing to prevent such a pest from growing strong and infecting 
the minds of tlie simple, we, by these presents, direct you 
(in whose circumspection wc conRde much in the Lord, on 
account of your singular learning, your experience and your 
sincere devotion to this holy see of which you arc an honor- 
able member) not to delay on receipt of this letter, but, since 
the affair has become nuturious and inexcusable and has lasted 
lonp, to force and compel the said Alanin, now declared to 
be a heretic by (he said auditor, to appear personally before 

I you. To accomplish this, call on the assistance of our most 
beloved son in Christ, Maximilian. Emperor Elect of the 
Romans, and of the other German princes, cities, corpora- 
tioas and powers, both ecclesiastical and secular; and when 
you have Martin in your power, keep him under a safe guard 
until you hear further from us, as shall he determined by us 
^^and the apostolic see. 

H If he shall cnme to you of his own accord, craving pardon 
Bfor his rashness, and showing signs of hearty repentance, we 
■give you power of kindly receiving hini inlo the communion 
of holy mother Cliurch, who never closes her bosom to him 
who returns. But if, indeed, persevering in his contumacy, 
and despising the secular arm, he will not come into your 
povrer, then in like manner we give you power of declaring 
in a public edict like those which were formerly written on 
the praetor's bill-board.' to be posted in all parts of Gemiaiiy, 
thai he and his adherents and followers are heretics, excom- 
municated, anathematized and cursed, and are to be avoided 
_by all the faithful as such. And in order that this plague 
^■nay be the more quickly and easily exterminated, you may 
^pdmonish and require, by our authority and under pain of 
^Lxcommunication and other penalties mentioned below, all and 
^pingiUar prebtes and other ecclesiastical persons, as well sec- 

Tb« AlbiHn ptacloriam -wm the ptuc «htrc ihc pnelor uied tg puUUh bh 
edict«. Duuiife, (. v. Tfat phiaa« tiioplT iiic>.na, ifacrcfort, notitM I« be p«it«d 



Lei. 73 

ular as regular of all orders, including the mendicants, and 
all dukes, marquises, counts, barons, cities, corporations and 
magistrates (except the aforesaid Maximilian Emperor Elect) 
that, as they, desire to be considered Christians, they should 
seize all his adherents and followers and give them into your 

And if (which we deprecate and cannot believe) the said 
princes, cities, corporations and magistrates, or any of them, 
should receive Martin or his adherents and followers in any 
way, or should give the said Martin aid, counsel or favor, 
openly or secretly, directly or indirectly, for any cause what- 
ever, we subject the dties, towns and domains of these princes, 
communities, corporations and magistrates to the interdict' 
as well as all the cities, towns and places to which the said 
Martin may happen to come, as long as he remains there and 
for three days afterwards. And we also command all and 
singular princes, cities, corporations and magistrates aforesaid, 
to obey all your requisitions and commands, witliout excep- 
tion, contradiction or reply, and that they abstain from giving 
counsel, aid, favor and comfort to the aforesaid. The penalty 
of disobedience, in addition to that mentioned above, shall be 
for the clergy deprivation of their churches, monasteries and 
feudal benefices forever, and for laymen, except the aforesaid 
Emperor, the penalties of infamy, inability to do any legitimate 
act, deprivation of religious burial and forfeiture of tlie ficfs 
held from us or from the apostolic sec. together witli what- 
ever secular paialties may be hereby incurred. And by these 
presents we give you power of rewarding the obedient with 
a plenary indulgence or grace according to your judgment, 
notwithstanding previous privileges granted and confirmed by 
the apostolic authority to churches, monasteries and persons, 
even if it be expressly provided therein tliat ihey cannot be 
excommunicated. . . . 

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under the fisherman's ring, 
in the sixth year of our pontificate. 

J. Sadoletus." 

'I. t.. rioblbitloa of all rrlieJoui riKi eu«pt bipiiim ind Mtrcmr uncilon. 
Tili« tbfcat. linitü (birlly at Ifac ClKtnr Ficilcflc, «u not carrjeil ODI for politiciJ 

i|>copo Sadotcto, i47T-*SVi *■* ■ walltrBliwd ihialaitui, cnplored m ptfi»! 


LmlM^ Ofera varii orgtimeHti (Erlangen, 1865), Ü. 353; 

RoMK, Anfruil 33, 1516. 
BcIov«(] Son, greeting and ihe apostolic blessing! ... It 
has come to our ears from all quarters that a certain son of 
iniquity, Friar Martin Luther, of the German Congregation 
of Augustinian Hermit*:, forgetting his doth and profusion, 
which consists in humility ami obedience, sinfully vaimts him- 
self in the Church of God. and, as though relying on your 
protection, fears the authority or rebuke of no one. Although 
«re know tbis is false, yet we thought good to write to your 
Lordship, exhorting you in the Lord, that for the name and 
fame of a good Catholic Prince such as you are, you should 
retain Ihe splendor of your glory and race unsoiled by these 
calumnies. Not only that we wish you to avoid doing wrong, 

I as you do, for as yet we judge that you have done none, but 
ire desire yo\i to escape tlie suspicion of doing wrong, in 
which Luther's rashness would involve you. 
' As we are certain from the report of most learned and 
religious men, and especially of our beloved son, tlie Master 
of our Sacred Palace, that Luther has dared to assert and 
publicly to affirm many impious and heretical things, we have 
ordered htm to he summoned to make answer, and we have 
cbarged our belovwl son. Cardinal Cijelan, Legate of the Holy 
See. a. man versed in all theology and philosopliy, to do with 
Luther as seems best. 

As this affair concerns the purity of the faith of God and 
the Catholic Qiurch, and as it is the proper office of the Apos- 
tolic Sec, the mistress of faith, to take cognizance who think 
rightly and who wrongly, we again exhort your Lordship, for 
tbe sake of God's honor and ours and your own, please to 

■MMtUT on aKoufil of bia rl«cant Latinity. He «nu bofn la Moilen*. aludJed 

M K^mra. woil lo Rame tiat, wbere be look ordan uid «nltrtd tb« Mrric« 

ef Cardinil Olivipro CarilF*. Leo X, iiniDpJisitIr on hia acctuiDii to tbe 

papal ibrane named Sadolelo and Bemba lecrruflet of brcrn. lie «m 

■ litl Biibap of C>tprni(iu iji;. «here be litnl ilurtnc Ihe pomiScaie of 

A4rlaa VI.. *n4 Uitia after ibr xtx\ of Rome. lin. In ij.iA be «u mide cir- 

tfnal Mid nexber of ibc C'ocnnluioii for Reform ifitHiintrd ti7 riiil III. He 

coMrin un the Bible aniJ otber works, tncludini »ome afiinit Lutbci. 

Laocbelt: DU Jltlumtilitn Ctvtr Luihfrt, jSjfl. I haec aoi Ken: S. 

[7a «NMHUM titlvfi, /'Mdfw Stdeirit, Roma, 1911. 



Let 73 

give help that tliis Martin I.uther may be delivered into the 
power and judgment of the Holy See, as the said l^ate will 
request of you. . . . 

Given at St. Peter's, under the fisherman's ring, in the sixth 
year of our pontificate. y 

James Sadoi-etus. 


Zeitschrift für KircheHgeschickte, ii. 4761 

CoBi (near Rome), Angusl 35, 1518. 

Gabriel della Volta of Venice (Veneius) was nomiruled General 
0! th« Augusttnians by L«o X, at the beginning of 1518. He at üfil 
declined, but was pcr>ti3<Icil by a IcKrr of Ecbruaty 3. i^xti (P. Brmbi 
Efiflolarunt Itbri, xvi. Lugduni. [538, no. 18), chiefly b«aute Leo 
thouifhi liini ihc bc.n in.iii lo ileal witli Lutlicr. In this tetter the 
Pope beagcd liim to "quiet ih« man, for newly kindled flames are 
easily qucni:hcd, but a. ercät tire ti hard to put out." Accordingly, at 
the General CliariLT u Venice, in June, I5ir). Gabriel was elected 
General. He had already cndeavorcd to get Staupilz to deal with 
Lmhcr (Smith, p. 46} and failing in this turned 10 Hcckcr. Koldc: 
^lugustiii^T-Conffrfgation, index. 

Hcckcr, since 1480 Auguslinian at Lippitadt, lecturer at Bologna. 
1488. In IS03 he c.ime to Erfurl. where he was Luther's teacher. 
He was thrice Provincial of Thuringia and Saxony. In Ijai be 
came out for the Reformation, going to Osnabrück, where he lived 
untU his death, in 1536. Kolde, tac. cit., 474; Enden, vii. 8j. 

You can hardly estimate into what a mass of evils a certain 
Brother Martin Luther of our order and of the Congregation' 
of the Vicar, has brought us and our profession.* Thinking 
himself wise, he has become the most foolish of all who were 
ever in our order. We had prcvioii-sly heard from the Rev- 
erend Auditor* of the Apo.stolic Chamber, and as has now 
tjccn communicated to us by our Supreme Lord [..eo X.. Lutlier 
has come to such a degree not only of noxiousness, but also 
of most damnable heresy, that he has not feared to lecture 
and dispute openly against the Holy Roman Church and the 

■T&c GMRian AutiatinUni were divided Into two bodin, tlie Canrrraaiioa of 
ObtcfTUU. of vbkh Stmpiu *m Ticar, acd ib< Coortntaab, under tinker. 
'"Ktlicj?" in ibc uiual nsnMtic Moat. 
■Jcfomr (jhinucci. 

Lei. 75 



Supreme ^^ost Blessed Pontiff, and publicly to preach liis 

false doctrine and many other propositions suitable not to a 

monk and a Christian as he h. bm to a schismatic heretic and 

to one whose name, perhaps, has been erased from the book 

of life. Xow we have warned iliis rebel lo his profession and 

this enemy of the cross of Christ to desist from his cursed 

doings, and we have cited liira to Rome, either to correct or 

to show reason for all that he lias said against Our Supreme 

Lord' and the Holy Roman Clmrch. But as he was blind 

enough in bis heresy to dare to lift up his face against heaven, 

L^nd to rage and rebel against Our Supreme Lord, thus he did 

^^■Dt fear lo show his rebellious contumacy against ]ü^ vow 

^Bnd us. Now his iniquity has multiplied and his sin has grown 

^^o such a degree that by the command of the Supreme I'ontiff 

^^Our Lord, we ought to apply opportune remedies to this conta- 

^kous pestilence, and. lest he should infect and ruin others, to 

^^rocced against him as a rebel to his vow and a heretic towards 

the Holy Roman Church. And as we cannot be everj'where, 

[ we rely on your wcU-tried virtue, moderation and probity. 

Therefore we command you under pain of losing all your 

promolions. dignities and offices, when you receive this letter, 

to proceed to capture the said Brother Martin Luther, have 

him bound in chains, fetters and handcuffs, and detained imder 

strict guard in prison at the instance of our Supreme Lord 

Leo X. And as he belongs to that Congregation which thinks 

itself free from your" government, that he may have no way of 

escape, we give you in lliis matter all our authority, and we 

inform you that our Supreme Lord, the Pope, has delegated 

lo you plenary apostolic authority to imprison, bind and detain 

this man. notwithstanding anything done to the contrary, all 

, of which, in as far as concerns this business, his Holiness 

expressly waives. Furthermore, he grants you power of putting 

^the interdict on all places, and of excommunicating all persons 

^■ry the apostolic auüiority, as you will see further in the 

^n>ostolic breve, and of doing all things which seem to you 

^fttcdful for imprieoning this scoundrel; all of this in the name 

^^P ■Um«l dMifuii«!! «f ibc Pope. 

of t^ CciKral. but Ütty lUd rvfu« ol>«licD<c (>> iS« Caoipiiluali lieadtd bjr 




of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. 
We command all those under us, of whatever Prov-ince, Con- 
gregation, title, dignity or oilice,' to help and advise you ia 
this matter, and not only Uiis, but on their duty of obedience 
and und«r pain of excommunicaiion, for which, tlioutfh 
unwillingly, in this letter we give such persons the triple warn* 
ing commanded by the Canon Law, that they should obey and 
serve you as they would ourseif. Know that in this matter 
you will not only do a great favor to us and to our profession, 
hut will also put under a great obligation our Supreme Lord 
Leo X., who of his own accord offers to pay you amply for it. 
Know also that if you accomplish tiiis, no one in the order 
will in future be dearer to us than yOu; by this one service 
you will win for yourself more benefits, honors and dignities 
than you could in all the rest of your life. Proceed, therefore; 
look to God, the iiispirer of holy works, that men may recog- 
nize in you a man who^e mind and heart are lit to do great 
deeds. The whole order will praise you for this, and we 
shall always be in your debt. Hereafter, our profession will 
always consider you as the renewer of the honor of our order 
and the zealous supporter of the Holy Roman Church. The 
thing is too important to admit delay; tlicrefore we command 
you to spare no labor, to refuse no expense to get this heretic 
into (he hands of the Supreme Pontiff. We also command 
you to write to us as often and as fully and as quickly as 
possible, whenever you have any news in this business. You 
will be paid to the uttermost farthing. Farewell. 


Endcn, i. aiS. Wittekbim, August 38, 151a 

This iMter. dated "sabbatho octavae Assumplionis D. Mariac," or 
"Saturday week after the Assumption of Mary" (Auffu&l 15). is put 
by Enders on AugHSl 21. The wortling is douljlful, but the letter 
seems, ttom other reasons, to have been writlen a week later, i t., 
Aupiat 28. Cf. Zeitschrift für KirekengtJthieku, xvü. 167, note a, 
and Luthers VVtrkt, ett, Oetnen. i, 15. 

Greeting. The messenger I sent to the Ulustrious Elector 

■Tbia wu Intcndrd paniciilaTlr >vr Suupili. wbo •]mp«ibU«<] «ritli Lullwr, 
and bad fallrd lu makr bim Trcant ■! the Gm'rtal Cbuptcr beld al ticlildbcff In 
Bfijr, alihouill be had been tniiltuclcd In do «a bl Volu. 



Frederic has not rcturncii, therefore I am still waJting to 
know what the Lord will do in my caus« through you. But I 
have heard that the Vcr)- Reverend Cardinal Cajetan has 
been particularly commanded by the Pope to do everything 
possible to alienate the minds of the Emperor and princes 
from me. So much dues conscience make such popes cowards, 
or rather so intolerable is the power of truth to worlu which 

e done in darkness ! 

But as you know, Spalatiii, I fear nothing. For even if 
their sycophancy and jrawer should succeed in making me 
hateful unto all. yet my heart and conscience would tell me 
that all things which I tjavc and which they attack, I liave from 
God, to whom willingly and of my own accord I refer them 
and to whom I offer them. If he takes Uiem away, !cl them 
be taken away, if he preserves them, let them be preserved, 
and may bis name be holy and blessed forever. Amen. 

I do not see in what way I can escape all their censures 
unless the elector helps me. On the other hand. I would 
much prefer to be always under their censures tlian to make 
the elector incur o<lium for my sake. Thcrcfiirc, as I formerly 
offered myself, believe that I am still ready to be offered up, 
and convince of this any other whom you may think fit. I 
will never be a heretic; I may err in debate, but I wish to 
decide nothing. Yet 1 would not be captive to the doctrines 
of men. . . . 

I send my Resolutions, very badly printed on account of my 
rather long absence.' Pricrias' Diaiogue' with my answer are 
bang printed at Lcipsic. . . . 

Brother Martin Eleutherius, ytugustinian. 

Eaders. i. aaz (Wittekkrc). September i. ijift 

Greeting. Doubt not, reverend Father, that in future 1 
»hall be free in examining and treating the Word of God. 
For neither does that citation to Rome, nor do their threats 

■Lsclicf bwl K«cnltr betn la Dre*d«n, on wbUh. (f. infra, no, iij, bavItlK 
prcacbcd tkcre on Jutjr a, Sui lie it btrc prubalilr rtfcrring to bU trip to 
Bctildbcrf, Apr!t ii-U>r ■;- 

*I.t(t)>«r hiiDHlt printed I'ricriju' Dialegut, wilb bu mniiret. RcpTinled Wctmkr, 

i^^, Cf. n^tt. DM. W. 7'- 

^K >14. t- 


move me ; you know that I suffer things infinitely worse,' which 
would make me consider these teunjoral and passing' thunder- 
bolls trifles, were it not that I sincerely desire to cherish the 
power of tlie Church. If I am excommunicated by men my 
only fear is of offending you, whusc judgment In these matters 
I think is right, faithful and given with God's author!^. . . , 
My opponents strive, 1 sec, to prevent Christ's kingdom of 
truth coming, and do all in their power to prevent truth being 
heard and preached in their own kingdom. I desire to be a 
part of this kingdom, at least with a veracious tongue and a 
pure heart confessing the irutli, even if toy life does not 
correspond. And 1 leam that the people are sighing for the 
voice of their shepherd Christ, and that the youth hums with 
great zeal towards the Holy Scriptures. . . . 

Hrotmer Maktin Luther. 

Endcr^ I 226. Basle. Scpictnbcr 4. 15181 

Greeting. Your last kind letter" I answered from Sirass- 
biirg. telling you of Erasmu';' opinion of you, that is, how 
honorably and frankly he admires your Theses' Since then ! 
have seen your Sermon on Penitence and that on Indulgences 
and Grace, each of which declares open war against the cus- 
toms of this age. I was seized with anxiety for the safety of 
my friend, who cxijoses a naked side to dense throngs of 
enemies, though, indeed, he seems well armed with the weapons 
of truth. But 1 much fear that you will be attacked by far 
different weapons, and that there is danger lest force be 
resorted to. Wherefore, if you wit! give ear to a f.iiihful 
counsellor, 1 xvam you, as one who knows, that you will play 
the part of Sertorius.* Believe me, you will accomplish more 
obliquely than by a direct assault in full force. You see they 
occupy a fortress defended at all points. They sleep, as it 
were, on their arms, sheltered beliind a triple rampart, the 
authority of the Pope, that is, of the universal Church, the 

>Lalhpr ref<r* t« tU ■iiiritua] InniiUIJot». 

*Ct. taprt, no. 40- 

Kt. infta. no. »t- 

«Sertorius wu ■ Spknlifc rebel wbo p»inl>ined him »til for ■ tioie. Iiul «u 



power of kings, and the obstinate agreement of the uni- 
versities. Forsooth you will hardly ever easily break this thick 
and triple cord of the cacoUemon. There is need of an Alex- 
andier, to cut it, like the Gordian knot, with hi& sword; to 
loose it by genius or reason is hard. Simple but pious men 
stand at the beck and call of ihc fictitious Cliurch. The wiser 
heads fear her tyranny. And especially wc theologians, who 
sell the greatest of all things, the holy knowledge of Christ. 
give lip Chris: for our pride, and, inveighing against all the 
stains on religion, under the prctcKt of piety take care to lose 
nothing by it. Wherefore, lest your splendid attempt should 
turn out vain, I pray you use a little artifice, by which you may 
fix your hook in the reader before he suspects that a hook has 
l>een baited for him. 

Thus tlie apostles urged nothing suddenly, nothing openly, 
but always preserved decorum and courtesy. Witli what 
strategy docs Paul ajiproach in the Epistle to the Romans ! 
What does he not do to keep their favor? lie simulates 
one thing and dissimulates another, he winds in and out, he 
displays his rich burden from afar, again lie conceals it, in 
short, he weighs his words so that he may never arouse 
hatred or disgust. 

The Acts of the Apostles arc fui! of examples of his method. 
Thus in a tumult St. Paul answers like a turncoat: he does 
not say, "I do not speak against the law," but "Of the resur- 
rection I am called in question."' thus with wunderfid pru- 
dence diverting attention from the observance of the law. Thus 
great things arc safely accomplished by oblique methods. 
Thus I wish that you might always keep some window open 
b>' which you might escape when you arc harassed in debate. 

Recently I received Prierias' foolish pamphlet against your 
Theses. If you answer him I hope it will be prudently and 
according to the true example of Oirist in the gospel. Speak 
expressly of religion in its inception and growth, of the cus- 
toms of tlie ancients, the reason of old error, and tlic various 

crees of the jropcs and councils, m) that your argument 
lin credence as though drawn from ihc fountain of tnith. 
fou can more frequently discredit single abuses by ridicule 


than by attacking them seriously. Carefully abstain from 
abusing the Pope, but rather give all the blame to I'rierias, 
as an impudent flatterer who only for the sake of his bell/ 
places ati unworthy burden on tlie poniiücal dignity. . . . 

But behold how my friendship has made nie forget myself 
in telling you what to do. Pray forgive my solicitude. You 
have more than one cliampion, Carlstadt, Spalaiin, Egranus 
and Mclanchthon, a wonderful aggregation of genius. If 
you rely on their counsels, you will never publish anything 
weak or ridiculous. . . ■ 

Erasmus greatly approves of Egranus' book,' with its nerv- 
ous, rapid and clear argument. Ke wished that it might be 
republished at Basle,' although he would have been angry had 
it been printed here first. John Eck has written against Carl- 
stadl. Do what you can you will not debate before an impar- 
tial tribunal, but at con.'iider us safe. I am wrtiing a 
free answer to Eck. in a private letter. . . . Farewell. 

Yours, whom vou know. 


R. Brown: Calendar of Slate Pafen , . . in . . . I'tntef. London, 

1B69, ii. 1069. RoMK, September 4, 1518, 

Minio was the agent o( the Venetian Government M Rome, 1518-9. 
His letter, as given by me aft« Mr. Brown, i* abbreviated. 

To-day in the consistory the Pope announced his intention 
of sending the Rose' to the Elector of Saxony, as that prince 
was a good Christian and one of the chief princes of Germany. 
The Pope did this to try, through the medium of the Elector 
of Saxony, to allay the heresy, as they style it, of a certain 
Dominican ( f] friar, who was preaching in tliose parts against 
the apostolic see, condemning the forms observed by the 
Church of Rome, alleging moreover that the indulgences daily 
conceded were of no value, and many other doctrines. 

■HU Ate-lagttitm KtrfBtuia, for which Luther wrote i preface. Cf. Endvn, i. 
tSin Wdmu, i. ]t6. 

i\* vM ilonr, Kndrrt, iHa. 

(The •noinird saldea riM«. * mucb priird tokni tent hj th< Pop« I« (uiUul 
princr* Cf. Smith. «/. r«, S«. RodocaitMhi: Kamr «> Iraafj d* Imltt II. n 4t 
Uot X„ p. xm(. 

C. St 




Dder», i. 334. 
Possess yoi 

Saubukc, Sfptembef t^ 1518. 

for sah 

I have enough 


r soul in patience 
to write to fill a book, but will express myself bricflj". It 
seems to mc that the world is exasperated against truth ; with 
so great hatred was Christ once crucified, and to-day I see 
nothing wailing for you but the cross. Unless I mistake, the 
opinion prevails that no one should examine the Scripture 
without leave of the Pope in order to find for himself, which 
Christ certainly commands us to do. You have few defenders, 
and would that they were not hiding for fear of enemies. I 
should like you to leave Wittenberg and come to me, that we 
ciay live and die together. This would also please the arch- 
shop.* Here I finish. It is expedient thus to be, that 
abandoned wc may follow abandoned Christ. Farewell, and 

good journey to you. 

Your brother, 

John Staupitz. 

Eadcr«, L 3J& (Wittsnber«;), September 16, ijiS. 

. . . The most learned and perfect Grecian Philip Melanch- 

^^tion' is teaching Greek here. He is'a mere boy in years, hut 

^^ne of us in various knowledge, including that of almost all 

' hooks. He is not only master of Greek and Latin, but of all 

the learning to which they arc the keys, and he also knows 

some Hebrew. 

The most illustrious elector has written me that he has 
brought it about that the Legate Cajctan has written to Rome 
to ask that my case be referred to a German tribunal' and that 
I may expect that it will he. So 1 hope that ] will not be 
censured. But I displease many, most, almost all. . . . 

■Matth«« IJtitl (t4t8-i540). of AuKi'I'im. «b« bad becone a truiled cauncfllor 
of HioiMiliMu b*e«ma Bishop of Giirk it»!. CaMinil ijir, Coadiittor of Silihurx 
tiM and AnkbtalMp of th»( »et is>0. Biiliop of Atbin« tsjs- He wm a mrm 
trtaai of Snupiti. To bit tudgmrnt it «ru 11 one tim< propoxed la ttftt ttie 
Lstbcran aSair. Smtih. tf. cti.. pi>. S5. 107. He w». bawerir. t1war> a bitter 
■lip« »I II r «f the Rcfuimailan. ivrtecutlnii lu >fl)i«rrnt-i, Includinc Eraimiu, and 
AMiaciriabioc himMtf hy bi* cructir in aupprcMinn xht Pcuanli' ScTult »t iWS- 
ftrflard Baai FranMi* ft'ar. p. la.-ff. In gtnoal Rtaitmt'tihpHit. 

•On ki* »c« kit«r no St. 

*CJ. tmfr«, ao, }4, and in/r«, no. Sj. 



L<t tu 

Zeitschrift des hislorischfn Vereins für Schwaben und Nritburg. iSgi}, 
Vol. xjc. p. 219. AuiiSBUkti, September 21, 1518. 

Bild was born at Höchstädt 14S1, studied at IngoUudt, came to 
Augsburg lyxK where he took a posiiion as parish clerk at St. Ulrick 
In 150J in consequence of a teveie iUne&s he became s monk «t tint 
convent. He died in tlie last halt oi 1529. A sketch of his life and 
some of his ktierg, 0/. (il. supra, i^^CT. In 1518 Bernard Atlelmann 
gave Bild some of Luther's works. At the Diet of Augsburg in the 
same year, he had an interview with Spalatin on the subject ol 
Luther. When the Wittenberger came to Augsburg in October, 
however, Bild did not go to sec him. 

Reverend Father in Clirist [1 wish yoti] Jesus the protector 
of the just.* A few day& ago I received the theses inscribed 
with your name, and have nuw been able to acquire a fuller 
knowledge of the author. For it happened that ihat noble man. 
George Spalatin. who is not only imbued with the rudiments 
of all sciences, but is decked with a garland of all the virtues, 
and is a dear and faithful friend of yours, having some busi- 
ness with me on behalf of his elector,^ told me during the 
conversation, at my request, what he could of your worth, 
person and piety. As he knew my favorable opinion of your 
Reverence, he talked freely about you; indeed, you were th« 
alpha and omega of hi? discourse. Also the Reverend Father 
Prior of the Convent of RamBau,*once your disciple as he said, 
fairly made me dance with joy,' by instnicting me more fully 
about your exemplarj' life (I speak without base adulation) 
and thus he so inflamed my mind that I ani no less bound to 
your Reverence ihan was Jonathan to his faithful David. 
Our common friend George Spalatin will more clearly reveal 
to you what I think of your Reverence's doctrines, learning, 
instruction and defence. Wherefore, reverend Father, I 
humbly beg and deser\"e pardon of you for wishing to approach 
your Reverence with my inelegantly written letter. For 1 
was assured of your mercy not only hy words, but because 1 

*Ilutea<l it Ute uiual «tcdins^ "Salulem." mraniiiK: "TI wiili to«) bnllh." 

Tbii w» to etdar iwclira tundiaU frnim Bild, wba wni an «upcrl (o maUnc 

■Bfiitia Clucr. on w)i«m, ef. tm/r», no. 154. lit bad tieta introdaccd I« BiUI 
bf Sfalutn in a lMt*r dil«! St-rtemfctr 1. 

*"Aceadi«Uvit fsudiU iripudu"; one mi7 iiMptcr 1 corrupt wxl. 

Let. 92 




was not ignorant tliat you constantly, by good deeds, preached 
the kingdom of God and salvation of souls. Wherefore I 
decided, relying on the offices of a friend, to send you this 
note m order that (tliough I astc it foolishly) I may be 
inscribed in the register of your friends, even as the least of 
them, so that aided by your prayers before God Almighty I 
may rejoice to have meritc<l the kind friendshi]) of such a 
man. Farewell, and be commende<l to God and to all the 

Guy Bild of Höchst aot. 


Corfiu Rtiormatorum, I 48. Wittenderc, September 24, 1518. 

Philip Mebocblbon (SchwaiUerd) <)4Q;-I56o}. Luther's ablest 

licntcnanl, ■ gmtd-ncphcw of Kcuchlin, bom at Itrctten near Pfori- 

hcim. He malrirutntci) <it Heidelberg 1500, anil viai B,A. in 1511. 

Thence he wert to Tubingea, where he took hi» M.A. in 1514. By 1516 

bad already sltractcd the aiicntton oE Brasmus, and at the rccoio* 

mdation of Kcuchlin was called in 1518 10 VVittcnticrg. His iiiaiiKU- 
ral Bttdrcss, De coriigtndis jl-diis, was wannly received. From this 
ttine on he became Luther's uarmesl friend and chief aid. After 
Lather's death his position approached more nearly the Catholic than 

Pany Protestants liked, and he thus caused a schism in the cvansclic 
lid. Live« of him by G. Ellitiger and in Rfoiettcyclopmiit, and in 
rigliih by Richard (1Ö98). His works in Ctfrfuj Kcftfrnoiorum, vols. 
2S. to which several supplements have been added. 
... 1 have begun to teach Greek and Mcbrew to the Saxons. 
which undertaking I hope God will favor. I have also dctcr- 
mined to publish a$ soon as possible some sacred writings 
of the Greeks, Hebrews and Romans with commentaries. 
Wherefore I pray you either for the love of these studies, 
or for the honor of the Etecior Frederic or of our uni- 
versity to order at my expense, from the booksellers of 
Coburg, a Greek Bible, for we have the Hebrew Bible extremely 
well printed here. You will understanrl how much thi.'i will 
redound to the credit of the elector, the university and your 
own name, and I would be the first to declare it, did you not 
already have a witness in Luther, that honored, good and 
learned leader of true Christian piety. . . , 



Enders, i. 23^ Early morning, Avcssui«, October lo» 151$. 

Greeting. Dear Spalaiin. I arrived at Augsburg' on Octo- 
ber 7. I arrived tired, for having contracted &ome grave 
stomach trouble, 1 almost fainted by the wayside, but I have 
recovered. This is the third day since I arrivctl, nor have [ 
yet seen the very reverend lord legate, though on the very 
first day I sent Dr. Wenzel Link and anotltcr to announce mc 
Meantime a sale-conduct is being secured for mc by my 
friend» from the imjwrial councillors. They are all very 
cordial to me for the sake of the illustrious elector. But 
although the ver>- reverend cardinal I^ate himself promises 
to treat me with all clemency, ycl my friends will not allow 
me to rely on his word alone, so prudent and careful are 
they. For they know tl»at he is inwardly enraged at me. no 
matter what he may outwardly pretend, and I myself clearly 
learned this elsewhere. 

But to-day, at any rate, I shall approach him, and seek to 
see him and to have my tirst inter\iew, though whether it will 
so turn out 1 do not know. Some tliink my cause will lie 
affected by the absence of the Cardinal of Gurk,* some say 
tlie same of tlie absence of the Emperor, who is not far away, 
but is daily expected to return. The Bishop of Augsbiiig* is 
also absent from the city. Yesterday. I dined with Oinrad 
Peutingcr,* a doctor (of law], a citizen and a man, as you 
know well, extremely zealous in my cause ; nor are the other 
councillors behind. 1 know not whether the most reverend 
Ic^tc fears me or whether he is preparing some treachery. 

Yesterday he sent to me the ambassador of Moniferrat," 

it^thcr*« Miatman* (o Rom« w*« rJii««nl in onr tn appext il Auetliurg bcfor« 
r*fdin4] Cajttan TliU wu In aetordmrt v<ih hji own wliibci. and miih tbr 
poK<^r of C>l*tin Smilh. of. eil,, ti-n. lupra. noi. 76 «id gi. 

■Cbriiiopkrr «on Su4ian (BUhot» iii7-4]). lain a rr««t ftkni) of FraHnai. 

•PmlinrM tnH-'i*7l- of Auiabrurt. tluditd in lialr, in t447. wu appolaird 
IMm deTk of hi) n.iiivr citr. In ib« M-nricc of «bkh h« dlKliircFd taTiont 
«talon*, and wai mad« imperial councillor br Uaxiniitlan. Hit paaiion wa* ibc 
mnir of »liiiuitin, on «bltb he pradiiwil atfcrat w^rb. He va« a (rieod Pf 
ETMmua *nd of iht ttcformatlnn, AU^mrint DrHit<S* OitfrafKir. 

■VttaJi ila Srrraloaia, who had bctn »tnl w waJor at lie <lt<t«r*a coarl frv« 
Counr WlllUm IX. of Hotiitcrrai. iitxiied hixMcir 10 Caj«» after WlUiaoi** 
tlcalh in 1117. On kU tnMfTkw «itb Lutber, Snilb, of. eil., 4X. 



w sound me on my position before the interview with liiniKlf. 
All think that ttie man came to me suborned and instructed 
by the legate, for he p!ead with me long, advancing arguments 
for sanity (a$ he called it), sa>'ing that I should simply agree 
with the legate, return to the Church, recant what I had said 
ilL He gave me the example of the Abbot Joachim of Flora' 
wbo, by acting as he [SerralongaJ advised me to do, deserved 
to be considered no heretic, altliough lie had uttered heresy. 
Then the suave gentleman dissuaded me from <lc fending mj 
opinions, asking if I wished to make it a tournament. In 
short, he is an Italian and an Italian he will remain. I said 
that if I could be shown that I had said anything contrary 
to the doclrine of the Holy Roman Church, J would soon be 
my own judge and recant. Our chief difficulty was that he 
cherished tlie opinions of Aquinas beyond what he can find 
authoritj- for in the decrees of the Church. I will not yield to 
him on this point until the Church repeals her former decree 
on which I rely. "Dear, dear," said he, "so you wish to have 
a tournament?" Then he went on to make some insane 
propositions, as. for example, he openly confessed that it was 

ight to preach lies, if the)- were profitable and filled the chest. 
;>le denied that the power of the Pope should be treated in 

icbate. but tiiat it should be so exalted that the Pope might by 
his sole authority abrogate cverytliing, including articles of 
faith, and especially that point we were now disputing on. 
He also made other propositions which I will tell you when I 
see you. But I dismissed this Sinon," who too openly showed 
his- Greek art, and he went away. Thus I hang between hope 
and fear, for this clumsy go-between did not give me the least 
confidence. . . . 

The very re\'erend Vicar John Staupitz writes that he will 
certainly come when he hears that I have arrived. . . . 

We know that the Pope has sent the Rose* to our most 
illustrious elector, a favor they give to great men with lively 

IJ^Mfcim «f Flora (i>«)-tinf) tlirttd >n »Khslaloe'''*' movement In Ilaly 
wfai<b oixl* a «nit commMioti vhtn hia vorbi vtn pnbllihed hr non« of hi« 
ioBiimm ilxrt tii) dnlk hiiIt ihr iiiitnt of "The Kicinal niiMifl'' (1154). 

*Tk« C^eti who pniuidircl th» Tfüjini !u atlruit the wauilcQ bone icto tbeit 
chf- Vircil. A*nnd, ii. ^u". 

■C/. »W. <M. 70- 


hope of reward, and that he promises him all good will. In 
short, the Roman Church, if 1 may sav so, is insatiable for 
gold, and increases her appetite by eating. Farewell fore\'er, 
and thank the elector for me and commend me to him. 


Eoders, i. 244. Aucsovkg, October it, 1518. 

. . . Play the man, as you do, and teach the youth the 
things that are right. If it please the Lord I am going to be 
I sacrificed for you and (or ttiein. I prefer to perish, and, 
what is my greatest sorrow, to lose your sweetest society for* 
ever rather than to recant what has been well said, and thus 
became the occasion for the ruin of tlic noblest studies. 

With these enemies of literature and of learning, men as 
foolisli as they are bitter, Italy Is cast into tlic palpable dark- 
ness of Egypt.* They arc completely ignorant of Christ and 
of the things which are Christ's, yet we have them as lord* 
and masters of our faith and morals. Thus is the wrath of 
God fulfilled against us. as he says:' "I will give children to be 
their princes and effeminate men shall rule over them." Fare- 
well, my Ptiilip, and avert the wrath of Gu<] with pure 
prayers. Brother Martin Lutiiek. 

Enders, i. 249. De Wctic, i. 159. German* 

Aucssusc, October 14, isiR. 
I wish you happiness and salvation, Honored Doctor. I 
must write briefly for time and business press me. At an- 
other time I will write you and other people more. For 
three days my affair has been in a hard case, so hard, in- 
deed, tiiat I had no hope of coming to you again and saw 
nothing aliead of me more certain tlian excommunication. 

t~reti«bru pilpabilo" ttam Eiodiu. a. ii. "Itficbrtc un dmuc n» palpAti 
<|U(aa(," in «ur «cr«ion, "dirknot nfeiclt aur t>« Mt." 1 bam kcrii Luifeer'* 
thnt* rMMttXf, u it >> (ocnd in Miltan, Far«iitt L»i*, sll. lU. 

Iwak, iU. 4, foUowios tlic Vulc>tc trsmlatlon. 

■Thi« l(ii«r «u oticinaRr «rlitcs io l.«rln. but only dc Gemiit traiuUiüii 
h^ snmnd. 




Fcrr all the while the legate would not allow me to debate 
y nor privately with him alone, meantime boasting that 

Äe nil] not be my judge, but will act as a father towards me 
in everything. None the less, he will hear nothing from me 
except, "I recant, I revoke, 1 confess that I erred," which 
I would not say. 

Onr chief difficulty was over two articles, i. That I said 
indulgence was not the treasury' of the merits of our Lord 
^nd Saviour Christ. 2. That a man going to the sacrament 
*>iust believe, etc* 

Agamst these propositions the Legate hrnught forward the 
decretal Uaiffenitus' relying on which he became extremely 
presumptuous as though 1 were wholly refuted and wished 
thereupon to force me to a recantation. He alleged for his 
side tlic common, though insane, opinion of the schoolmen on 
the power and effect of the sacrament, and also the uncer- 
tainly of the recipient of the sacrament." 

Since the legate wished to act by force alone, I have to- 
day, through the intercession of several persons, obtained 
permission to send in my answer in writing, in which the 
aforesaid decretal Vnigcnitus is dealt with and turned against 
the legate and his purpose, as I hope, by divine counsel. It 
shamed the legate, who let all else go and during my ab- 
sence desired to speak alone with the reverend father vicar 
Dr. Staupiti. When the vicar came to him he was right 
friendly. But we don't trust the Italian further than we can 
sec, for. perhaps, he is acting treacherously. 

But I have drawn up an appeal, as well drafted and 
grounded as possible, and suited to the occasion. It is also 
my intention, if the legate tries to use force against me, to 
publish my answer on the aforesaid two points, so that the 
«hole world may see his foolishness. For truly from his 

inton various senseless and heretical positions may be de- 


', t„ Lmktr ^uvntA that the «A<a«r «f tbe »iiCfinieni iru dtpcndent on ihc 
frilk of ibe reciptcnt, wfc«[«M At Callmlic doctrine iru thai h acted lutomaticallr, 
*^a «^r* ap«rata," 

■Caii«n Low, lib. j, lit. 9. up. 4. Repriat«d In B. J. BM: Dttmmtntt «/ IM 
C*«'ia*"'4f RtfortKtIiott. p. i. 

</. *,, Cai«lui »aid thai ««eoriling to Ltttli«'i «toettint ■ man wanld arrrr 
iBww •belb«r h* hill tcAtl«!)! iaiib mü Ibtrifo« wlitUi<r the u<rani<nt did 
Urn uiy fottd ar Bot. 




rived. Perchance he is a 6ne Thomisl, but a puzzle-headed, 
obscure, senseless theologian and Christian, as well fitted to 
deal with and judge this business as an ass to play the harp. 

Therefore my cause stands in so much the more danger, be- 
cause it has such judges who arc not only bitter enemies, but 
arc unable to understand it. But the Lord lives and rules 
here as elsewhere, to whom I commend myself and all mine, 
and I doubt not that some God-fearii^ people will help me 
with their prayers, {or it seems to me that prayer is said 
for me. 

But whether I come to you again safe and sound, or 
whether under the ban I go to another place, be brave and 
hold fast to Christ and exalt hun. 

Christopher Lai^enmantel* is so faithful to me that I am 
ashamed of his great care for me. 1 have the favor and 
support of all men except the crowd who hold with the 
cardinal, alihou^ the cardinal himself always calls me his 
dear son, and siid to Staupitz that I had no better friend 
than h«. Bot, as I said above, 1 think he does it for the 
sake of honor. I Icnow that I would be the most agreeable 
and dearest of all, if only I would say this one word: "Rev- 
oco," that is, "I recant." But I won't make myself a heretic 
by contradicting the opinion which made me a Christian. I 
will die first by fire, or be exiled and cursed. 

Be of good cheer, dear sir, and show this letter to our 
theologians, Amsdnrf, Mclanchthon, Otto Beckmann and the 
rest, so that you may all pray for mc as I do for you. For 
your business is being done here, namdy. the faith of Üw 
Lord Christ and the grace of God. 



ZtiUthrift für histvriselit Theologie. Leipstc. 1837. VII. Jüirgans. 
Heft II., p. laa. Gcrman. T. Koldc: Die Augustintr-Congrtgit- 
Hon, 443. Aocsbdk;, Octottcr 1$, 1518. 

Serene, highborn Prince, my most gracious Lord I , . . 
The legate from Rome acts as (alas!) tliey all do there: he 

'A cwae «1 FnWnf lad la Imptrl«! ConMlIlor. wfco k»d ettrictditpd u 
tninlMadt IJM^ 41 nWBfia it»6. Atmul is>a be bnMDc ircMitrcr of CudJn«! 
Umhcv Lmc. 

Let 87 




gives fair words, but all empty and vain. For his wliolc soul 
is intent on making Luther recant, not considering that Luther 
offers to $tay still and debate publicly at Augsburg, and to 
give an answer and reason for this debate; yes, for every 
word in it. But the unjust judge does not want him to de- 
bate, but to recant. Nevertheless, Dr. Luther has in writing 
so answered his fundamental argument, that the cardinal 
is straightened thcrehi, and no longer trusts his own argu- 
ment, but seeks here and there, tliis and that, how he may 
extirpate innocent blood and force recantation. God will 
be the just judge and protector of the truth. 

He says also that there is in the land a letter* of the Gen- 
eral against Luther. Dr. Pcutingcr has heard that it is ftlso 
against me, with the puq)o;e of throwing us in prison and 
using force against us. God be our guard! Finally I fear 
our professor must appeal and expect force. God help him! 
His enemies have become his Judges; and those who sue him 
give judgment against him. Hcrewilli 1 commend myself to 
your Grace and your Grace to the eternal God. I know 
nothing as yet certain to write. But if the alTair shall take 
a nwre favorable turn I will write in haste to your Grace. 

Your Grace's humble, obedient chaplain, 

Dr. John von Staupitz. 

Allen, iii. 406. Louvai.v, October i? (1516). 

Please believe, most candid of theologians, that if you van- 
quish me in writing letters, I at least do not yield to you in 
love. For Hess,' that man of alt accomplishments, stumbled 
upon me first ill and then very busy. I love Staupit?,' the 

*Smfr; m. Jj. 

■H«Uk* Eobuint Hruus <i4SR-0ct»b('r 4. tsto), ptoperly Kocb. niatrlculated ■) 
Effarl m ittit and Ihc n«ii( jttn publihli«! pucnx «n Ibe pUjuc anJ on ■ 
mmAnt brawl, of wbicii civractt ntr rrprinir«! hj Pr^At^rrrd Sanilb. &f, fd., 44'^' 
AllbsUfh * hard diinlifr. in ijt; ir bfcimc pTufcuur of Latin » Cifurt. Ldc 
tn ifit bi wmt to l^uvatn to m« Ei»aiu*. of wbicb br publitbd >n ■«ount in 
U> JJ. £e(*M Hetit a ftottehunt ad D. E'amnm haioifertcen . . . Erfurt, 1119, 
a tar« book, af which ■ eitfy i* at H»rr>rd. H« t«ok »itli faim ■«tit-ri from 
Laag and oibtn. one of wbich Erumm ii her« aniwerinit- In rsi6 tie went to 
•each 11 .Vuraatlieri. in 15]] tnurtwd lo Erfurt. *nd in 1J36 wai called fo lb« 
UninnilT of Uarbitrs. whnc he )p«at bii renatninc rear*. Ailotmrint dnttttkt 

Thi* U Eraamua' ftru «ItuMvn (a Slaupiii. Il ia pcatiblc thai he oicl bin at 



Let 88 

truly great, and for long I have despised tliose little syco- 
phants. What else should I do? Ought 1 give them an 
account of my conscience? It h äufHcicnt for me that 
all the most promlnenl and bc3t bishops like nie: if I 
saw any way of life which would please Christ belter I would 
forthwith adopt it. For love neither of fame nor of itioney 
nor of pleasure nor of life rules my mind, I will put your 
little gift among *»y treasures,^ and among tlic more precious 
ones. Egranus has learnedly answered concerning Cleopas.* 
I hear that Elcutherius is approved by all good men, but it 
is said that his writings are unequal. I think his Thest^ 
will please all. except a few about purgatory, which they 
don't wart taken from them, seeing that they make their 
living from i'/.' I have see» Prierias's bungling answer.* I 
see that the monarchy of Ihc Roman hiyk pricsf^ (as that see 
now is) is the plague of Christendom, though it is praised 
through thick and thin by shameless preacdcrs. Yet I hardly 
know whether it is expedient to touch this open sore, for 
that is the dut)' of princes. But I fear they conspire whb the 
pontiff for part of the spoils. I wonder what has come over 
Eck' to begin a battle against Elcutherius. But what, cursed 
love of fame, wilt thou not force mortal breasts to do?' I 
have inscribed my Suetonius to the illustrious elector' who 
sent me a medal. Farewell, excellent sir. and commend me 
to Christ in all your prayers. Erasmus of IIottesaam. 



Walch. XV. 733. German, Aumbukc, October 18. 1518 

Connd AJclmanii (i4fi2>t5j7), Mudird at Heidelberg 1475. Bisle 

Botasna in i, t>u( moic Ukclr tbu MulUn or »mae cumiaoa (dead had m\Ae 
tb«ra Kqnaroied ijncc Eraaintu' rdufn to Gcrtnaar in 1114. 

■The*c wordi In liallu ar« Cicck in lb« ericiaal. 

*On tbis, supra, no. 4s. 

MCrunit» Am ipoke of tbcm on Marcb s. ijift. Allan, iii, »n. 141. CI. nVra. 
no. 78. 

•GrMk. CI. Ai»gia. Iii. 4. ]i. 

I1 WW Knt hrf Liitbct to L«n« {Enden, t. «jC), aad hj bin prnanibly to- 
ll rum im. 


*0n lb« billlr of Pck «till Lulh<r, r-ft», do*, ti tad (1. 
•Virjil; Atnfiä. iii. )67. 
*Ct. An«a. cf. «<.. U. 57SR- 




t47^ Ferrar 147t >nd Tübingen 14;^, In 1503 he wu nudc Canon 
of Auitsbunt. He was at first tironsly for Luther, then relumeit lo 
tb« Cuholk Church. Hit brother lUrnhird (1457-1523) studied at 
Kciddberg, Fcrrara and Tubinseri. He wai made canon of the 
cathedrals at both Eicbstatt ajid Augtburg, tieiween which he divided 
his time. He was a bitter personal enemy of Eck, and sided with 
Lutber against him. 1-or thi& Eck had him excommutiicaied in i$jo. 
Btmhard submitted and was absolved, but »ill favored Lutber unlit 
hit death. Life by F. X. Thurnhafer. igoa 

My dear Spalatin ! Your letter was welcome to my 
brother and ni>'5c]f, as coming from a good fricn<l, but far 
more welcome to us was the opportunity of seeing and speak- 
ing to dear Dr. Ätartin Luther, so well endowed with both 
virtue and learning. We often visited him, as one we liearcily 
love, and showed him our good will. 

You will pardon me for raying tliat he was not well guarded 
when be left you, and was nui providc<l widi what he must 
needed. But among others the imperial councillors gave 
him safe-conduct, of which you should have thought first 
When he had obtained tiie safe-conduct he appeared with 
more courage and contidence before the legate. You will 
learn from Luther himself, when, please God, he arrives 
borne, what happened before the legate, so I won't bother 
you with it, for it would be a long song to sing here. But I 
will not conceal from you that Dr. Luther acquitted himself 
before the l^ate as beseems a Christian man. First he of- 
fered to lea*'e everything to our Holy Father the Pope, to 
support what pleased his Holiness and to root out what did 
not Secondly, he said iliat he had debated questions before 
the universities, according to their custom, and if they de- 
Mfcd he would debate further. And if any one came with 
good reasons and arguments from Scripture he would abandon 
bis opinion and embrace a better one. Further, that if the 
Christian Oiurch desired to take exception to a single saying 
of his he would at once submit to her. It was not his in- 
tention and never had been to write or say an^-thiitg against 
the holy see or against the honor or dignity of the Pope. 

If, dear Spalatin, this seems to you to be Luther's opinion, 
it will become you to use your influence with our most Gra- 
cious Lord Elector Frederic, to get him to write or send an 



embassy to his Holiness, requesting him to receive tliis sheep 
commended to him, gently and favorably according to the 
example of our Redeemer, and that he would let Luther ful- 
fill his offers. For Pope Leo, as I have heard from seven) 
people, is gentle and merciful when he is not influenced ly 
his courtiers; wherefore I think he might well take Dr. Mar- 
tin into favor again. . . 


Chrijiof'h Schtvrit Bntjhufh, hg. von F. von Soden und J. K. F. 
Knaakc Potsdam, 187;;, ii. 53. NukEMUKkc, Oclober 21, 151Ä. 

Hail, Spalatin. I excuse myself for not going on with our 
Luther* on account of my duties to the town council, and be* 
cause your instructions were doubtful on tliis point. You 
will learn from Luther's own letters what was done about 
him. The favor of all for him is wonderful. When he ap- 
plies to us wc will do all in our power to restore him safe 10 
Saxon soil, and will omit no service wc can do him. To-day 
Vicar Staupitz arrives, whom 1 consult, for yesterday Wen- 
zel Link returned. I will write you what wc may decide to 
do about Lutlier's affair after wc have taken counsel. In 
the meantime, at your order in the presence and with the 
consent of John Bossenstain,' the Augustinian prior, 1 paid 
Luther four gold gulden; lest it should embarrass him, I took 
care to have some coins struck wilh the image of the elector. 
Farewell, and with your holy fame pray for me and lake 
care of my son, John Tuchcr.* Again, farewell. 

C. S., Dr. 


F. C«»: AkUtt und Briefe zur Kirekenfotilik Hetfog Ctorgt tion 
Sachsfii. l-t'ipw, 1905, i. p. 45- Civitavecchia, Octotcr 34. isiÄ 

George the Bearded, gnn of Albtrt the Brave of Saxony, born 1471, 
well educated, cjpeciatly in theology, Duke of Albert inc Saxony 
1500-ApriI 17, 1530, From ihc time when tie heard ihc Leipsk debate 

'Linlitr Irit ABg>butK 0<iob«r », »nivinf »t Nurembtri •ppartnilr «n A« 
dill, llcrc bt 'TM mlvrUined bjr Pitclültimcr. 

*0n wboni I on find nothing flu. He wu nM tke Ucbre« prelMMr Joha 

BOKbcntTriti rnrnlianctt MCUiftoUljr by LMhtf, 

■Otbuwü« ucbnown. 

Lei 91 



(1519) 10 hu 4<Hh, b« wu Luther's most determined opponent, Life 
n RttUncyctofoäie, and r/. Smith, op. cit., index. 

Beloved Son, salutation and the apostolic blc^ätng! Not 
[witboot pain we have learned from many letters and from 
rramor what has been done among the faithful people of your 
[pm of Germany, which was always considered a Catholic 
ovince, and one most devoted and obeJient to lUe apostolic 
We have heard that Martin Luther, a son of perdition, 
ht the suggestion of that cruel enemy of our salvation, the 
'«iHeviL has not blushed to say evil of us and of the said sec, 
in preaching, or ratlicr in cursing. Now as this not only savors 
of heresy, but is worthy of severe punishment, and should 
not lunger be borne by your devotion and obedience to us, 
desiring to extirpate this tare and coccle from the fertile 
field of the Lord by your aid, fearing lest, should wc wink 
at it, it would put forth deeper roots among the too credulous 
people, wc have charged Charles von Miltitz,* onr notary, 
secret chamberlain and nuncio in the Lord, and a cleric of 
the Ouirch of Meissen, to do so. For the wickedness of 
the thing demands it. and we hope it can be rightly and 
swiftly done. Wc have enjoined the said Charles to expound 
to you our paternal love, hoping that he can rely on the help 
of your highness; and we charge you for the sake of all 
the faithful and of the Catholic Church, and the unity and 
dignity of our sec, that, considering [he gravity of the present 
scandal and the rash and damnable error and boldness of the 
said Martin, you should favor the said Charles and help him 
to execute his commission. You will thus please God, whose 
cause you defend, and will also win praise from us and the 
said see. 


«Ich. ÄV. 8l3. (Spalatin's German transUtion of the Latin original.) 

CnTTAVECcaiA, October 2^. 1518. 

Beloved Son, noble Sir. Greeting, etc. We are the more 

willing to send you, through our beloved son, our notary and 

ismbcrlain, Oiarles von Miltitz. your Grace's loyal subject, 

■A Sixan nebl* (i40a>Nor*inhcr aa, lj*g). tsuHcuIitrd si CoIocip u |uriM 

)*S, M Koleen» iiio. in Roinc isisS, Mute chamberliin 10 tht Pop« is<4- 

Is rsiS ke wB* uni to nceoctair viib Luibrr, hut wllhdUt «UCcm«. \Mn \ut 




tlic lioly goldtn Rose, blessed with our hands, and nobly con- 
secraitd on tlie fourth Sunday of last Lent, our nublest gift, a 
thing of secret meaning and a splendid decoration for tbe 
noble House of Saxony this year. The said Charles 'will 
show your Grace what we have commanded him to undertake 
against tbe dire foes of the Chri&tiiui man and against tbc 
crime and presumptuous error of a friar Martin Luther. 
Noble Sir and beloved Son. It seems to us more necessary 
every day to take thought for a crusade against the Turk'» 
unholy vvralh. . . . But while we were considering how to 
bring this to pass, and were bending all our forces to this 
end, Satan reveals this son of perdition or of damaatioo. 
Martin Luther, of the order of St, Augustine, who has dared 
in your territories to preach to the Christian flock against us 
and the holy Roman sec. T^is not only savors of open 
heresy, but merits heavy punishment, of which, as it is well 
known both to us and to yoiv, we ^halI say nothing more. It 
becomes us not to tolerate this any longer, both because of 
our honor and that of the papal see, and because the credu- 
lous people may be hereby led to evil doctrine wiili great 
scandal. In order, therefore, that this infected, scrofulous 
sheep may not grow strongin the healthy sheepfold of the Lord, 
and in order that the boldness of this wicked Martin may 
stop, and not send his root too deep and firm to be rooted out 
of the field of the Lord given to our charge, and as we know 
and liave no doubt that this trouble» your conscience not a 
Utile, for the reputation and honor of yourself and of your 
famous ancestors, who were always the hottest opiK>ncnts of 
heresy, we have commanded the said Charles, our nuncio and 
chamberlain, in another letter and bre\'e, to take cognizance o£ 
this alTair and to act against the said Martin and against his 
followers, who support his scandalous opinions. This is fur- 
ther explained in our letter of credence. We remind your 
Lordship, and admonish you paternally, to act according to 
your reason and the virtue of a Christian prince, on which not 
a little depends, for the sake of your noble reputation, to 

btcun« Mnon of Majcnct and Uriatca. 
(EaglUfa tr*JHtition>, T9l, Till. n. A. 
p. Kmlkofi: Du UiUHaadr. 191I. 

L. von FmIoi: UUt^j #/ tht P«tti 
Cnnttbrtg: K*rl r«« Miltüt, 1^7, 

Let. 92 



I favor and support the said Charles in whate^•e^ he may ask 
ta^f you in our name not less than you wt^uld ourself. . . . 


^jtjtfArri epm talina mm argvmenti, «1. H. Schmidt. ErlaniccTi. 1865. 

ii. 448. Civitavecchia, October 24, 1518. 

}3ere this len« it dated January 1, 1519. but according to W;ilck. 

XV. ic^, tbc true date is October u. and this Is so probable that 1 

have follotved it. Shnilnr letters were gent \a DeKenhardt Pfcfüciser 

and other powerful men, and to the Wittenberg Town Council. 

Beloved Son, gpreeling and the apostolic blessing! Con- 
sidering the merits of the beloved and noble Frederic Elector 
of Saxony, and the favor which, following the ciislom of his 
famous anceslors, he has shown to us and the apostolic see, 
and which he may show in greater measure hereafter, we 
have decided, with much aflfccticn and ijaternal love, to send 
him the most sacred golden rosc> annually consecrated with 
mysterious rites on the fourth Sunday of Lent, and sent to 
some powerful Christian king or prince. We send it by our 
beloved son, Charles von Miititz. our chamberlain and servant. 
We want you lo know some things which concern the dig- 
lity and authority of us and of the aforesaid see. 

For we know how much favor, and deservedly, you have 
with the said elector, and how highly he considers your 
wholesome and prudent counsel. Wherefore we exhort you 
in llic Lord, and paternally charge you on your duly and 
devotion 10 us and to the said see, that you consider how 
great an honor and gift we are sending the said elector, and 
that you also consider how detestable is the overhearing bold- 
ness of that only son of Satan. Friar Martin Luther. Con- 
sider also that he savors of notorious heresy, and can blacken 
the name and fame of the great elector and his ancestors. 
Take counsel then with our nuncio Miititz, and try to per- 
suade the said elector to con-sult our dignity and that of our 
see, and his own honor. I^t him crush the rashness of the 
said Luther, for his erroneous doctrines, now. alas t widely 
sown among the credulous people, can only be extirpated 
by your aid and counsel. Your devotion to God. our Saviour, 
whose cause is riow at stake, will be a special favor to us, 




whose chief care is to weed out the tares and coccic from 
the field of the Lord. You will always fiiid us grateful and 
propitious to yoa, as you will leam more fully from Miltitz. 
Given under the fisherman's ring, in the seventh year of 
our pontificate. Evakgclista.' 

Enden, i. 372. WnrtHMBtc, Octol>er 3t. ijtL 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, I have come to-day to Witten- 
berg safe, by Gods grace, but know not how long i shall re- 
main so, for my case is in such 3 state that 1 both fear and 
hop«. I appealed from the Pope badly informed to the Pope 
to be better informed, and thus I departed, having left be- 
hind a brother to present the .ippeal to the cardinal in the 
presence of a notary and witnesäes. Meantime I shall pre- 
pare another appeal to a future council, following the pre- 
cedent of the Parisians' in case the Pope from the plctitilude 
of his power, or rather tyramiy, refuses my first appeal. 1 
am so full of joy and peace that I wonder that many strong 
men regard my trial as severe. 

Certainly the cardinal legate showed great benevolence 
and clemency to me. as he promised the illustrious elector, 
but we did not understand him. He offered to do all 
paternally, most paternally, and doubtless would have acted 
accordingly, had I only wished to recant For our whole 
difficulty was that I would not, and he ivould, nor do I think 
he had instructions to do anything but condeimi me; there- 
fore, I was obliged to appeal. 

I shall publish my answer' to his arguments, together >vith 
my Appeal and a theological commentary on the Apostolic — 
or diabolic — Breve,* of which you often wrote nie fonnerly, 
and of which you recently sent a copy, delivered to me. with 
other letters of instruction, at Nuremberg on my return 

■Oflc aX Ih« [iipil B»r«t*r9.-i, nnt c<rUinlf to ^^t iAeMihti. pcrbapt £Tins«lllK( 
liiMiittii it C>podifcrra. a poet and hiitoTiin. ind <isi4} ■ mmiicipil officer ef 
Rome. Cf. E. Ro^ocanvht: R«n« an ttrnfi dt Jult» II M it Imm X. Parla. 
iQtj. tf. lie. aSs. 333. 

1O0 H*rcb 17. t%'t, lb« Unlv«r»(t]r of r>.rü bid apiiritrd to a fulurc council 
Lutb«r Miciwtd ibcir (orm of appeal to proirrt bimKK. 

*Tta« Att» Aitotitana. Wclintt. il. 6<r. Smith, a. 

*Tlie papal Brtvc la Cajrun »t Au[u»t «). ijiS, $mpr», >a. 7}. 



loumcy. It is mcredibte that such a monster should come 
from a pope, especially from Leo X. Therefore, whoever 
the rascal was who. under the name of Leo X., proposed to 
terrify me with this decretal, shall know that 1 also recognize 
folly when I see it. But if it did com« from the curia. I wiU 
teach them their impudent rashness and wicked ig:nor3nce. 

Personally, the cardinal greatly pleased me. 1 suspect the 
Romans begin to be afraid and to distrust their own strength, 
and thus cunningly seek a way out. I will tell you more 
another time. I hope, face to face. Commend me to the elec- 
tor aad give him my thanks. . . . 


Icrminjzrd: Correspimdaiut det Rlformatcurs des fayt de la iaiifimt 
fran(aw. <i8»ff). i 6i. (Baslk, October, 1518). 

This ie the Preface to the first edition of Luthcr'a Worlu. printed at 
sie, October. ISI8, by Proben. Thr anonymou» preCace wan written 
Capito. Se« Baam: Capita unJ Butser, p. jj. It is reprinted by 
Henninjxrd from the subsciiucnt edition, sine loco, 15^0. and conjcctu- 
ralljf dated by him '■Wittenberg?, March. 153a" 

Here you have the theological works of the Reverend 
Father Martin Luther, whom many consider a Daniel sent 
at length in mercy by Christ to correct abuses and restore 
the e%'angelic and Pauline divinity to theologians who have 
forgotten the ancient commentaries and occupy themselves 
with the merest logical and verbat trifles. And would that 
he might arouse all theologians from their lethargy, and get 
them to leave their somnolent summaries' of divinity and 
oosc the gospel rather than Aristotle. Paul rather than 
;otU9. or even Jerome. Augustine. Ambrose, Cyprian, .^th- 
iu8, Hilary, Basil, Chrysostom, Theophylact rather than 
yra, Aquinas, Scoius and the rest of the schoolmen. May they 
longer drag Clirisl to the earlli. as Thomas Aquinas al- 
ays does, but may they instruct tlie earth in the doctrine of 
OirisL May they cease saying one thing in their farcical uni- 
versities, another at home, another before the people and 
something else to their friends; and may they cease calling 

■A pus. "onlMli MOiaii«, «tstnü dietnsi opariuii." 


good men who refuse to fool with tliem heretics as they now 
do for small cause or for no cause at alL . . . 

Endcf». i. 37S- (Wittenbiiig), Novembtr 13. isii 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin. we tried to get some citizen to 
offer Father John Frosch' his doctor's banquet.' but we fear 
our efforts are vain. And so, not to turn away a worthy 
man without honor, we have turned to our monastery, where 
depending on the elector's promise, we will, at our own iu- 
convenience, give him his banquet. For, indeed, we are 
poor, and there are many of us, so that we cannot do it by 
ourselves. Wherefore I heg you to ask the elector to pi*- 
vide us with game for November 18. or rather üie 17th. If 
this cannot be, make it next week, Monday [November 22]. 
And send me an answer by tliis messenger as quickly as 
[wsstblc what is to be done, so that we may not make vain 
preparations. Farewell in Christ. 

Brother Mahtin LirrHER. Augustinian. 

End««, i. 280, fWnTKNBr.Re), Kovemlicr tj. 1518. 

On the debate planned with Eck, tf. supra, no. 61, and Sinilh. of>. cil.. 
pp. 58ff- 

Greeting. My dear John Eck. Dr. Carlstadt is pleased willi 
what we agreed at Augsburg, namely, that you should meet 
at Leipsic or Erfurt and debate honorably for the discovery 
uf the trut]i. thai there may be an end of contention and of 
writing books. He begs, therefore, that you will fix the day 
for the meeting, and the place, one of the two mentioned. He 
would have fixed ihcm himself, but thought he ought to 
defer to you because you Hve farllier away and are perhaps 
busier than he. Therefore act so that I may not have per- 

■Of B«mbccc. bad iludinl •) Erftirl liot, Ukcn bit bMcalaunaie al dicoiuiic 
■I Tonlouic anil his lictnilaic ai WlIicnbcrE T5i<t. He tm viih Lethft «1 
Atuibnii. Utna wbicb be rfluinni lo obtain ibc ilijctorai« a> bvtc tcUird Laicr 
ke becant cvaonlical pTtacbn at AuRtbunt. Jtccping up a dctohvrir cane- 
■pondciicc witb Luibci. EndcT*. L ijs, *■ 441. 

Tk* takiai o( tit iloctoriK wu alwari tltc occuiod vi a fcalirc sical ItDQvn 
a« ib< Oriif^tchinatit. Luibcr'* diplofna to bin. daivd Moveoiber tt, 151S, pfla«*il 


sxiaded Caristadt in vain, or ratlier so that our adversaries 

Ky vainly hop« that theologians will alwavs light among 
mselves and never agree. Farewell. Hastily amidst divers 
occupations. Yours, Martin Lutuer. 

Ender», i. 301. (Wittckbehc, November 22, iJlS-) 

To Philip Melanchthon Schw^arzcrd, Grecian, Latin, He- 
brew, German, never BarbarLin, Greeting. May the Muse 
and Apouo forgive you for despising me and the new doctor* 
lo-day. Now, though it is not particularly my affair, I have 
forgiven il, hut unless you instantly appear before Dr. Carl- 
stadt and Liccniiatc Amsdorf, aiid especially the Rector,* not 
even your Greek will excuse you, not to mention "that little 
brother Nfartin," as Cajctan calls mc. The new doctor be- 
lieves <as he says in joke) that he is despised as a Barbarian 
by a Greek. Take care what you do. for I have most cer- 
tainly promised that you would come at once. You will do 
me a favor if you come alone, yet I greatly wish that you 
would also bring with you Guy Warbeck-"' and John Schwert- 
fager.* For this evening I shall be the host to my most in- 
timate and dearest friends. Induce them to come by your 
advice, and by my command, if "that little brother" can com- 
mand. Farewell. Your little brother, 
^V Marti.s' EicutherittJ.^ 


Jjilheri cpera varii atsumenti (Erlangen, 1865), ii. 426. 

^H Witten »ESC, November 23, 1518. 

^'lÄost illustrious anil clement Prince, that venerable man. 

*Jnkn Frottb. Tfat diploma, dMcd Norcoibcr >i, liven bin br Lulbet, rcprialeil 
T%^*t»vU€kr Sluiitn mud KtUtknt, tvi). p. lao. 

*MfltiolMncir Bernh«cill, ai Fclillilrcb'fn. 

■MMriculatctI al Wtlicnbcic in 15:4., fixt jt%n lairr tieoinc c»noft of SL 
CcaiKc'i Cbuicb ai AlienbiiiK. anil \a the t-tmr ytn accümiitnicd Ibt FJcclur 
la Uc lBp([ial Elrction at Frankfon, wbcn he made bimKlf iik(uI bT bis 
k»uv1e<lce of rrcDCb. He ilicd iii is)«- Kl> daucbier married Lutlicr'a mo Paul. 

*0f MtwacB. BBtricitlaml ai Wiumbng is»7. la 15J1 became proftsioi of 
law, iUc4 IS«*- 
JiTVia a-ord wrilloi in Crcvk tcltcnu *Jobn I-VoacIi. 




Brother Mariin LuUier, M. A., D. D.. a noble and most fainoi» 
member of our university, has relaltd lo us what the Very 
Reverend Legate Cardinal Cajelan has written to your High* 
ncss; namely, that lie urges you to send the said Luther to 
Rome or to exile him from your territories, on account oi 
certain propositions debated by him and long ago offered to 
tlie Supreme PontilT. Luther adils that he ofTeied to debate 
publicly or to gi%'e a private answer in writing, and that he 
prayed that his errors might be pointed out to him in writ- 
ing, with the reasons and authorities from the Scripture and 
the holy Fathers added, so that by their light he might per- 
ceive his errors, but that none of these requests was granted, 
but he was simply ordered to retract what he had said 
wrongly. Nor was the care of the faithful shepherd shown 
to liim, £or the shepherd is bound to give a reason to every^ 
one asking it, and is even commanded to tcacli willing and 
unwilling alike, in season and out of season. 

llicrcforc Luther has asked and obtained that we should 
intercede with your Highness, and should beg that your most 
illustrious Highness should deign to write to the legate or 
even to the Pope and graciously to intervene, requesting that 
tlie articles and points of his errors should be shown him in 
writing, and tliat reasons and authorities should be given, so 
that he may know that he has erred and thus recant, not be- 
ing forced to condemn opinions before he knows whether 
ihey should be condemned. It was the ancient custom of the 
Qiurch, as the examples of the Fathers show, to urge the 
correction of error by reason and authority and not to con- 
demn by mere assertion the sayings of anyone. , . . 


Enders, i. 305. 

WirreNBeiic, NovOTnlier 25, 1518. 

Greeting. Excellent Christopher. I arrived safely and hap- 
pily at home by God's grace. The ofüces of extraordinary 
humanity and kindness with which you overwhelmed my 
unworthy self, have made your name and fame a pleasant 
and sweet savor to us. For I commended your Itdelity and 

pVbat of Dr. Auer' as it deserved, not for the purpose of 
I glorifyinp you, but of giving an example of such fidelity to 
others. Moreover, the Lord Jesus, who made you think of, 
will and do such things, will cecognix« and approve his own 
works in you. Truly pure faith and sincere friendship is a rare 

Recently the lo«! legate wrote' our elector accusing me of 
leaving by fraud, and complaining that I had armed myself 
with a safe-conduct and had appealed. lie condemns every- 
thing I did, especially that I did not recant my cursed propo- 
sitions, particularly those on indulgences, and blaming inc 
for not sparing the Pope's Holiness, in saying tliat he abused 
the Scripture. Finally he advises the elector lo send me to 
Rome, or to banish mc, lest he should stain his glory for 
Ui« sake of "one little brother." Thus also did the Jews act 
against Christ before Pilate, wishing him to believe tliern 
before they brought forward delinitc cliarges. Thus docs 
Cajetan shout: "May your most illustrious lordship be- 
lieve me; I speak from certain knowledge, not from mere 
opinion. I will preserve the rule of Jesus Oinst, which I 
know is being violated thus, for Luther seeks nothing but 
to violate the truth." That golden rose which rumor said 
was being sent to the elector is nowhere, nor has the elector 
heard anything of it. 1 see that the Romans are determined 
lo condemn me. I, on tlie other hand, am determined not 
to yield. So I await tlieir censures. The Lord will be my 
counsellor and helper. If they kill me they will cease pur- 
suing 3 dead flea.* I answered the tetter of the lord legate 
of which the elector sent me a copy, and I desired him to 
enclose my answer in his reply to the legate. My /tela /iu- 
gustana' is now being edited, for the elector dissuaded me 
from publishing it before. You will learn the rest from the 
recently promoted Father Prior John Frosch. You will rec- 
U^lj^ize the signs agreed upon.' I hope my faithful protector, 

^^f 'John A«4r. an Auftburc Councltlor, «rtio hplptrl I.uthrr rirxw ur hii Appeil. 

'Hii kllcr, Otlobtr t;. tjiS. Endm, i. »6%. The clectof ml li (o Lulhcr, 
•bo Am» up a rcplr on November ig, i^iR, Rnders, 1. i8j. which the etetlor 
•ml to Cajcun wiiti a note oE bit own. December B, 1518. Eaden, t. jio, 

*Ct. I Simuel txii. u. 

'T^ accoant of ihc dolnti at Aarflmrg. Weimar, ii. 6ff. 

■i'wiM inffront tagnentnda. An obtcur« »entence, appafcnilj reterrlnt to 

Let- 99 




Doctor John Auer, is strong in the Lord, and I desire to be 
remembered to htm. Dr. Carlstadt, Anisdorf, Otto Beckntaim 
and all yoiir friends heartily salute you. 

Farewell in the Lord, may he keep you in eternity as he dots 
in this world. Greet from me the truly noble John Schenk. 
Brother Martin Luther, j^ugustiman. 

Enders, i. 307. Witteniiekc, December 3, 1518. 

Greeting. Ilad not your letters come yesterday, dear Spata- 
tin, I should already have left,' and I am yet prepared 
for either alternative. The solicitude of our friends for me 
is remarkable, and greater than I myself can bear. Some urje 
me to give myself into the elector's custody, for him to keep 
somewhere, in which case he could write the legate that I wai 
being kept bound in a safe place pending my examination, I 
leave tbi.<: plan to your wisdom, I am in the hands of God and 
of my frieads. 

One may surely believe that the elector favors me and the 
university, as 1 recently heard from one who 1 know would 
not lie to me. In the court of the Bishop of Brandenburg they 
lately discussed what favor and whose support I had. Some- 
one said: "Erasmus, Capito and other learned men fa\'or 
him." "No," replied the bishop, "these men arc nothing to 
the Pope; it is the University of Wittenberg and the Elector 
of Saxony that really count." So I know it is commonly 
believed that the elector is witti mc. which displeases tJiem. 
I only wish they were as much afraid of the university. 
Truly the suspicion cast upon the elector will compel me to 
withdraw, if necessar)-, although the elector may excuse him- 
self in his writings by saying that as a layman he is unable 
to judge of such matters, especially as he sees that a university 
approved by the Church docs not contradict mc. But these are 
incidentals. If I stay here I shall not have much freedom o£ 

•an» ntHlc« Mnl in citi)i*T. Hoppf inntlitMr "£• Mvitil riMli iibris. dit A«f(- 
xrlcknuBgeo kenntti tu krnm" which h« confnuu ii "cIwm dunlKl." LvlKftt 
Wrrkt, Si, l/iuiK. i>i A. ii^f, 

>Af(er Cajtun'i requnt 10 ibe ticcior 10 ci*e Luthrr up or 10 bftiüik bin. 
tbmt «u «ame nik of doln« «n. and «tan of bldiar blm In ■ oad«, w wM 
■lOH later dm-t) iit ibe Wuibur«. ct. Smitta, pp. cA-, p. s)- 

htiL los 



writing and speaking; if I go I will pour out everything and 
offer my life for ChrisL Farewell. 

k Brother Martin Lutheb. 

ueu, i. 47. [kgol&tadt, December 4, 1518. 

Your Grace doubtless knows that recenlly Dr. Martin 
Luther, of Wittenberg, published some theses on papal indul- 
gences and other main articles of the Oiristtan faith. And 
when they came into my hands, at the re()iiest of my gracious 
Ix>rd Gabriel, Bishop of Eichstadt' and Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Ingolstadt. I wrote out an opinion explaining why I 
did not consider some of them Christian. But when my writ- 
ing came into the hands of the said Dr. Luther. Dr. Andrew 
Bodcnstcin. of Carlstadt, at Wittenberg, attacked me in writ- 
ing and undertook to defend Luther's propositions and doc- 
trine. It then became necessary for me to defend my doctrine 
according to the truth and the holy faith, and 1 did so with 
more moderation than the said Carlstadt deserved of m«. But 
I made the express proviso that, should he abide by his error 
(as 1 consider it), I would challenge him to a debate before 
the Pope, or the learned men of tlie university of Rome or 
Paris or Cologne, hoping humbly and kindly that thereby 
all offence and hatred (hat might have come from our 
polemics be avoided. And when the said Carlstadt. to my 
surprise, refused to debate at any of these places, I offered 
to meet him at some other university, and he proposed Erfurt 
or Leipsic. Wherefore, as I do not fear to debate before any 
learned men, I beg your Grace for permission to debate at 
Leipsic. . . . 

VTfHi Reformaiomm. \. 56, Böcldng. Supp, ü. 789. 

WrmsUBni« (Eirly in Dcccml>w. 1518).* 

... I enclose Luther's Appeal to a General Council, nor 

'Bl»b»p. 149^ISJS- 

*Tk« dalt ia lirta br ihc (cftccncf to Luibct'i Affeal 10 • Conmeil, which h« 
_drt' op on KsTtnbtr A, and vbi&b wm ^iaMd by Dccenbct ii. EAriIIa- 
■■«iia. t. 4i8- 


is there any reason why you should fear much from the ragt 
of the Romanists. This sort of people think that they are not 
ruling unless they are acting like tyrants, although Heaven 
knows that ruling in a Christian people ought to mean no more 
than doing as the father of a household would.' But ambi- 
tion and avarice bring forth all things. Luther clears himsdf 
so entirely that they cannot pretend that he is guilty of a new 
crime. For what he does has been done before and not blamed 
by the Romanists. May God Almighty preserve his people. 
Farewell. YouK Phiup. 

Endcrs, i. 313. tWiTTKKDzac). Dccccnber 9, isiS. 

Greeting. What your letter, Spalatin, forbade me to do, is 
already done. My Acta Auyustana is already published, writ- 
ten with the freedom of much truth, albeit not with the whok 
truth, for I see that in this as in all things [ am obliged to 

I heard yesterday from Nuremberg that Charles von Miltitz 
is on the way, having three papal breves. They write me that 
a trustworthy man has seen the breves and that they order 
him to capture me and deliver me to the Pope. That doctor 
of Eisleben,* who, with Philip von Feililzsch* stood by me 
before the legate at Augsburg, has warned me through our 
prior* to take care; he said that on a journey he had heard a 
certain courtier asserting that he had promised to deliver me 
to the Pope. I hear other things also, and whether tliey are 
true or are invented to frighten me I do not think they are 
to be despised. Therefore, lest they should kill mc uncx- 

*QaiA dcbebac In rhH»Ii*nn pnpulo non «Mr »Mnii Imprrir« quam rS »lamiotitH. 

tjotn Sdhcl. n frllaw-inwnimin of LucEicr, «ho became councillor ind tbrn 
th»n«llor of Miin«('til. Lulhtr bci»m« qtilic tniiniKtc irilh birn tn is»!, iorini 
vfalcb jtu be irrotc fain Kvcral Ictlcn, m wtll ■■ lome in lulucqueBi ycai* u 

IM« u liJ9- 

*One of tht ticeior'* c«nnci1Ior*, who «ppctra b Lwtbct'« Utten tut la 
DfCcnWr, \i»t. 

*C4n(a4 n«ti »f NurcDibert. in <M,t\ iMj fca Joined ih« Aofiullnlaii« m u 
wrlj Vtt. UMrleuUtrd « Wlmnhefj ijij, hM^m« B. A. 1314 and M. A. 151«. 
!■ ijiB fae *u *lreted prior, in wbich fiBiitian \t yiu nthrr lu. He followed 
Lultff until Fclmiarr. iiii, when h» l»t( Wittentxr£ After «bort atar« ai 
Nurtmbtrc 'id Xon^hanarn. be bMame prior of Ibc Anruitiniaa eonvcnt at 
H«d«lberK. which potitlaii be beld nnta his itUh. AuguM 14, 1)48. Arikiw J^ 
RifarmetlaniffUeiiiMt. vü. 9<S4R. 


pectedly or crush me with t>i«ir censures, I am waiting in all 
readiness for the plan of God. I liave even appealed to a 
future council. Tlie more lliey rage aiid seek my life the less 
am I afr^d. Sometime I shall be freer against these Roman 
hydras. Wiat you have heard about my saying farewell to 
the people of Wittenberg is false; I said this: "I am an 
uncertain and unsettled preacher, as you have found out. Mow 
often have I left you suddenly without bidding you good-bye? 
If llie same thing sliould ever happen again, in case I do not 
come back. 1 wish to say farewell to you." Then I warned 
them not lo be afraid of the furious papal censures against 
rae, and that they should not blame the Pope or any mortal 
for tliem, or wish anyone evil, hut should commit the affair 
to God, and the like. 1 lecture and teach as before. Farewell- 

Brother Martin Eleutherius. 


Ztiitehrift dfs hittoritthtn Fereittg für Schivabfn und Neuburg. i89i^ 
XX. 330l ALrtNuuvb, December lo, 1518. 

K. . . I am sorry you did not see our Dr. Martin Luther 
THien he appeared before the very reverend legate at Augs- 
burg, for as far as I can gueis you did not meet him. If you 
ask how he is, for all I know he is well, and, as I who write 
have found out, of too lofty and strong a mind to be turned 
by any blast of furious fortune from doing what he has pro- 
pD-icd and from the path he has set for himself. For the sake 
of Christ and the truth he shuns no misfortune, he flees no 
calamity, he fears no evil. His mind seems strengthened to 
a perpetual pursuit of the gospel truth, or rather to propa- 
gate the word of the Lord before so many Pharaohs. Now 
farewell and pray for Dr. Luther and me. for we favor you. 
In haste, Geokce Spalatin. 

™*P. S. — ^That most holy, true and German theology, not 
foaled by the dregs of metaphysics and dialectics, not polluted 
by human traditions, not burdened with old wive.s' tales, but 

'At tbii i* p(lnt*d il b nol quilc ceililn «h«th«T llili b ■ poMicrlpt \a lb« 
•bOTt Inter, or in citrkcl fiou aooilicr IciKr. At u>f iiie, il laiut hare beta 
ittea D»r tlif his« tim«. 

Ui. 104 

such as the primitive theolojpans kiicw, praised and extolltil 
to hcaveti, this theology, I say, is taught (praise be to God!) 
in the univcrsit)' of my elector at Wittenberg with such suc- 
cess that those leametl doctors of theology, Martin Luther 
and CarUtadt have full Ice lure- rooms and disciples not only 
eager to learn, hut already proficient, who do not fear eren 
the greatest of the sophists. Philip Mclanchthon lea.ches Greek 
there to about four hundred pupils. There arc also not a few 
scholars of Dr. John Bossclicnstein,' who teaches Hebrew. In 
short, the best studies are 30 successfully taught at Wittenberg 
that you would call it another Athens. 

£nders, i. 3». WiTTEKBtar,, December 14, (5(8. 

The Lord be with you, valiant man! Most teamed humanist, 
I thank God tliat by his mercy you have at length stopped the 
mouth of those .speaking iniquity. For you were indeed the 
instrument of divine wisdom, although unconscious of tt your- 
self, yet most welcome to all lovers of soimd theology. How 
differently has God shaped your course from what you 
thought! 1 am one of those who longed to be with you, but 
had no opportunity. Yet was I always with you in prayer 
and fervent hope. But what was then denied to me as your 
ally, has been granted lo me as your successor [in persecu- 
tion). For the teeth of these behemoth lay hold on me, ii 
by any means they can avenge on me the sJiame that they 
have received from you. I. uh*. fight them, though with far 
inferior resources of genius and learning than you displayed 
in both fighting and overcoming them, yet with a no less 
steadfast mind. They avoid meeting my arguments, tliey 
refuse to reply to me, but attack me murderously by mere 
force and violence. Truly Christ lives, and I. who have noth- 
ing, can lose nothing. For by your valor the horns of these 
bulls have been broken in pieces. The Lord worked through 
you, (hat the king of the sophists may learn to be more slow 
and cautious in opposing sound theology, and Germany may 

'BtwKbcsMrin (i47»ii]«) cam* rram ItiiDbrxli lo Wltlriibrrs ai tke ftrti 
prof««Mf oi Hclmw. Be Isft ctwly in 1J19 bdiIm unpLcMant tirevatianem. 
EaiUnh i. «w, ii. lai. 

Let. »s 



breathe again after so many hundred years during which the 
teaching of the Scriptures lay dormant or rather extinct. 

But am I not bold to speak to you so familiarly without 
any laudatory preface? My hearty iove for you has impelled 
me to write, for I feel [although I have not met you] familiar 
with you, partly because I think so much of you, and partly 
by meditation on your books. Another reason for writing is 
that our admirable Hiilip Mctanchthon. who has almost every 
virtue known to man. and is my dear, intimate friend, has 
urged me to write boldly, assuring mc that you would not 
take my awkwardness ill. but would thank me. But do not 
Uame him, if you must blame anyone, as I wish you to regard 
this letter solely as a witness to my affection for you, which 

•is nothing if not frank. 
f Farewell and rejoice in the Lord, my truly venerable teacher ! 

^Kics4. i. 49- LEirsic, DccciiiImt 16. 1S18. 

^P We send your Grace certain letters of Dr. Eck. We sur- 

miK that he is ti^'ing to get from your Grace that which he 

^jpoke about in his letters to our faculty. And that your Grace 

^■Bay briefly comprehend the affair we give your Grace to 

miderstand what happened last summer about the day of St. 

John IJunc 24], when there was a dispute about papal graces 

and indulgences between the Reverend Dr, Martin Luther, 

■ttf Wittenberg, and John Tetzel.^ then of Frankfort [on the 

^^)der], as your Grace doubtless remembers. Then Lord 

■Jofcn Tcti«l. bora ilcul u^i M Pirn, «ludi^d «t LclpOi. mh*tt it took bia 
B. A. In 14H7, «hortlr U\tt which h« betamc a Damtniran. Viiilcil RnTn« in 
■4*7. Aj t nfinhfr of ibe ronimt *l Gl<iit>u ht -wu nijide InquliiiDr for Polnml 
■|0(. In ij)6 ht «u prfacbcr ef indulR«ncp« for Arcirnbolili, itiiI Ibr followins 
yw for An«*M of iltjmer It *«» hu pmchmir ibat w« »ttwkcd by Lmher 
iii tb« Nimtly'fitif rkmi. Tftiet dtfenilrd himxlf br driwini up counter 
Tkftfi vitb itir hdii n( ronrul Wlmpini. which he defended at Franlriorc on 
ÜI« Oder. Jaawu; )4, 1S18. But fam bukinrM wu ruineil krti hi) 'Churicter 
■iMillll In i)iS be <r(thdrcw to Leipiic, irhert he lircd until bit dcatli of 
cbafito ia Animl, istf. In bis Imi i1iivi> I-uibec wrote h<n> ■ letter, now loti. 
"not M be troubled, for the »ffair did not bcitn with him, but the ibild h*d 
MMiher falber." N. PauSmi Ott üttiichtn Domntkantr im Kvnfle grgtii 

*kn. 1903, if. 



IfCt. ig6 

Albert, Archbishop and Cardinal of Magdeburg and Mayence, 
sent an honorable embassy to us to inquire which side in Ibi* 
dispute was nearer the truth and what our opinion on the said 
difference was. But considering that certain imperial counsel- 
lors at that time refused to give an opinion we did the same, 
and sent his electoral grace our memorial testifying our good 
will and to the lollowing cflfcci: Whereas both sides have 
brought much scandal among the people and we £ear that 
more will arise, and as each side h convinced that it is in the 
right, our opinion would not make them lay aside theirs, but 
would only impel them to assail each other with injury and 
scandal. Moreover, as the affair concerns the Holy Father 
at Rome, it is not fitting that we should meddle with it. But 
we advised that his electoral grace should assemble a synod 
and have the thing heard and decided by them. Otherwise, we 
feared an increase in scandal, In the meantime John Eck. as 
he informs us, gave his opinion on the same question to the 
bishop of Eichstätt and thereby- fell into a dispute with Dr. 
tarlstadt. of Wittenberg. And when he offered to dispute at 
Rome, Paris or Cologne. Dr. Carlstadt declined. .And though 
we were long ago requested by Dr. Luther in behalf of Dr. 
Carlstadt, as well as by Dr. Eck, to interfere in this alTair, 
we have ihought it best for sundry reasons to refuse both 
parties. For we feared that otiiers, even laymen, might be 
drawn into the quarrel and that the Elector Frederic might 
lay it up against this university and that thereby there might 
arise a quarrel between him and your Grace. Wherefore we 
recommend Eck to commit the chief points of Dr. Martia 
Luther's propositions to some bishops for decision, or to a 
select board drawn from certain universities, for thus, by a 
written or oral disputation between select commissioners the 
thing might be ended. . ■ . 

Ender«, i. 33a. (Wittenbwc), December at, 1518. 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, iE 1 rightly understand you, you 
ask whether an expedition against the Turks can be defended 
and commanded by me on Biblical grounds. Even supposing 
the war should be undertaken for pious reasons rather tliao 




jain, I confess that I cannot promise what you ask, but 
rather the opposite. Recently at tlie rei|uesl of a friend I 
published 3 scnnon on tliis subject, which has fallen into the 
hands of the heroes of Brandenburg, on whose account I sus- 
pected the request was made to me. In ibis I argued that 
no such war should be undertaken.' I am still of the same 
opinion until I sliall be refuted with better reasons. Erasmus 
expresses the same opinion in many places, as you know 
better than I.* It seems to me if wc must have any Turkish 
war we ought to begin with ourselves. In vain we wage carnal 
wars without, while at home we arc conquered by spiritual 

Moreover, neither in the Old nor in the New Testament 
was any war ever wa^cd by human might, save with an 
unhappy and disgraceful issue; if it were successful it was 
because of aid from heaven as I could amply substantiate. 
Now that the Roman curia is more tyrannical than any Turk, 
fighting with such portentous deeds against Christ and against 
his Church, and now that the clergy is sunk in the depths of 
avarice, ambition and luxury, and now that th« face of the 
Church is everj-where most wretched, there is no hope of a 
successful war or of victory. As far as I can see. God fights 
against us; first, we must conquer him with tears, pure prayers, 
holy life and pure faith. But of this elsewhere. 

I remain at Wittenberg, awaiting without doubt the proof 
of Roman wretchedness, although I hope the very fear of 
conscience will prevent them acting with precipitate fury. I 
win consult lawyers about drawing up my Appeal.* 

Except for one scrap, I have completely forgotten the 
sermon I gave at Weimar,' for which you ask. I am only 
sure that I preached the gospel against hypocrites and self- 
righteous men, as I always do. I know there is one such in 
that court, whom you will know even if I do not name him. 

■L^ibcr later chtnccd hU opinkn on iki* lubicct, wrillnv in (anrr of lbs 
Tsikiik «ir In Iii7. C/. Sniiib. «p. til., »Af- 

*Sl)iIsE{n hxi IruittaK<l Eraintiu' letter an peace t« Antony of Bencen. Marcll 
I*. >tt4' Cf. nfr», December r«, t;i6, no. aj, an<l Aliens Opitf Eput*ianim 
Ermim, I. 311. 

'I, r.. W At CMincit I.uibr canaultcd ScKcurt about ih« prop«f form «( the 
appeal t Sthemrl wrol« Um a) lenirtb »n thr iinbJMt. Drri>mhi>r 10 V.nAtn, i. }1|, 

*Ob tb* louni<7 to Auiibutg Luibcr preached ai Weimar. SevtemlHt ig. 




Nothing is more harmful to magistrates and nobles than thiC: 
sort of men, wiio, though they never learned anything, tcadm 
all things, even the religion of the angels. I wish to do mir 
b<st to oppose their ideas. . . . 

Bkother Martin Luther, ^ugustinian. 

Baden, i. 355- (Ncxeuberc, December 33. liA) 

My friend Charles says that he has been soliciting the 
rose' for three years, and demanded this province of right, 
and that he is not a legate, but a simple commissioner, with 
instructions to act on the legate's' advice. At Augsburg he 
dispatched more than forty breves to the powers of Germany, 
in which he asks aid against a helpless man. Those who gire 
assistance are blessed, those who resist are damned forever. 
He says that he will not use these powers, but will do what 
he can to please the elector, and that he comes as a private 
man; not a judge, but a friend, only to And out what the 
elector decides, what Martin thinks and to win the favor of 
all. He says he will inform the legate and the Pope that the 
apostolic see has never had a harder, more anxious or more 
delicate affair than this. He says you must do something, at 
the very least correct the violence of your letter to the 
cardinal, for he took your departure and that of Staujritz 
very hard, since you did not say good-bye to him, as though 
wishing to mock him. 1 excused you, and he confessed that 
you could not have returned to him except in good will. He 
denies that the cardinal is staying in Germany for the sake 
of this aflfair. but says that he is waiting for the assembly of 
the princes next Easter, at Worms or Frankfort. The Em- 
peror has promised to come to .Augsburg on January 6, and in 
my opinion the legate wilt also follow from Lintz. Mil- 
litz says that you ought to come, too,' and if you do, everythir^ 
will be discussed kindly and that you will have nothing to 
fear. In these circtunslanccs we must not fear the [papal] 

I/. *.. (be inolnttd goldea tmc icDt tir the Pope 10 the Elector FrtdtfU. 

)A mccdnf between UDiiti, SpmUiia and Luilier ww uraoaed M Ah« 
Jtaauf 4-j Car t-6), oa «rhicb ef. Smith, p. mA. 




nor rashly Iwlieve everything, but must act with 
r'niademtion, and strive hard that you get a hearing in 
' Ctrmany, and that your university and town councillors 
fificuld recommend you, and promise that you will be a true 
iOn of the Church, and will do whatever you ought and can 
with God's approval. I do not despair, for God will give his 
grscc, which is never lacking to those who fear him. Again 

'idR elector FUEDERIC to duke GEORGE OF SAXOm'. 
^fcs», I 51. ALTtNBuac, December 29. 151S. 

Bl , . I have with me a papal ambassador, Charles von M 11- 
titz, who is not satisfied with Dr. Lutlier and has great power 
to proceed against him. And it well might happen that he 
would refuse to give me the golden rose unless I banished the 
monk and said that he was a herelic. But I fancy I can do as 
Claui^s N'arr' says, go on drinking my wine and beiitg a heretic 
all my days. . . . 



D« Wette-Seidcmann, vi. 638. G«sa, i, 52. December 30, igiS. 

Honorable. learned, dear and trusty Gentlemen! We have 
received your letter and one from our dear and trusty Dr. John 
Eck of Ingolstadt, iu which he begged that he might hold a 
public debate with Dr. Andrew Carlstadt of Wittenberg, 
before you. And we have read the reasons why you refused 
this, and wc consider tliat if instead you would do all you 
could to further it. and would give these doctors of other 
tmiversities a place to debate in, you would win no little 
fame, praise and honor thereby. AntI if yo« did this you 
would not therefore be compelled to give any assent or recog- 
nition to the debate, but at need could recommend the decision 
to the papal commissaries or other proper authorities who 
stand ready to take the responsibility. Moreover you should 

The <ouf( foot. "Drinking win«" wan prnirribial (or not Itrltinif anflhiRf 
iraobl* onr. So LuiIict, in one of ifc» Ei^ki Srfmfni m Lmt, 'Th* Word, 
wküe t tltpt aad itvtk bm with UHinchtlion ind Anixlarf, h&i broken the 
FatMtcy «Ofe tbu) mit I""« of «mperot e»er dliL" Wtimar »iii. p. tSf. 



not be anxious lest any uproar or unpleasantness might aris« 
from the proposilions, but when and if it should arise wc can 
then deal with it. . . . 

De Wcttc-SciJcHianii, vi. 65S. Gcss, i. 53. December 31. 151! 

Dear and inisiy Sirl W« have received your request to 
hold your debate with Dr. Carlstadt at Leipsic, and have 
graciously noted the same, being pleased that you have clioücn 
OUT university. We trust to you that this debate may not l>e 
dangerous, but only for the sake of elucidating the truth. 
We have tlicrefore given order to our university to grant your 
request. , . . 

^fipdcra, i. 336. Greek. (Wittixuerc). January. 1519. 

This poem, in iambic trinieter, was the dedication oi Melanchthon'i 
Eiegantitsima qitanfam ofiHSCitla, Haganau, JanuaO'> 1519> &t\t\, like 
most dcdicalions. was probably written »Iiorlly ticfore ihc work went 
to press. As printed the text is so cornipt — some of the word» heing 
impossible and some of the lines not scajining — at to have puxiled 
not oitly myseU. but sutJi dintingiiislieil Greek sehulars as Prof. Harry 
dc Forrest Smith, of Amherst. U. S, A., ati<l Prof. Gilbert Murray, 
of Oxford. England. With the obhging help of the« Kenilcmen, 1 
have radically restored and construed ihe text according to its apparort 
RicaniiiS- I think the poem i» worth giving as testimony to the 
reverence, almost idolatrj', in which Luther was thus early held by his 
Holy Nazarite of Israel, offerer of peace-malcing sacrifices.* 
elect servant of uncorruptcd truth, protector of souls, ruler of 
pious desires, divinely inspired messenger of wisdom and of 
motherless justice, happy priest of the divine vi^ord and of the 
life-giving spirit, spreading abroad the sweet smelling balsam 
of the anointed Church,' faithful and sleepless shepherd of 
the temple of all-nierciful God. driving out the Ambian wolf 
and the sophist Befial, thou champion of tnith. smile with the 
wonder-working staff of Moses the doting brains of the enemies 
of the Word, even the superstitious magicians; cauterize the 

■r. r.. U prieii offerinit the MirlAcc of the mias. 
*0r, '*of tk« eiKfcarui of the Clunb." 




unclean tongues with the juniper coals of the Word;' fight 
steadfastly and unceasingly fuUow light-bearing Jesus; guard 
the bless«! lot of the faithful. 


Tenliel-Cyprian : Hislcrisehtr Btrichl vom Anfang tind vom entin 

»Fortgans der Reformation Lutheri (Ldpsic, 17>8). ii. io6. Quoted 
by N. Paultii: Du dfflschfH Domintkaner im Kämpft gegen Luther 
(Prcibuif i. B., igoj), p. lo.* Walcli, xv. Sby 

PLtiPSir, January 3, 1519; 
Henn^nn Rab, of Bamberg;, matriculated at Lcipsic 1486. soon after 
«ibich be joined th« Dominican oider there, where he knew Tetael 
In isii he became Vicar and in 1516 a incmlier of tlw theological 
facDltjr. He visited Rome in 1518 and again in 1519. He took a fairly 
aaivc part against Luther. He died in 1534. Cf. Paulu». op. tit., pp. 

May tlic Lord forgive Martin Luther, who was and is very 

ixious to involve us who are innocent in his affair, in order 

to draw his own head out of the noose. Evcrjone who lias 

read or heard the Appeal and other writings of the .said 

^^^fartin, knows how he attacks and has attacked the Reverend 

^Vathcr John Tctzcl, although the latter has defended and docs 

^ftot cease to defend the authority of the Pope, even to his own 

^■isadvantage, as his sennons prove and as all who have heard 

^Püm bear witness. In fact, I cannot find anyone who has done 

and suffered so much for the glory of the apostolic see. If 

only our Holy Father knew this! I doubt not that he would 

fittingly recognize his services. All the street corners echo 

with the slanders and lies brought together to crush him. 

Wherefore I recommend him to your Grace, as a true friend 

and lord, and to the protection of the papal see. for which he 

fights and suffers danger of imprisonment, Had your Grace 

only heard the sermon which he preached on January r,' you 

would know how he felt and feels towards the papal see. 

Wherefore, I recommend him again to your Lordship. 

■C/. iMÜk ri sr- 

n Vn^/w tkia otlj in tt« ^aol>l!on* of PmiIm anil Wktck «rtilcli tt« In Ccrcnanj 
At uiEJixal «*> pctauoiablj LatJD- 

•TtlKl. who kad fc««fl n-»de rilf«n»ly tinpopulaf br Lulfcer'» attack on indal- 
Crocn, bad aaw laken retucc in the Dora! nie in elaUicr at L«ip(ic. Faalua, 



Let. tia 


Enders, v. 4. Leipsic, January 7, 1519. 

Aflcr ihc üiccting with MiltiCz at Altcnburs (gn which cf. jv^ro, 
no. 107). Luther and Mdanchthoti went to Lcipsic lor a few dzyi to 
see friends and make arrangements for the coming dcMtc with Eek. 

My dear Eck, we did our best to get the Leipaic faculty to 
grant us the favor of which you write,^ but they simply 
refused, alleging that h was none of tlicir business to get mixed 
up in this affair, but that jurisdiction belonged lo tlic bishops. 
Th« dean of tlie faculty of theology answered my letter in 
such a way that I fear cur debate will come to nothing unless 
you Iwive some other plan. 

I am, however, waiting with great eagerness to see you 
show, as you promise, that in my RcsoUtttons not even the 
foundations are vahd. You wonder that 1 have preferred 
Taulcr alone ("I know not who he is," you say) to Aquinas, 
Bonaventura and Alexander of Hales. It seems ridiculous 
to you that, when I have rejected so many men, 1 should 
demand that tliis one siiould be received by you, although be 
is unknown to the Qiurcli. Before you make an end of this 
dreamer, please deign to read him through, lest you, tratced 
in habits of inveterate trifling, should prove to be one of those 
tremendously wise men who call the Church the Pope, the 
bishops and the teachers of the universities, and should say 
that whatever they do not know is unknown to tlie Church. 
Yet I wonder who told you that Taulcr was unknown to the 
Church, i suppose you are the Church and know all things. 
Be careful not to take immaturely considered premises for 
granted, nor to judge from thetn, Wherefore if you wish 
to admonish me, pray avoid bitterness and pay careful atten- 
tion to the indivi<1ual propositions. Consider that I was not 
ignorant that he was unknown to ymir Church when I said 
that he was not to he h.i(l in the universities and did not write 
in Latin. Then I gave my reason for preferring him to the 

4P, Wk, 9, ). Verr litelT 1t>t> wroic « h[i Initlfailon. but ika inierTCBii«a diA 
a* coed u Ifilliif cBin* Id Lciptic In ihe nNiQc d( Janiurj and, ai^srdlnt la 
the ltft4lll«B, <*nnT«l liiiu >» nvrivlj ikai ht dicil ol tbictin oa tbc (olloviag 
Auc«H 11. 

'/. *; ftlvOag« of d«1i>(in|. Cf. n^fra, no. tog wid i lo. 

Ut. lis 



schoolmen, namely, that I learnt'd more from him alone than 
from all the others. Very prutlcnt of you to pass over these 
words of mine! I am at a loss to know why yon should 
threaten so dire a castigation for my ignorance, accusing mc 
of never having read nor understoml what you wrote, when 
you say of my authority : "I know not who he is." Beware 
of this ijrnorance; first, read the man, lest you should be 
found a foolish judge, condemning what you do not know. 
And not to demand what is bcjond your power, 1 do not desire 
that you should gatlier together all your schoolmen in order 
to find one sermon like one of his; I do not exact this, for I 
know that you could not do it. I only urge you lo strain 
«very nerve of your mind and scholastic learning to sec whether 
you can rightly understand a single one of his sermons. After 
that we will believe you, that he is a dreamer, and you alone 
wide awake or at least .sleeping with open eyes. I write thus, 
Eck. to Sparc you the trouble of admonishing mc vainly, in 
hopes that you will put up something which J shall not be able 
to tear down and which will not need to be changed, something, 
that is, worthy of your genius and study, so that neilher of 
lose our time. Farewell in the Lord, my dear Eck. 


r. i. 53- Lursic, January 10, 1519. 

. . The ilicologians at Lcipsic are extremely sorry to allow 
the disputation between Martin Luther and the professor of 
Ingolstadt, and beg that your Grace will be present at it in 

fson. . . . 
t, i. 54. MEScsEauRQ, Janiianr 11, istgi 

We doubl not lliat your Grace well knows that many scan- 
dalous writings and sayings about indulgences have recently 
gone about, causing mtich offence among the common people 
and much danger lo souls. Also, we have recently heanl from 

'A ntwicH toiHiclll«r of Dulcr Ccnme. and falter of tbc »Icbtattd hlibbp bI 
Nanvberv. Jntiua Fftut Accordinx lu a »rini In lb« itbl« idk <Biadi«il: 
I. isi) be carei) little for ivliiioo. 


Let ti6 

his Holiness at Rome that he will not suffer such matters to 
be disputed, inasmuch as they are not doubtful or disputable.' 
But we are informed by the worthy an<l teamed dean ol 
Meissen and his brother» that Dr. John Eck, of Ingolstadt, has 
begged of the University- of Leipsic the opportunity to dispute 
on indulgences, as your Grace doubtless knows. But we 
think, as the Pope expressly forbids the same, that we are 
straightly bound by our oath to hinder in our diocese all that 
might offend or disparage the honor of the Roman see. 
Wherefore we have written and warned the dean of the 
university. . . . 


Endcrs, L 34S. (WiTTXKBeitG), January 13, 1519. 

Greeting. Though I steal tliis hour from myself and my 
business, yet 1 write so that I may not seem ungrateful for all 
your letters and never to answer ihem. Wherefore I thank 
you heartily for your sincere and friendly advice and trouble. 
I would willingly make an end of this disturbance if only my 
adversaries would do the same. For as far as I sec, they 
propose to end the affair not with gentleness, but with mere 
force and clamor. So it happens that they arouse ever greater 
trouble and labor in vain. For I know well that nothing is 
ever quieted by force. I know the affair will hnd It3 end in 

It seemed highly unworthy in me to answer Prierias* trifies, 
if indeed they are his, for they are childish and womanish 
complaints of his own pain, nothing less. 

I had a most friendly interx-Iew with Miltitz and agreed: 
first, that silence shouUl be imposed on both sides, and secondly, 
tliat the Pope should delegate some German l>ishop to pick out 
the errors which I should recant. But unless God intervenes, 
nothing will come of this agreement, especially if they press 
me with that new decretal,* which I have not seen as yet, but 

Thii (cferi M til« boU oa indulimcn ol Norenibcr 9. isiB. Kidd. 
»t- "'■. *• M- 

■t»bB Hcnnifk «u 4ean «( MtiMcn from ijefri?. Hu biothci Uattbcw wm ■ 
prnfcMor of tli<oIarr ■* L>«p<ic ia 1511- 

*r. r., tht bull Cum fMttMM, MonnbM 9, ijiB. KHi, ef. dt., p. j«. Cf. 
■•M lelEcr. 


F «hich I have heard reals only on the plenary power [of Ihc 
Pope], without the authority of the Bible or the Canon Law, 
which certainly I would not allow even to the oldest decretal. 
Who knows what God proposes to bring forth from these 
monsters. As much as in me is I neither fear nor desire to 
protract the affair. There are many things which mny move 
this Roman slough, things which 1 will press home if they 
will lei me. But if God docs not wish tlieni to let mc, his will 
be done. I heartily desire to have the Ebners' as patrons, 
and 1 thank them for ihe box* ihcy sent mc. I hope that 
your Xurcmbcrgers" will answer to your hopes, since they 
are under the best teachers and attend the choicest lectures. 
Farewell in Ihc l-ord. and throw your care and mine on him, 
lest you b« too an.xious for me. 

Brother Martin Luther, Auffustiniait. 



Enders. L 340. {Wittenbehg). January 14 (1519). 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, do not be suqiriscd that snme 
people say I was conquered at a banquet in Dresden,' for Ibcy 
have long been saying just what they pleased. While there 
with our John Lang and our Dresden prior,' f was compelled 
rather than invited b>' Jerome Emser* to attend an evening 

■J*roaw Ebner aod bii (inllj- 

•Wkal th« b»« wM I do nol knö«, Tltt w&rd "cmu!«'* uiuall; «««a« "Iiut," 
bat can hardly Aa io in tliii conlvil. 

•J. /.. two Nu<«nibere boT» Mudyinit ai Wittcnbcnt. by namt Canfid Voleltmar 
■fid /obn Tncbct. 

«Lulfetr «rnt to Dtcaiko In Juit. isi^- prrachini there bef»re I>uke George 
ot Su#or on JuIt 15. Tlie (nlltil acconnt of ibla irlp fa In Grbar: Lmihrr. L 

*Hclcbior Hiriticfa of I)T«»Ini tnairicvlatcd al Wlittnbcrt i {07- Prior at 
Calocac ma, Uict Frlor si STuden and for a aboci lime in ibe NctlKrlantla. 
In ijii b< wu Prtot of Uaidcbari, and ia ipoica of o<cailDnal)r In Lulhcr*B 
Idlcn M a foltowrr of bU until t$ji. Enden, li. tfj. 

■T<io«t Ea>>«t (iitJT or t art-November S, iji?) mairiculatcd al Tübinucn 
'*93- bat misratfil tc Kiittr, wherr be looli hi« H. A. i^S and M. A. t^^q. lie 
va* Ibea lor kiri* tini« in Ihe tcrvice ol Caidinal Ralmotiil Peraudi. In 15U4 
IM lectured at Krfurt. l-iiihir bclnc one of hi4 (Tudrnti. but tnortd to Leitwic, 
•ber«. jo ijes, h« wai raide leerurer in tbeolorr. and «raa later employed on 
«wtooi ceeinlidaiu by Duke Ceorie. Prom ijif to ijt; be bad a bitter con- 
troTTTir «itb LiHber, and in 1534 witli ZjriniH In r^i? he produced ■ Gennan 
truulalio« of the Bible to correct ibe errotm of Lurhcr*«- See Mnitaphlea ttf 
T. Moaen (1890) and G, Kairmu {iHXl- Co-fput Ktftrrmaletuai. xc. ijnfl. 
/«^affMiia, i«tt. col. *tS. Hia conTrorcraial wotlu wilh Lulbcr of ijjt, jinb- 
Ibfeed br L. Endeta. a Tela-, iSgo, iBgi. 


drinking party. Thinking at first that I was among friends, 
I soon found out that I was in a trap. There was present 
one little Leipsic professor,' a little Thomist, who thoi^ht 
he knew everything. Though full of haired he spoke kinjly, 
but later when a dispute arose inveighed against me bitterly 
and loudly. All the while there stood outside, without my 
knowing it, a Dominican preacher,* listening to all I said. 
Later I heard that he said he was so much annoyed by what 
I said that he could hardly restrain himself from coming in 
and spitting in my face and calling me foul names. It tortured 
the man to hear mc refute Aquinas for that little professor. 
He is the man who boasts even to-day that I was on that occa- 
sion so confused that I could not answer either in German or 
in Latin. For because we argued as usual in mixed German 
and Latin,' he confidently asserted that I did not know the 
learned tongue. For the rest, our dispute was on rhe silly 
trifles of Aristotle and Aquinas; I showed him ihat neither 
Aquinas nor any of his followers understood one chapter of 
Aristotle. At last, when he got boastful. I asked him to gather 
together all the forces of his Thomistic erudition and explain 
to mc what it was to fulBl the commands of God, "for," said 
I, "I know that no Thomist knows that." This man of the 
primary school,' conscious of his ignorance, cried: "Give him 
some food, for thai is (he payment for schoolmasters." What 
else could he say. since he did not know the answer? We all 
laughed at his silly reply, and Icfi the table. 

Afterwards the Dresden prior wrote mc how they boasted 
and how in Duke George's court they called mc unlearned, 
proud, and I know not how many other bad names, also how 

>Hi* Mat *u WfiM«*MdI. Cf. Bindtcilr COtlo^im. L ij*. leiutknfl /Ar 
KirrhfHfftjckteliit. uitiii, 3«. 

'TrrimiiaTiin. 1. t.. a broibcr «fao wu appoinlcil to ptcub in tlic i&nricl 
uailDcd lu ibe taavcnl tn wbUb lo cutltcl ftln». Du Caact, *■ v. KatkoS'a 
tiaiulilion "AlmMcnaimmki" iZtif$chnfi fir Kirchtnarttlitckit, xxxia. 37) U a 
Kitle vagut. Tbii penoo coU«lcd whai LuÜwt »id, totcihcr witli otbcr dung* 
hr- bill latlcrei! in hin heiTnun *iid aomv tbinc* fronn hi» writings. >od SCDE tbta 
promptly lo Ronir. »Ixr« tbrjr piodactA ■ grrac «fttct, Inittii. Uiii piobablj bail 
freat vdthi in inducing Lca.if chine« Luthct'i luranatu to Rone lo « eiisiian 
lo AofabOTK. «here tl wu Iboui^l tie could be nore rcptHiiieiitlr deati wlth- 
KaUtoff. lee. r>(. 

Tbe (able lallt abmn Ikat lltia waa Indeed Luther's uaual cuaiiM. Cf, Ft*- 
•eraed S«nklh: lilkrr't TaMt Tali ti0o7), l>. gaR. 

'Homo €* Ifeif, Knder« would transliic "man of Ihe aire««." raltbwinc Ibe 

UL 117 



ätty twbted my sermon given in the castle. I treated the 

tfous history of the three virgins, and later tlie>' said in the 

%urt that I had traduced the virgins. In short, 1 found them 

a generation of vipers, wishing to do everything and able to 

do nothing, and considering it a spot on their glory if they leave 

a single word of mine unblamed. Despising these scare-crows, 

I wrote hack to the prior to keep quiet and let me tiave my 

Cain and Judas. But Einser earnestly excused himself at 

the time, and lately, also, meeting tue at Lcipsic,' he swore 

that he had not set any ambush fur me ; I told him I scorned 

such futile fur>'. If they are so learned, they have ink and 

paper, let them publish sometliing to show the splendor of 

their magnificent erudition. My sermon was on July 25, the 

day of Sl James the Greater, on the text:' "Ye know not 

what ye ask." I animadverted on men's foolish prayers to 

God. and taught what a Oiristian ought to ask for. 

I wonder what has happened to the Bishop of Meissen.' I 
sus))cct that he is finding out the truth of the proverb in 
Ecclesiasticus : "Honors change the character,"' to which wc 
commonly add "rarely for the better." I ne\er saw him, but 
I know he was formerly a great friend of Staupitz. Do not 
be surprised, Spalatin, to hear evil said of me. I rejoice to 
bear it; were I not cursed by men I would not believe that 
what I did was of God. Christ must be a sign* of contradic- 
tion, set up for the fall of many, not of the gentiles, but of 
Israel and of the elect. . . . 

1 confidently despise that man of little scruples who thinks 
I have become anathema. For as I do not fear those decretals, 
mere traditions of men (which my opponents fear, though 
they despise God without end), I shall boldly make war against 
them sometime. The wrath of the decretals does not bind nor 
hurt when the mercy of Christ protects. Would that this were 

nrr clawlol uu|p. I brlErre lb* irftTcnoc btrr )■ va (be nedieT«! "irlTtuni*' 
M prüiaiy <ourM of «ludin. 

■/. t., January j, «t tbtreabouu. c/. lut ttRcr. 

■Ukitkrw, UL. ion. 

■](iha Vn. of Scblciniiz, biiboii since Oclotxr it, tjift. Letten and docu- 
■nil «beul M« vbltitlt.s in Drctoril Soxooi' ijii-Jt mte pnbUikcil by K. Pallu 
U ArtMf /Or Rettrmatifiugtithuhir, t. tiyS. 

*1to«orea tntitasi Boro — f«(o in mel^ar»." 

ab«, a. J*. 


tlie greatest and only occasion {or him who docs God's work 
to fear. . . . Martin Ei^utueiuijs. 

P. S.^I do not think it worth while to answer Prierias. for 
we arc agreed that one of the Obscure Men^ has inipersonaied 
him, mocking the man by putting folly in his mouth to tempt 
me to answer him. 


G«9S, i SS- Leii-stc, January 15, 15191 

We would have your Grace know that Dr. John Eck has 
ask«d for a convenient time and place to hoUl his debate with 
Dr. Carlstadt. , . . Wherefore we forward his prayer to your 
Grace and ask that you will write us what you think on the 
matter. We will labor diligently in this for the profit 
of tlie university, not considering the earnest and written 
protest of Lord Adolph, Bishop of Merseburg. . . . 


Gcu, i. SS. (Before January i?, 1519). 

A Idler froir Duke George 10 Adolph, much to the same parpoK 
a$ thi», dated January 17, I* B^ven in transration in B. J. Kidd: 
Documtnls of the Contmtntai Reformation, p. 46. (Wrongly dated 
Ihere June 17: rf. ibid., p. viil) 

Dlcirith von Werthcrn ( 1468- September 4, 1536) Studied at Erfurt 
i47Qi 3i)<l HI BqIok:u \jfi6, where tic got his cloctoiate in law in 149$. 
In I498 he went to Pruisia, where he became Chancellor of the 
Teutonic Order. Later he entered the service of Duke George, who9e 
trusted councillor he was until his deatli. He was a strong Catholic 
and particularly bitter against Luther. AUgemeint deatjcht BiografkU. 

Dr. Eck has desired of us that he might debate after ilic 
scholastic manner before the theological faculty of Leipsic 
with Dr. Carlstadt, and has prayed that wc should »rrange 
with the said faculty for a time and place, and that we should 

'/, r., one of ibe auiborn of Usl ireit »alirc acaiott the ikt«lo(i«M, ibe 
Epufotar 0^JCWT9r«m t'iriWHn, 

■TV« Rector lot Ibc winter tcnnicr vu Joltu l-*ar« of LovrnVuia. C- Erkr: 
Dir MMrikti 4tr Unmrniät LtH-tk, lia. 


be present in person lo hear the debate. We have no obje& 
tion to the same, thinking that it will redound to the hräior 
and glory of the university to have such able men dispute 
before iL And we represented to the said faculty thai they 
should not object to the same, considering that they were in 
no wi&c conunitted to the st^jcct of the debate, but could take 
what stand they chose in it, and moreover, as they were 
doctors and teaclwrs of the Holy Scripture, tliat it was tlieir 
duty to bring to light what is true and what is false. But the 
dean of Meissen h»s informed me that it is not considered 
welt that the disputation should take place, which I think he 
did at the instigation of the faculty. For tliey are so small 
minded that they fear they will get into trouble througli this 
debate, or perchance, as they themselves confess, they are not 
able to converse with such learned men. . . . But we think 
that they should earn their bread by discharging the duty of 
theologians, namely, bringing the truth to li|^t . . . For 
otherwise 1 should have to tell the truth to Dr. Eck, namely, 
that I found my tlieologians so unlearned that they were 
afraid to dispute with such learned men. . . . 

End«-», i. 368. De Wette, I. 575. German. 

WlircKKxc (circa January 19^ i$i9). 

Serene, h^h-bom Prince, gracious Lord! Humbly to serve 
your Grace I hereby give you my opinion, the articles and 
tneans^ pointed out by your Grace to settle tlie hard business 
between myself, and the papal indulgence. 

First, I am ready in all humility to honor the Ronuin Church, 
and to prefer nothing to her, either in heaven or on earth, save 
God alone and his Word; wherefore. I will willingly recant 
any article proved to me to be erroneous. For it is impossible 
to recant ever>-thing indiicriminatcly. 

Secondly, 1 am not only willing, but eager, never to preach 
or teach again. For I have neither pleasure nor love in doing 
so, and get neither wealth nor honor by doing it. For I also 
know well that the treatment of God's Word is intolerable 

■Tlie*t vtre artklet propoMd br MJItl» to die «lector. 



to the world. But I have been and still am submusive to 
God's command and will in this matter. 

Thirdly, to have an impartial judge in the matter is all my 
desire, and in my favor. And as such a judge, I would naine 
the reverend father in God, the Archbishop of Trier,' or 
the Ardibishop of Salzburg/ or the serene Lord Btahop Philip 
of Freisingcn and Naumburg.' 

Fourthly, it has long move«! me to think that in Pope Julius' 
time, nine cardinals with all their followers were unable to 
accomplish anything, and that also the Emperor and kings 
were often humiliated by him ;* on the other hand, 1 have been 
strengtheneri, because I am absolutely positive that the Roman 
Church will not and may not suffer the inept and noxious 
preaching which I pointed out in my Theses; she cannot bear it 
nor uphold it. nor allow the poor people of Christ Co be 
deceived by the specious indulgence. 

It is small wonder that in these last, bad times, one or two 
men should be crushed, when wc con3i<lcr that in the time of 
the heretic Arius, when the Church was new and pure, all 
bishops were driven from their churches, and the heretics, 
with the support of the Empire throughout all the world, 
persecuted the solitary St. Alhanasius. So, if God in those 
blessed times so tried tlie Church, I shall not be much sur- 
prised if a poor man like myself be suppressed. Bui the truth 
remains and will remain forever. 

Fifthly, the new decretal* just issued at Rome on indul- 
gences, seems to me very extraordinary. In the first place, 
it says nothing new. Secondly, it repeats in a dark and diffi- 
cult form what the other decretals said. Thirdly, it does not 
repeal the other papal laws on which I founded my ailment, 
and thus leaves the matter in contradiction. Fourthly (and 

■ Kithard von Grcllltnttaa. AretUihap E1«clor. isii-'SJi. wbo ptijrcd M 
Imponanl part ii Wonni. Cf. infra, April «n<t M»t. IS". 

■Miitlicw Lanjc- 

■Philip. Count ?«l*liii( i>f thr Rhine Hithnp t^iT'Md 

^Mllllli lud «riMtn (he ikcioT to tdl Luther to coiuldcr Ui*l In lb« line 
of Tbr kte Pope Juliu* II,. "nine catJInnli. ibe Emperar, ike hlnti of Franc«, 
EnjilBnil. Scoilaod. BuiipiniJir, rnil ihe whole o( lul; wcr< «Biiiut the Pop«, Uki 
(«(■n ■ council, noi<rii)iatandlnc whkb ihr Pope hu iltpoMd ih« idd uidiiula 
■n4 burned their itatiKi, ana Ihtl the UoXy Church hid ihu* «Iwari Iriiiaipk«^.'* 
Cn^cn, i. J&f. 

*C»m feitifiMm, Nortwhtt «, 151S. Kidil, ep. til., a. 





is üie most important point), it does not, as all other 
decretals do, cite any word of tlie Biblt, the Fathers or the 
Canon Law, or give any reason, but consists of mere words, 
which have nothing to do with my request to be heard. 

And as the Church is under obligation to give a reason for 
!)er doctrine, as St. Peter command»,* and as it is frequently 
forbidden to receive anytliing not proved, as St. Paul says.- 
I cannot recognize the said decretal as an established and 
sufficient doctrine of the Church, and must rather hearken to 
God's commands and prohibitions. But though 1 will not 

Fore this decretal, yet I will not wholly reject it. . . . 
Your Grace's humble servant. Dr. Martin Luthel 
lies», i. 6j. Dresden, January i<>, tsig. 

We have read your letter [January 15] and as Dr. Eck has 
made the same request to us, we consider that honor, glory 
and profit will come to the univcr&ity and to all of you from 
this debate. And as our uncle aud friend, the Bishop of 

erseburg, objects to this debate, we have written him a 
letter, which we hope will make him change his opinion, and 
we are glad to hear that you are all united in favor of the 
debate now. . , . 



Tortus rrformatorum, i 60. (WmESBrw.'). Januao' 3a iS'l). 

. . . Our Martin, thank God. is yet alive. Do not desert 
the man. for he is sure that those men are the scourges, rather 
tha.n the rulers of the Church,* and mighty only to oppose 

ii. 1361 D« WctI«, i. 329. Wdinar, iL, 445. 

(WiTTENBEM, Januarj (?), 1519,) 

Peter Wolf (Ltipinu*), »f Radhem, matnculatc<l at Wittenberg ta 

'i Peter, iii. tj- 

'1 ThcutloeluH, r. at. 

■Ho« F^tlrtixi sUoiT^fraf, drtUrwot ««in alion/iiini 

■A Hebrr« word tumpfel«! in tbe neW. 




1503, and later became profe&sor of philosophy »ikI tbcologj- thvn. 
He was < friend and follower of Luihcr until his death. May 1, 1521. 
This letter is the preface to Luther's Cemmrntary on CaUtihiu, 
which appcarcd in print early in September, 1519, This letter, how- 
ever, was certainly composed consideiably earlier. Luther speaks of 
Era*mus' Paraphrase to Galatianj, publiahcd August, 1519, 23 not j« 
out. Moreover, the absence of all allusion 10 the debate with Eclc, 
which began to play a considenhlc part in his thoughts as early •• 
February. leads us to place this letter about January. The Ci^inmmiary 
it reprinted Weimar, ii. 476!!. 

Most learned Sirs, I have recently been clialring about 
indulgences, trifling words, as I thought, about trifling matters, 
but now, as I have found out, serious words about the most 
serious of all matters. For, foolish and erring, I measured 
sins and errors by the divine commands and the holy gospel 
of Christ, but those friends of mine, in their glorious wisdom, 
measured every kind of work by the power of the Pope and 
tlic privileges of the Roman Church. This is the reason why 
we think so differently, and why [ have raised such a storm 
against myself among those most Christian and religious pro- 
fessors of theology. Wliat I always feared has happened to 
me, n.imely, that I should be variously judged; to some I seem 
impious, to others quarrelsome, to others vainglorious, to 
eveiy man something different. This is the common lot of 
men who (as is commonly said) build in public and write for 
the public. I have found almost as many teachers as readers, 
and that gratis, under whose auspicious guidance I had to 
leam, under penalty of becoming an obstinate heretic, that 
no man could .<;in more gravely than he who doubts the opinions 
of men and opposes their zeal for disputing, even if by not 
doing so he meantime denies Christ and Qirist's faitli and 
childish matters of that sort. 

When I was at Augsburg I had, as you know, a paternal 
and kind instructor in this matter. And the most illustrious 
rule of these most illustriotis men has brought it to pass that 
there now obtains a new and admirable Oirisiian liberty, by 
which men may do what they like with impunity, provided 
they do not sin against the only law that is left, namely, the 
power of the Pope and the privileges of the Roman Church. 
HcDCC. it is holy to connive at and consent unto all the crimes 




comiptions which now, under the muocent and sacred 
^ame of Pope and Church, flood evety land without cod; it U 
even pious to praise them for the highest virtues, but it is 
sacrilegious to murmur against them. So great is the wrath 
of Almighty God, and so much has our impious ingratitude 
deserved that the tj'ranny o£ hell has been bürne so 
long. We see that it has long made men groan in vain, and 
has made the holy and tctrihic name of Christ, in which wc 
are justified, glorified and saiicti^cd, become a cloak for fou], 
dirty, horrible nwnstcrs of avarice, tyranny, lust and impiety. 
It has forced the na:ne of Christ into the service of vice, and, 
what is the last of evib, has crushed the name of Christ by 
itself, has laid waste the Church in the name of the Church, 
and has altogether mocked, deceived and damned us by the veiy 
instruments of salvation. 

WTierefore, while they are occupied with these great mat- 
ters, while they bile, wliilc they cut themselves witli knives' 
before their Baal, while they sacrifice to the Lindian god,* 
while they boast of their Extravangante/ and of those faithful 
witnesses of Roman learning, their declaratory decretals, I 
determined to betake myself to the least of things, tiiat is, to 
the sacred writings, and among tliem to those of Paul the 
Apostle, who, by his own leslimony, was the least of writers. 
For he was not yet the chief of the apostles, or pontifex 
[ maximus, but he proclaims himself the least' of the apostles, 
not worthy to be called an apostle. So far is he from boast- 
ing that he is most holy of all; he even says that he was of 
the tribe of Benjamin,* the son of Joseph,* who was called 
the least of all his brethren, and that everything might be 
"least," he judges' that he knows nothing save Christ, and 
him crucified, that is, the least and last of all things. For he 
was well aware that it was not for an ignorant, unlearned 

>t Wattf, ivlii' 39. 

UMOfdl&B 10 EtanmiM* ASagti, t. v., tliU proverb U uard nf tho*e vho Vein 
■ bolrcanK witb ■ b«4 omrn. Ilt-rtvlr* atule two oxen fraai a [inunt of Lindna. 
and Äa Uttrr curied ktm wiib »i> tittle cflccc tbnl it otAj mi'dc llerculFii laugb. 

•Fut «f the CaKin Law. Lutber baa ciii«liU7 In tnind the decretal C%m 
fMi^wan of Komnbcr 9, 1J18. 

•1 CorioiUAOi. XT- 9- 


Let Hi 

apostle, but only for thrice great theologians, to treat of those 
greatest and chief of alt things, the power of the Roman 
Church and her decretals. 

I hope that this work of mine will have better fortune, be- 
cause it treats affairs of no consc<iucncc, the power of Christ, 
by which he is strong in us even against the gates of bcU, 
and the privileges of the celestial Church, which knows neither 
mighty Rome nor holy Jerusalem, nor any other place, nor 
seeks Christ here or there, but worships the Father in spirit 
and in truth.' Why should tliese great men be moved or 
irritated by these trifles, since tliey are outside of ilwir 
province? Wherefore I appear before the public the more 
safely because I abstain from speaking of what irritates them, 
and treat little matters suitable to my mediocrity. But if any- 
thing is left of that old commotion over important matters. I 
leave it to them, because I am one poor, weak man. and 
while they stand idle all the day, I am very busy. Wherefore, 
it is unnecessary for both parties to this quarrel to be hurt by 
it, it is sufficient evil that one party grieve and be sad. 

Speaking seriously, excellent sirs, I honor the Roman Pontiff 
and his decrees. N'one is above him, without exception, save 
the prince of this vicar of Oirist, namely, Jesus himself. Lord 
of us and of all men. I prefer his word to tlie words of his 
vicar, and liave no doubt tliat we should judge all the words 
and deeds of the vicar by liis word. For I desire him to be 
subject to this universal rule ol the apostle: "Prove all 
things, hold to that which is good."' I will suffer none to 
withdraw his neck from this yoke, whetlicr in the name of 
the mother or of the mistress of all churches. I have the 
more reason for this position as in our time we see some 
councils rejected and others accepted,' theology treated as a 
matter of mere opinion, the sense of law depend on the arbi- 
trary opinion of one man. and in short, everything so con- 
founded Uiat almost nothing certain is left to us. But it is 

■i TbMMtoalxi*, V. tt> 

tTlt aulhoritj of the Conncil at Bulc ni toranllj rrpsijlaicd ItT A« LftlcfU 
CooMil »r tjt*, a rs«Mur« I»t(r <onfirm*i] b? Lev X.'* knll Pulor «fltrnut, Ea 
StfilHu. Dterti. R>. ]. lit. ;. t. I. Luibct kxl quotcJ tlii* ulrtaij in ll>r Alt» 
Jt*t*ita*» (Ociober, t]i>), knd tn ■ letter of .Vovtmlxr 19, tjtS. EciUn, L ilj. 





clearer than day that niany decretals are repugnant lo the 
gospel, so that we are simply forced to fly for refuge to tiiat 
solid rock of Scripture, and not to believe anything, no mai- 
ler what, that speaks, commands or does anything without this 
ilhority. . . . 

But to return to myself and to you, excellent Sirs; I refer 
'to you, or, to use Paul's word,' ] lay hcfore you this &tudy of 
mine on Paul's epistle, a small tiling, not so much i com- 
mentary as a witness of my faith in Christ, unless, perhaps, I 
shall have run in vain* and not have seized Paul's meaning. 
In this point, because it is a mighty matter from God, I desire 
to learn even from a boy. Certainly I should have preferred 
to have waited for the commentaries long since promised us 
by Erasmus.* that theologian too great even lo envy. But 
while he procrastinates (may God grant it be not forever), 
this fate which you sec, compels me to publish. I know I am 
A child and unlearned, but yet, if I dare say it, zealous for 
piety and Christian learning, and in this more learned than 
those who have made the divine commands simply ridiculous 
by the impious addition of human laws. I have only aimed 
to make Paul clearer lo tliose who read my work, so that they 
may surpass me. If 1 have failed, I shall h:ive willingly lost 
^-jDy labor, for at least I shall have tried to incite others to 
^Ktudy Pauline theology, for which no good man will blame me. 

£n(lers, i. 407. (WimsNitEKt), Februarj' 2. 1519. 

Greeting. Learn briefly. Egranus, my present situation. 
Charles von Miliiiz was sent to our elector armed with more 

an se\"cnty jKipal breves, all drawn up with the purpose of 
liaving me sent alive and bound to that murderous Jerusalem,' 
Rome. But on the way he was smitten to the earth by the 

rd. that is, he was frightened by the numbers of those who 
'avor me. for everywhere he carefully inquired what men 

■CiImImu. U. j. 
*i Corinikiknt. ix ti. 

■CnMODa' Par%pht*tf to Calaliaiu. publlibed b; Frobcn. Bulc, Auguu, tsiQ, 
'iNiothKO f-rwMuma. ■ 14J. 
*")(mMlcn tkii kiUcM ibt iirtip&cu." UaiUicir, iilil. 37. 




Let. la« 

thought of me and changed his violence into an easily assumed 
benevolence, pleading witli mc at great length to recant for 
the honor of the Roman Church. I answered him' to this 
intent: Let the method of recantation be prescribed, and the 
reason of my error given, and let it be such a reason as to 
appeal both to the learned and to the people, lest a recantation 
on suspicious grounds should excite more hatred against Rome. 

We Iinally agreed to leave the matter to the arbitration of 
cither the Bishop cf Salzburg or the Bishop of Trier, and 
thus vfc separated amicably, with a kiss (a Judas kiss!) and 
tears — i pretended that I did not know they were crocodile 
tears. Thus far we got; I know not what they will do at 

Miltitz says that no affair has arisen for a hundred years 
that has caused more trouble to that most idle crowd of 
cardinals and of Rcimaniztng Romanists, and that they would 
rather give ten thousand ducats' than let the thing go on as it 
has begun. I rejoice and commend everything to God. 

I wrote you before, advising you not to leave Zwickau, for 
you can get plenty of leisure and books to study (ircek tlicre. 
You owe more to God, that is, to tlie people of God, than to 
yourself and culture. I desire to know what you dislike in the 
doctrine of faith which seems so plain and open to nie. For I 
do not separate justifying faith from love; rather we believe 
on him who pleases us, and he in whom we helieve is loved. 
Grace makes the Word pleasant to us. and makes us believe 
it. which is the same as loving it. All the propositions recently- 
put forward about faith, hope and charity do not please mc. 
for those who discuss tliem seem to me to understand none of 

I saw our friend Eck at Augsburg and tried to get him to 
meet our CarUtadt at I^ipsic to decide their dispute, and 
after some demur he agreed. What does the man do then? 
He takes my Theses, rips them up. and says not a word about 
him with whom he is disputing. You might think it a carnival 
ma^.* I am forced to engage the man at close quarters to 

*Oii ibc mttüas wliL UUtlii «t A)tcnbuif eulr In fk&uwr. Snltb. mS. 

■A dncal «u li'jo or ten iliillinsi. 

■Al cirtitril linx In G»nnanr (juit b«f»rc Ltnc, (. «., ■boul tkt time Lutkcr 


defend my ofnnions of inclutgences. Tlie boastful little beast 
is most unfortunate. He promises a fight after liastcr. Some 
say he is suborned by the Duminicans. ^^le Lord's will be 
done. I would have sent a copy of his paper, but I only have 
one sent me from Nuremberg. I send CarUtadt's booklet on 
the JuslifUation of Ihc IVicked' and the conclusion of his 
edition of Augasttnc's De spinlu et Utera' hoping' that you 
have ibe lirst part. Farewell in Christ and pray for me. 

Martin Luthsil 

Eflders, L 4M B^slc, February 14, i$t9. 

John Proben (c i46(»>>S^). of Hammelburs in Franconia, siudicd 
at Baslv. whr« he prinwd his fiiM book, a Bible, 1491. In 1500 he 
made a paTtncrshtt> wiili John Amoibach. In r5t4 he formctl a con- 
ncciion with Erasmus for the purpose of bringing out the Greek 
Totarocnt and Jerome's works, toth of which appeared in 1516. 
After (hit his relations with Erssmus were close until his death. Life 
in AUgtmtttte dtuitche Biographie. Thü letter, which is of great 
interest as showing how early Luther's books attained an inlcniBtional 
r«iNita(ion, arrived at Wiitetiberg on March I2ih. 

Blasius Salmonjus,* a printer of Lcipsic, gave me some of 
your books, which he had bot^ht at the last Frankfort Fair,' 
wliich, as they were approved by allthc learned. I immediately 
reprinted.' We have sent si.K hundred copies to France* and 
Spain;' Ihey are sold at Paris, and are even read and ap- 

wu viiiinR tki«> ntwlu or p*nr»aiitnn were placed br nainmer«. Tbej *n 

■knovn w "PutRacttipiilr." 
' ^r.pilsuMt A. Carf:iiadit fV imfit i<utilU«ti«nt, Lci[>iic, ISIO- 
*rf. tupn, no. 11 and A. Humlwft: Lt* Origintt At (a thittegit moitntt, 

*OtlKiwiM anknoire. 

•The ((•"t book'iB&tt of CcmimT. Cf, J. W. TbompsaD: Thr Prtitfon Bcek 
Ptir: Iff FttntattfJitnjt Emftrtun ef Htnfi Eilirnnt. ChlCKfa. C«»i«n Club, 

*!■ tbc dir* Ivtor« tofyrifflit book* wtr« (r** tor all. In lliit cat« tkt teamed 
did Bot JBtlixIt Erunmi. vlto trremicd carnoEly *cain>t lb( ^nbliciUion ut 
Lsikcf'a wbtki. Cf. ■"/•■«, "1. 140. rrob™'« v<>Ium' toniiiord Tkr fJinnyfiv* 
Tktitt, ihe Knst»iiaiu. tie Anm-tr ta Prtfriar. and the «ermona on FtKttuM* 
wmA »a tt< furkarixf. Abo Carlaucli'i Tktttj of Mar. tp8. D« Jonxh: 
L'mncimiit FantlU rf« Thfeteji* d tmtCRin. p. ivi. Cf. t*lfa. no. Ol. 

• So Qwran «tliH to Zwinsli on Nai^mbrf i, i;]r>. from I*ar44, tliAl no baak* 

are tooffcl nore quitkly iban Luibrr'i. Corfui Pr/nrniUorua, xciv. 361. Thi:a 

alu> Lcf^rt d*Piaplct Iramed to know Lutbrr. in nbam be icni a irrciint on 

Aliril 9, I}I9 UemUnJard. Carr/jfoaifaRi'r liri ti'>»rmatfiiri, i. (^ 

^^m *An CMir [ndiE*lion of the iproad of LuEbrtaniisi aad prnbablir of Lulb«ran 



proved by the doctors of the Sorbonne,' as certain of our 
friends have assured us; for some of the most learned say 
that they have hitherto missed among those who treat Scrip* 
y ture the same freedom t'lat yon show- 
Francis Calvus,' also a bookseller of Pavia, a most learned 
man, one devoted to the Muses, has taken a good part of 
your books to Italy to distribute them among all iJic cities. 
Nor docs he do it so much for gain as to aid piety. He has 
promised to send epigrams written in your honor by all the 
learned in Italy, so much does he like your constancy and 
skill. . . . 

We have exported your books to Brabant and England.* 
We only printed three hundred copies of your Rrply to 
Prierias. . . . We have sold out all your books except ten 
copies, and never remember to have seid any more 
quickly. We expect to bring out the second edition of Eras- 
mus' New Testament much enlarged, within ten days. Fare- 
well, reverend Father 


Gess, i. 69. Leipsic, rcbniar)- 15. 15191 

At your Grace's written command, we have granted perrois- 
sion to the honorable and learned doctors, John Exk and. 
Andrew Carlstadt, to debate. Thereupon the said Dr. Ecfc 
reduced to writing his conclusions on Dr. Martin Luther's 
propositions conceniing grace, in order to give public notice 
of the debate with Dr. Carlstadt at your Grace's universi^. 

traotu in Spaninh dnmlniani \a lb* con il*ni nation ot a Luth^ifi •■ Ukjar«i In 13*}. 
H. C Lea: Hülary ef Iht Spanuh Iti^MiMiiim U^oji, lii. ^ty C/. infrm, 
April, isji. nc. 411. 

>C/. Tttbitilt (0 Rbenanui. Mar I?» ISIO. Hcrminjard, i. 47. On April if, 
ijji, I.iiibtr'i work* «ere tottnxHy condemnnl by ilic SoTbonae. Cf. Swtlu 
Of. fil-, «53. 

>ralrui l> ofieo tncnliomcd In Eraamiu' Idler*. On the >a1c nf Luther's «orki 
in ViniM'. P«vi>, *nd HoIukik. ff. TaiiDr, Hülery ef tk€ Poprt (EnEliib tran» 
Utlan by Kerr), a. joC, Also Benntli: ftftarmetiaH in yenriig, p. 1, wber< 
for i)i8 read ■;■«- Alio Rtaltntytl<fpSiie, ix. 514. On CaUu«, FücilcniBnii- 
Cvntber, i, v. 

*CI. Oxford Uiit^rifl C<iHte'»mr9, i- till- Daybook of J«\ti Dome, book- 
•rllcr of OifuFil. (or ijia. Amonc L«(li*('i worki the fallowinf trcn Aea told: 
Ofrr*, a copjca; Lr^tir t)fhelf, 11 Cemtmnla*^ irn Calalitiu, i) Df /rrrftol« 
Paft, 6 «r 71 Ke$eltifi»iu (for L«ip4ie d*buc). r: Ffptiut It Ptitriu, \. 


otheä contemporary letters 


Straightway Dr. Lutlier,' compelled by this to mix in the 
debate, thinking to defend and uphold Dr. Cartstadt. publishes 
a letter in which he announces, contrary to your Grace's 
written command and the decision of the whole honorable 
I university, that the said debate is at an end, and, nevertheless, 
^^irithout greeting your Gract or the university, he publicly 
^■nd in writing Announc&<i that he will debate at your Grace's 
^Rniversity. And as the said Dr. Martin touches the legal 
^^ights of the Pope's Holiness, the said debate would be thereby 
hindered, and cverj-one would be deceived by having the 
^■trulh thus abandoned. Wherefore wc beg that your Grace 
^■rill sec to it that Dr. Lutlier sliotild not announce debates 
^^tilhout your Grace's or the university's consent. 

Enden, i. 424- Basle, Fdiroary 18, 1519. 

Switzerland and the Rhine country as far as the ocean, is 
solid for Luther, and his friends in these regions are both 
powerful and learncct. Recently, when it was rumored that 
you were in danger/ Cardinal Matthew Schinner, the Count 
of Geroldseck.* and a certain learned and much honored 
bishop,* and not a few of our other friends," promised you 
nol only financial support, but a refuge, in which yon might 
cither hide or live openly. When it was noised .ibroad that 
you were laboring in great difficulty, some men tried to send 
you a large sum of money through me and they certainly 
would have done so. But this evening we received golden 
news, that Luther lives and will live always. Then we saw a 
copy 01" the letter of the ilhistrious and truly princely elector 
to Cardinal Cajetan, by which we know that you do not need 
our aid.* But if we can do anything we certainly will. We 

>Ob Ait ff. Smith, of. til., p. jg. 

»/. f_ *r beinf «eiil la Ron«. wh«ii Lolhtr «u Ihlslcing of leivins Willenbef«. 
twff*. Bit. >oo. 

■Oletell III Ton GeroMaKli et Swabla. admiriitnior at rhe tlt>i«I«r of Eincle. 
(ftln, m dnr frl«ail of Zwincli, «iib whom be dJtd *t th< ^ttle of Kappcl. 

Octohti Tl. IIJI. 

*nitlitoi?b«t TOO UlKfibHin. Bjthop of Bulc i50S>t5J6, irhen be mlcncd. 

nf The neu year. 
•Ipcludin« Zwiaiill, ihlslo R»niulT, Cerfui Srfermalentm. xäw. 40J. dow u 
Bui 7*lnfl) h*i w fTl »hata »Binn imerenl in LuLtcr. 

"Drcemtiei S. 1518. rffuaing lo lire Lulbcr up, tcijcn. i. ]io. 

1 Oct 



Ut. 136 

have printed your collected works, as yon will learn from 
Froben's pft, and within six weeks after the Frankfort Fair 
sent them to Italy, France, Spain and England, in this con- 
sulting' the puhlic welfare, which wc think is udvaoccil by 
having the truth spread abroad as widely as possible. Nature 
by mean$ of truth allures even an enemy to love her. For- 
give me for recently telling you of Erasmus' opinion,' which 
was bringing owls to Athens,' 

Enders, i 43S. De Wctte-Seidenunn, vi. la German. 

WiTTENDOc, February 19, 151^ 

My humble poor prayers and lowly service to your Grace. 
Serene, high-born Prince, gracious Lord! The worthy Dr. 
Eclc writes that he has applied to your Grace to permit and 
graciously to favor a debate against the worthy Dr. Carlstadt 
in your Grace's university at Leipsic. But although Dr. Eck 
proclaims that he will debate against Dr. Carlstadt, yet he 
hardly notices his articles, but falls with all his might on my 
position. ITicrcforc, it would become me to meet this pre- 
sumptuous giant' and defend my position or let myself be 
better instnicted. Wherefore it is my humble petition to 
your Grace, for the love of the truth kindly to allow such a 
debate. For now the worthy gentlemen of llie university 
have written that what 1 formerly heard they had promised 
to Dr. Eck has been refused by them, for they lay it up 
against me that I let my propositions for debate be published 
before 1 asked permission of your Grace; this was because X 
had confidence that your Grace would not forbid me, but 
would be ready, as Dr. Eck has boasted you promised him. 
I pray you graciously for^ve me, and may Goil mercifully 
spare and uphold you. .^men. 

Your Grace's obedient chaplain, 
Dr. Maktin I-uther. jiuffustmian. 

Kf. rwff*, no r» 

•/. #.. "todli lo Ntwculk." 

*"Dann unäarirtrnl''nn ryi»n tt\t cmpf hQ " f fnllaw IIntip«*i RioJ*mitMla)i - 
"Den unvMT*»nn«n Rirtin »it »tnpf»hen" (Si. I.ou)ii Watch, nri. A. p. i«»), | 
bivi mlM (houcbt (hu "rmen" nii«bl sund for "Reite," ä. t.. "undend« tbU 
untxpMicd ioBiDvy.** 

L«. 130 





Cess, L 73. Ingolstadt, February 19> 151% 

I was somewhat troubled when I henrd that you did not 
care to bear the burden of hearing and judging lis, although 
I received your letter late, that is on February 4. But now I 
am made more cheerfu], since 1 have learned that you have 
changed your opinions, fur whidi I render you immortal 
thanks. Concerning the time of the debate I should like it to 
begin on June 27, for reasons given in another tetter to your 
university, for I shall be obliged for urgent reasons to be 
away from our University of Ingolstadt then anyway. . . . 
I am writing to Luther to he present, for there is just as much 
reason for his presence as for that of Caristadt, for in mv 
poor opinion, both of thcni are equally in error. We shall 
fold out by this debate. . . . 

^Hldtn, 1. 4J3. VViTfEKBEKC, February 301 I5I9- 

Greeting. I blame myself, excellent doctor, for so rarely 
writing in answer to your numerous greetings. But again I 
excuse myself in that I am laboring with such a monstrous 
mass of business. That learned Dialogue of Julius and Peter^ 
pleased me much, for it contains much fruit if read carefully. 
1 tegtex that it is not known at Rome. I almost dared to 
iranslaic it;* not that the author is the first to reveal the 
horrors of the Roman nzrJa. but he confirms what has. alas ! 
long been known. Would lliat the Roman prelates might be 
warned of their tyranny and impious rashness even by trifles 
of this sort, which tliey Scc are spread abroad through the 

Eck, who has hitherto fairly dissimulated his rage against 
me. now reveals it. See what sort of man he is. But the 
God of gods knows what catastrophe he is planning for this 
tragedy. In this neither will Eck act for his own ends, nor I 

*Ka.^Aittg (fl ihc IIlIiIv lilk Lutlicf tticj to Ao ta but fsve it op rearing 
h« c*liM aoi do tkc (Ijric Jutllcc^ In the »line uyinf Le itlribtilE* III* auilioTtblp 
rJt&t'.T (a Eratna*. E. Rrek«r: Lnlhcrt TitckrtJ^n in d«r itaUhttucKeH 
Stmrnluif, lft»3. B«. 4S- 



Let. ip 

for mine, for I chink God's counsel is directing it all. I luve 
often said that what I have hitlierto done has been mere pUy, 
but that now I will act in earnest against the Pope atid Romaa 
arrogance. . . . 

Brothiir Martin Luther, Augustintan. 

Koldc: /Inaltcta, 6. (Ekfl'«!?). Fcbruaiy 24, igl» 

... I hardly know what to promise about our Elcutherius. 
I wrote you before that ahrost everyone here approves what 
should not be approved for the sake of seeming Lutheran, 
even when they least agree with Luther, as, for example, on 
(he power of the Pope, which can neither be assailed nor 
ditninished by our barking. The common crowd like to hear 
evil of ecclesiastics, especially in our time when, for our sins, 
the ckrgy has become a byword in society. It is said that 
recently while preaching in the church of St. Peter, he raved 
I know not what folly about the throne of the Pope and the 
power o£ the keys, all of which was dihgenlly written down 
by enemies. You would do well to write to Amsdorf to 
admonish Martin not to speak so angrily without cause in 
public about the Pope and the other prelates. Some ixjrtent 
is brewing; but may Christ grant that it come not among 
us. We must go another road. The Church cannot be re- 
formed by our contrivance, if it has to be reformed at all. 
I write from my heart, knowing that you cherish the Iionor 
of the university. Yours. 

Otto Deckmann. 

Note. — At tliis point Enden (i. 44a) inserts a letter from Luther to 
Leo X., dated "(.XltCTihiirg), M.irch 3, 1519." and it is laltcn into Ih« 
St. Louis edition (*xi. no. 155), dated Fcbniary, It was really com- 
pojied in January, at Luther's interview with Miltit*. bv\ as it did not 
satisfy tlic latter it was never sent, and U therefore not included in my 
translation. Küstlin-Kawcrau, i. 324. 



Enders, L 44$. Dresdck, Mardi 4. 1519. 

Worthy, teamed, dear and ptous Sir! We have rccdved 

Ut. 133 



your letter' about tlie debate allowed by us to be held at our 
Uni%'er5ity of Leipsic, between Drs. Eck and Carlstadt, and 
containing your excuses, all of which we have noted. Since 
Dr. Eck wrote us that he had agreed on the debate witli I>r, 
Carlstadt and prayed for peiriiissioti to hold it ai Leipsic, 
wc did not wish to refuse him. If now you agree among 
yourselves to debate, and then make a further request to us, 
we will then, as beseems us, consider your petition and give 
you a pnidcnt and gracious answer. This in answer to your 

EnJcrs. >. 44& (Wittcndeiig), March S, 1519. 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, you have twice urged mc to 
make nicnlion of faith and workiJ and of obedience to the 
Koman Church in my German apology.' I think that I have 
done so. although it was published before your warning! 
came. It was never my inteniion to secede from the apostolic 
Roman sec; indeed, 1 am content that the Pope should be 
called, or even »hould be, the lord of all. What business is 
it of mine? For I know that we must honor and tolerate 
even the Turk because of his power, and because I know, 
as Peter says,' that there is no power save what is ordained 

lof Gotl. But I act for my faith in Christ, that they may 
not treat his Word as they please, and contaminate it. Let 
the Roman decretals leave me the pure gospel and take away 
all else, 1 will not move a hair. What more can I or ought 
I do? Moreover, most willingly shall T abide by the agree- 

finent.' for I liope this debate will he a debate for the learned 
only, and my instruction will be sufficient for the laity. 

Vera desire to know who were the men who requested the 
elector to change the course of studies.* They were the 

'Febnnry 19, mfv«. no. tjA. 

'VnlttTKAl *■/ rtlieht ArlittI, Wtlmar. II. 6i. Tbl* «u ■ paiKr ittwa w '■ 
(hr nqarM of Milliti, tf- Rrailk, g6(. PerbipB Spalslin had tw«n iaSatnuil hf 
the kiler of tWrVmann, fl"". ■>«■ <]■. 

*Cf. I Piter, ii. ij. Ihnufb Luther {iralMblr nwaM Paal** EpUlU ed tb* 

R<Hft>M, xiit. I . 

*J. t., witb MI1((M la Imp riltnee. tf. Smitb, fjf. 

*Fm mm liin« Ltiihtr and bii (n>n()« bii4 b««n i(**in>a* of r«fonntni tb« 
«vrrieiftlBdt hf canuliai tbe iMlarn on Ariifalle'i Fhytici Mid do AaninM*« 


rector/ Carlstadt, Armsdorf and fT The protest does not 
please many, though tliey have poor reason for objecting to 
it, for tliey consider not tlie proßt of the students, but the 
salaries of the professors. Conversing with one of them 
recently, I said if tlie salaries were given for the sake of sup- 
porting the professors, the university was changed into an 
eleemosynary institution. Let the needy be supportetl in some 
other way ; here we must consider proper studies alone. They 
are blind and without judgment. I hope tlie most illustrious 
elector will take good counsel in tltts matter. 

Ekotheb Mabtin Lutiiek. 

13* luther to the elector frederic of saxony. 

Enders, L 448- De Wette, i. 2361 German. 

WrrTESBERd, March 13. 1519. 
My poor, humble prayer is ever for your Grace! Most 
serene, high-born Prince, most gracious I-ord ! Your Grace's 
chaplain, Spalatin, has sent to tnc certain points concerning 
me, fonvarded to your Grace by the Honorable Charles von 
Miltitz, commissary of the Pope's Holiness, demanding, 
namely, that 1 should henceforth keep silence and not b^:in 
anything new, as we agreed at Altenburg. Now God knows 
that I am anxious and would be happy lo have the game end 
tlius, as far as in me lies; and I liave kept myself so strictly 
to the agreement that I have let Silvester Prierias' AnsTver' 
go, although it gave me much cause to reply, and has given 
my opponents much reason to mock me; yet have I kept 
silence contrary to the advice of my friends. However, 
Miltitz knows well that our agreement was that I should keep 
silence on condition that my enemies did the same. But now 
Dr. Eck has without warning attacked me, in such manner 
that he seems to seek not my shame only, but the dishonor 
also of your Grace's University of Wittenberg. Many re- 
spectable people think that he was bribed to do so. It did not 
become me to pass over his fickle, treacherous attack and 

(ATt*(<>l]e**7> Lcgic, ilFvodng lb< MUri»« paiil for tbete eoano partlr V» 
hacicutng UcluicbiliDD'i pi; iiid pully I» hifins ■ pnltaat lo Imtut« «■ 
Ovid'i Mrlomorfkatti. Cf. P« Watlt'Sciifintnn, vi. ij. 

■BiHbalDmcw Bertihiirdi ol F«Idkinb. 

'Ktflic« F. Syhtttri PrUriuit, iftt. on whkh tf, LtocAcrt, o^. eil-, itS. 




leave the tnith to be mocked. TIius they would gag me. and 
open everyone else's mouth ; thus your Cirace can imagine that 
in this case any man. who othcnv-ise perhaps would not dare 
to look at me, might fall upon mc. Now with all my heart I 
am disposed olieihently to follow your Grace's true counsel, 
and always keep still, provided they will do the same, for I 
have much to do, and do not seek my own pleasure. But if 
^thcy won't keep silence. I lumibly pray your Grace not lo 
ikc it ill that my conscience will not suffer me to abandon 
the truth. And although my position touches the Pope's tloli- 
ncss, yet was I obliged, in the course of the debate, to take the 
opposite side [to Dr. Eck's], always reserving my humble 
obedience to the Holy Roman See. God grant your Grace 

Kvation. Amen. 
Your Grace's humble chaplain, 
Dtt. Martin Luther, Augustintan. 

Enden. I. 448. Witten REK«, March 13, ijig. 

It win be beyond Melanchihon's power, dear Spalatin, to 
VC so many extra lectures, when he already has more than 
enough to do. Even if you tliink he should lecture alternate 
days, yet he will have none the less anxiety. Moreover, 
Aristotle's Physicis arc completely useless to every age; the 
whole book is an argimient about nothing, and, moreover, a 
begging of the question. His Rhetoric is of no use either, 
DqIcss one wishes to become an expert in rhetoric, which is 
mach as though one exercised his mind studying dung or 
other stuff. God's wrath has decreed that for so many ages 
(he human race should occupy itself with these follies, and 
without even understanding them. I know the book inside 
oot, for 1 twice have expounded it to my brothers, having 
rejected the usual commentaries,' In short, we have decided 
to allow these lectures to continue only for a short time, since 
ercn an oration of Beroald* wouhl be more profitable, as 

'LvrbtT Imuinl on Ailira(Ie*i Flhtti ini] PhyiicM ilurin^ hit ftril ynr it 
Wiitmbtrs. i^li-9. Kii didike of the Stiaitii« bociQ ibout thu tiot. Cf, not« 
10 Ancnirine, Wnour, is. 17. 

*mbp ScrcMld. i4!J-tsos. IcciuKd on eloquence it Pmatt, Milan and PiHi. 



Aristotle has not even an understanding of natural phenomctka* 
Of like quality are his books on Metaphysits and the SouL 
It is unworthy of the mtnd to wallow in such a stough af 
folly; if he must be read to fulfil the requirements, he bacf 
better be read without comprehension tliaii with. 

I send the letter* of Eck, as boastful as if he were victor at 
the Olympian games. 

John Proben sent me my works printed by him. If you 
wish to see them I will send tliem." 

I am too busy to translate my Exposition of the Lord't 
Prayer' into Latin. I daily expound to children and the 
simple the Ten Commandments* and the Lord's Prayer, beside* 
which I preach and am now getting out Paul's Epistle to the 
Galaiians." Moreover, tliere are orations and lectures to be 
given on special occasions, so I have not lime enough, much 
less, time to spare. I am planning a sermon on the Medita- 
tion of Christ's Holy Passicn,'^ but know not whether I shall 
have leisure to write it, but 1 will try. 

I am studying the decrees of the Popes' for my debate, 
and (I speak it in your car), I kuow not whether the Pope is 
Antichrist" himself or his apostle, so terribly is Christ, that is, 
the truth, corrupted and crucified by him in the decretals. I 
am terribly distressed that the people of Christ should be 
thus deceived by the semblance of laws and of tlie Christian 
name. Sometime I will make you a copy of my notes on the 
Canon Law, tliat yon too may see what it is to make laws 
r^ardless of Scripture, simply from ambition and tyranny, 

■or Ftlruarr If- Enibra, i. 418. { 

*Snprc, BO- iJJ, 

Mu/lf^un; Jntliih dn Vattrumirri für it* tinfOlliafn Laifm. W«lri»r. ii, ?*. 

*Dfffm Ptatctfta {■if»!» Willembtrgmti tratiicalo. Thli win lb« bcginnin( ot 
Lulher'« C»wflviini (rtjfl). Cf. Wrlinar. mi. part i. inlmduction. 

'CtfmoMMlary a« Calatiaiu, p(i1jliib«i] br l.uili*'> it tbia time. WeiraM, ii. 43t. 

'Strmen ven it* Btira.tklang dri kWliorx Ltiimt Chriiii, Wcinir. ii. iji. 

ir. f., lh( Canor La«, fur tbc L.«li>*ic t>cbai<. C/. Smitb. op. eit.. 6afi 

■Til« iilri u( Anilchriii. tiken Irom tbe Apocalypic. bid bccnine gull« commoa 
b; ibt* time, ini] bad been applied 10 tbc ?orc at Itaii *incc John Hiua'a 
tit (?('Wr«M (iCrca 1400). t.uilicr tli<l nax know ibit wuiii till a year lalci, tuil 
fcc probabi)' dill know > Buch van dit Endinhrüit Ltbtm ond fffairmnf, 
Krfurt, t$i4. lit later «ottxd lb« idea out in tlctAil in bi* Rnponti» «4 Am- 
(roii'km CatKarioitm, Weimar, tu. ^^Ji. (ij^O. Cf. II. rrtoia: Dit f'or/rWiaivra 
wvm Antuliritt im rfiltrtu UiltittUrr, M Ltlhrr amJ im t«a/cni>arM<« P^rmik, 
Ldp*l«. ■**(. U. Clriaw, «^. til^ iL ■ tjS. 

Lr. ij6 



wt to mention the other works of the Roman curia, which 
^ [Dct those of Antichrist. Daily there arises in me a 
pater and greater aid and defence for tlic sacred books. 

Our Erasmus has published a work on the method' of 
Kudying the Bible, which Proben sent me. Please return 
the letters of Frt^en, Kck and the oltiers. . . . 

Brotukb Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

[P. S.]*— I send a letter to the most illustrious elector on 
the matter* which you wrote about, and I ask you to thank 
iitni for me for his most kind care. I am very sorry and 
unwilling that his Grace should be troubled by his anxiety 
for me. I have answered Eck nothing except tliree words, 
namely, that it wa? his fault, not mine, that he is hrande<^l 
as a sophist throughout the wnrld. I do not wisli to treat with 
tbe man at length; he is wholly faithless, and has openly 
broken the laws of friendship. 

Corpus Rtformaiifritm, 1. 74. Wittesbekc, Marcli 13. 1519. 

Hail, most learned George. Luther has promised to send 
the letter of Eck' when he had finished Paul,* in which he is 

>RalM im temttKdium virn Ihrolugitt f«r Eraiftitm Ralfrtijimum. Bute. 
Frofccn. iji». 

*ThU pMlaciii» Rnilrm, U. iii, at thr »rciinil [>oiituripl to • leitet of Lulb«( 
fo Sp4l>tin diced bf Enden carljr in NoTcmbfr, 151g itbe corrrcl ditf is October. 
tf. iiir». BO. tS$). Endcft Infonru u\ bawevcr. thii ibU pniiucriiit ia on ■ KfAriic 
•h««, «od nay not btlonc 10 itti* lellci' «I iM. Tbat ii unnvt bclona c» ibe 
tctlcf ti »bown if tb< «ardi about F«k. Luihrr sari (bat be has amwctcd hliri 
Milr- tbrrc «orda, wbidi weuM n«( apr'r <o ')>c «levenpaKE letter nf October, ijig 
<End<r>. il. 114, D( Wr«>, i, Jjj). »id mlJa "he h» nprrily brolien ih« 1am of 
fricxlttiif-,'' a pbiwe he wfluld frrlairif not ute of ibc avowed enmltx of the 
I ri)iir drbal*. Thai the po>l>er>rl "lav brlonic to thli Inter af Uarch 13, !■ 
ahown by th« fan ibat the »riiri'iitla of ^DIb ar« in tbe Anhalt Cet. Archiv, and 
Ikai «Kiani MS. rnpiei nf tmth ar< fnund. in the nme codri- That tbe paiticHpi 
mmil br)o«c tu ibit Irtier of M»t(Ii i;i. i* «huwn by camcufins Iht pauisc un 
»k. "Enlo nibil teiiiondi, nisi tiia >etbi, icilicel rum lOfibiitani per crbem n<tn 
«in. *ed aua <ulps famari . . . lolua ftiAiluf r*i, ri aperte rii|ili amicltiav jart." 
t-aikcT* Icttff to Eck of Fcljruarjr 18, ijiq (Enikrt, v 6): "Doleo, mi 

ci. iBYttiirl landcm ilmuUi«m luam in roc amlciilftm (am manlfaiii at(u- 

nila. ■ • , Prain^Ic quad nugator ct tufbitta noriE prr oiticm vucliaris. itimt 

ritati Inpaubii, non mibi." Tbcse arorda ate aUDluicljr Inapplicable 10 

letter of OctetKr, iji^, to Eck. AUa cote tbe alluiion to the Iciirr to tbe 

*Cf. laat lrtt«r- 

*FtttiiarT '». 'S'»' Enil*n, i, 419. 

*ln f^lrlmm Pomti mi Catolai U. Lmllitri t^mmnUriut, htipth, L.ollber, 1J19. 

'«our, 3. 436s. 



Ul 137 

now wholly occupied. He intends to write a meditation on 
the passion of the Lord.' Yesterday we received letters and 
books from Basic* Every good raan thinks well of our 
cause. FroLcn has sent a httle book ui Erasmus, the Method 
of Theology' in which that celebrated man seems to touch on 
many things, which have been touched by Luther, and he 
scenis to be freer in his treatment of thetn because he has a 
companion in this sacred and true knowledge. . . . 

Enden, i. 491. Vhxa Macliaha,' March 39, 1519. 

Beloved Son, greeting and the apostolic blessing! We were 
highly pleased to Icam from the letter* written by our beloved 
son and nuncio, Charles von Mtltiti, to our beloved son, the 
noble Frederic, Elector of Saxony, that what had been incor- 
rectly written or said by you, was not done with the plan and 
purpose of attacking us or the apostolic see or the Holy 
Roman Church, but because you were provoked by a certain 
monk commissioned by otir beloved son Albert. Cardinal Arch« 
bishop of Mayence, to publish certain indulgences. We Icam 
that it was while attacking him that you went further llian 
you would have wished, and exccefled the bounds of decorum 
and truth, and that when you had sufUcicntly considered what 
you had said, you were heartily grie\'cd, and were prepared 
to revoke cvcr)'thing in writing, and to notify the princes and 
others to whom your works had come, of your error, and in 
future to abstain from similar expressions. We also learn 
that you would have revoked everything before our legate, 
had you not feared that he would have favored llie monk 
whom you consider the cause of your enx)r, and have too 
sc\-erely reprimanded you. 

Wc. therefore, considering that the spirit indeed is willing, 
but the fiesh weak, and that many things are said in the heat 
of anger whicli must later be corrected by saner counsel, 

■ RrpriniFit. Wclm«, li. ijtff. 

>/. ■>., fiom Frobcn. Cf. bin letter in I.«ih«r. Frbiuirr 14. isig. 
■/t«ris ttu (omprtidi»m vtrer IkftUotar. Buk, Frobtn. Jiuauarr, ijip, 
*ljit>'t bantinK lodfC on Ibf Tibrr. ten ml.!» Imm Romr, 

*Tbt> Idler b I»>l. EvidcntiT Uilliti bsd wcilics oTct-Bauninaly o( bU ttxcc« 
wiib Lutbfr. Smlib. sp. Hi., i6. 

Uc. 138 




thank Almight}- God who has deigned to enlighten your 
heart and to vouchsafe that Christians who rely on your 
authority and learning may not be tefl into grave and pernicious 
errors in those things which concern the salvation of their 
souls. Wherefore we. who are the vic^crcnt on earth of 
him who desirctli not tlie death of a sinner, but that he shail 
turn from his wickedness and live,' with paternal love accept 
your excuses, and because of the benevolence with which we 
regard all learned men, c:ipccially ihose learned in divinity, 
desire to hear and sec you personally, so that you may be 
ble safely and freely to make before us, the vicar of Christ, 
(hat recantation which you feared to make before our legate. 
Wherefore on receipt of this letter prepare for a journey 
and come straight to us. We hope, moreover, that you will 
lay aside hatred and reconcile your mind to us, that you will 
be filled with no passion, hut with the Holy Spirit alone, and 
anned with charity, so that you will care for those things 
which make for the glory of Almighty God. that we may thus 
rejoice in you as an obedient child and that you may be ha,ppy 
to fiml in us a kind and merciful father. 

Given under tlie fisherman's ring, in the seventh year of our 

Ipontiticate, J. S.MX>L.E:ro. 

Preface to Luther*! Optratients in Psolmot* Corpus Rfformalontm, 
i. 7IX WlTTCNBEBC, UiTth, 13I9. 

I [He coni^ratulates them on the brilliant scholarship of the 
(lay, adorned by the names of Erasmus. Reuclihn, Capito, 
Oecolampadius and Carlstadu] . . . Martin Luther has illus- 
trated the sacred songt with a commentary, which we desire 
especially to commend to the student, because, while many 
things have been written on David, few have grasped his real 
character. But how much this commentary excels may be 
proved by anyone who will diligently compare it vfith the 
very best of the old ones. Meanwhile, readers, it is your part 
to make the most of Luther's faithful labor and to strive to 
bring pure minds to the study of it, having laid aside all 


■Rtfrintcd, Weimar, vol. *. 


haman prejudices; in short, to read Christ's book under 
Christ's guidance. Farewell. 

Enders, v. 7. WirrEHBEac, April 5, 1519, 

I am writing again, Eck. for this reason. The most illustri- 
ous Duke George of Saxony has answered' nie that he would 
like to reply to my petition to debate with you at Lcipsic, 
provided only that lie were certain that you and ] agreed on 
tliis point, for your letters to him had spoken of Carlstadt, 
but not o£ me. Since Carlstadt is properly disgusted with 
your wily tricks, so that perchance he will not deign to meet 
you, and because you also having learned to dread the man'* 
power, have yet deceived the duke, declining battle with one 
and challenging another, it is your duty to inform either the 
duke or me what you want to do, so that we may not let 
him longer be in suspense. Tlierefore, take care to send me 
a letter* as quickly as [XJssiUe. that I may seek full permis- 
sion to deliatc, for I already have the consent of the Uni- 
versity in writing. Farewell, and try to 1)C a thcolc^an 
instead of a sophist. 

Enden, ü. 9- Wittcnberc, April 13. 1519. 

Greeting. I rejoice and congratulate you, reverend 
Father, on being one of tlios« who hear the cross of Christ 
Be a brave man; thus do we go. or rather thus are we 
carried to the skies.' We thank you for your gifts. Yoo 
know wliy I did not come to your ceremony.' You should 
not condemn my silence so much as the condition of the road, 
whicii is such that we rarely or never have anyone going from 
hence to Erfurt . . . 

Eck has signified that our debate will take place on Jtuie 
37; it will take place between him and me as you see by the 
enclosed paper. For Carlstadt will not debate with him on 

^Siifr», no 13a. 

■C«li apparfnilf OH not antvtr Ih'u 1cil«r. Cf. tnfr*, mi. 14}. 
*Sie ilur, i»a Ttbilur ad ulra. Cf. OrlJ, MtUm., is., *jt, xr. B^i. 
*A pr«ni4liiia «f daetor« ■! Erftiit on Fibrairy t«. 

LA 140 



these points, partly because they are mine, partly because 
that wily w^hist drags in the Pope. Tliis would either put 
Carlstadl in danger oi ofTcndiiig the Pope (intulerable to 
one who holds a prchcnd).' or else by scaring him in this 
way would crush him without a real fight or a real victory. 
But they will debate on other things, not on the power of 
the Pope or on indiilgeoces. For these impious men, who 
themselves foully transgress the commandments of God, con- 
sider such things as the papal i>uwer nnd indulgences the 
only thing against which a Christian man can sin. Alt fear 
that I shall be worsted on my twelfth proposition.' But 
although 1 do not expect to catch that crafty, loud-moutlicd, 
arrogant sophist, yet with Christ's help t will defend my own 
position. For this will give me 3 chance to expose publicly 
the folly of these clumsy, impious Decretal/ by which we 
Oirisiians have been terrified in vain, for, stuffed with tics 
IS they are, thej- are recommended by the name uf the Roman 
Church. Christ will expose these 'bngbears. and as Job says: 
'He will pull aside the covering of his countenance, and will 
enter into the midst of his mouth."* 

The Lcipsic theologians and the Bishop of Merseburg have 
done their best, and are still trv-ing to prevent the debate. 
They would almost have moved their duke, but finally, 
strengthened by a word from our elector, he acted authorita- 
tively. My university has answered and consented. The 
duke writes that he wilt let us debate as soon as I convince 
him that Eck wants to debate with me. and I am now taking 
measures to do so. For the duke thinks only Caristadt has 
a dispute with Eck. 

MeaniinK, the theologians are reviling mc. especially that 
bull, ox and ass,' not the ox that knowcth his owner, but 

iCarblftdl \tH • Wn^f« nf tkc Pept. C/ Snltb. of. eil., p. $4. 

■AMcrlldt lliat ibe (U[>r«nM7 at Ih« Roman Churcb dalfd orlr foar crntnri«! 
\mk. Cf. Smfrb, p. n). 

■The CuMD Lj«. tultcb »1r*«dy vitilrd l-ullirr'« itiiliinaiion to * bitb dr(rt*. 
Cf. Smitb. 61 r. 

•Job. xii. 4. actonlinK (o <bc Valgiit liuulitlon, wblcb iliffer« (Otirily fro« 
patt- In oar vnajon th« «crt« ii no. 13. 

tTb» >!)ialon !■ trftttti bf Endcrs la Jcronc Diinicrihclni tdii Ckbscnturl. 
•bo vrMc LiBlbcr wcnitl ledert, ibe firM of wblcb U ilalnl bj Enilcr* Janukry iS, 
ll'O- i- JS5- tn nslitir itiii letter abvolil be dded October 7, 1 ftQ (Rnaslc in 

tn LUTHER'S correspondence and Ul 140 

one which cats chaff. They shout at the pwple of Leipsic 
not to adhere to new heresies. Thus perhaps they will arouse 
the people by hatred of us and fear of the Pope to exdutle 
us. It is said that when Tetzel heard that the debate was 
going to come ofT, he said: "That's the de%-il."' . . . 

Cajetan has again wrillen about me to our elector, such 
folly or insanity that I am glad his Italian ignorance will be 
exposed to the laity. . . . 

I am sending Carlstadt's U'agoni' by which he depicts the 
folly* of theologians, and against which they arc raging at 
Leipsic. Andrew Franck* writes me tliat one man publicly in 
the pulpit tears his hands, and another inquires of youths in 
confession whether they laugh at the Wagon or have Luther's 
works, and that the>' fine those who confess to these faults. 
See their darkness, their insanity, and ihey are theologians! 

I expect that you have received the first of my lectures 
on the Psalms.* I send another copy by which you can 
correct yours. . , , 

r am publishing my commentary on Galatians at leipsic.* 
3f two of my sermons, a Latin one on Double Justice'^ and a 
German one on marriage,^ come into your hands, please help 
me. They were published without my knowlc<lge, both taken 
down and printed, to my shame, with great inaccuracy. I 
also send my exposition of the Lord's prayer.' Melanchthon 
tells yoti the rest. I believe you have seen Erasmus' new 

»E umc one who li Indtlni ihe pcoiilr igalnii lilm. perhip* Tettel icf. ra^M. 
av> III} ur Eniicr. cf. ffte, no. iij. 

'"Do* wUc der Teufel," a luual Ccrtnin oath. 

^1» 1517. ■' Au([»burit, John von Lconiofli putilulitd a woodcut rcpmcntlo) 
tw wifORA, one tiarrytng iicoji!« Id bcAvcn. (kc orhcr to bcli. Carljtadc repub- 
liib«d it in ijii) wilh an rcplanition tbat thr sMOnH wagqci wat (till of scliaolincn. 

)"M«rik." (>«iha(ii in alliuian 10 Efkimu)' fjmaui linttrmum Uffriat, of «kick, 
bowciTCT'. Lutbcr dot« not apeilc clirvtirr« uttltl mxnj^ jtart latu. 

*Ani1mir Franck. of Cinifn;. t>n>f»sor of Ltiptit. st (bü time favorabi* (*> 
Ihr rrfdrmen. ifainil whom hr inmcd about liia. He riivd ih6. 

*Th« Oprteiiotift in P iixlin-ii . Wfimar. «nl. V. Mtluichtbm bad beoi Lanf a 
CopT on April j. Cmfitt Rffprmalarum, t. -6. 

■Welmai, ii. *j6. Tbe Rnl inliiioii wu by Udcblor Ixittber of Ix^tic. 

^Sirmo de duplM i»ttiiia, WcErnar, 14J, Flrai piibli»licil in February or Watch, 
IS>0, ij Siöcktl of Lcii>9fi'. 

*£i>i Sertnon son itn e^tiithtH Sland, WctniAr, il i<j. I'uUUtied br Stbek«) 
(lOoi a Kimon ilelivcred Iinuary 16, ijig, 

*A*titgung Jtuliih Jfi Cal/runtf*!, Wtinitr, (i. 74. 


Method of Th<oiogy; 1 am «orry it came to an end so 
soon.' . , . 

Mciancthon and I liave written to Erasmus.' 
Now I Iiave told you atl you wanted to know. The rever- 
end father Vicar Staupilz has forgotten me, for lie writes 
j»thing. . . . 

In closing let me admonish you again about Hebrew, in 
''the study of which let us assist the Lest youth», and those 
wlio are tlic bcit theologians and the ones who are most eager 

Pr sound leamif^. Farewell with your cross,* if Christ 
M. Brother Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

P. S. — Especially remember me to our Jonas,' and tell him 
lik« him. . . . 




Allen, iiL ja?. Antwerp, April 14, 1519, 

Most inustrious Prince, allhoiigh I never happened to see 
speak to your illustrious Highness face to face, which I 
count not the least of my misfortunes, yet moved by the 
report of all, who with one accord acclaim your splendid 
talcnti as worthy even of supreme rule' and moved by the 
praises of those who say that ynur mind is bent on promoting 
the cause of sound learning, and is especially propitious lo 
mc, I ventured to detlicate to you my edition of the Lives of 
the Caesars,' desiring and seeking nothing else from your 

'C/- I'tra, no. tj6. Whit Lulhrr mpsiu by th« lut pbrM» U not cfitain. 
vfcdbcr tht hööV waa imii out 6f print, at t<Hi AorL 

il.W^r'a letter. Enden. I. 4ISS. Uircb it. Smitb. 10a. 

•Pof "ern»" I rwil "ttax." *r* Vainotnj of letter. Oib^rwite th« tenM would 
b>. "ÄKwdl, «ni tn»r TfHT \tB gel better.'* 

«JodocM Kotli <uoj-iSS1>. »I Erfurt 150S, M. A. is»«. pHe»! U14 or iju, 
Lt. Dl ts'H- In ifiQ tie went to Louviin la lee Eraimat. In April, i;;), b» 
r«lla«cd I.utbcT from Erfurt la Wotmt, rrccirins ibrrc 1 call lo leacb >t 
WitwnbeiT. where be spent (he neil twenty-one j«««, liiin« > prominent p«rl 
hi the Rclann«tlae- In tw be «cnl to lUtle. Ite wu wllb Liiiher at Eitleben 
M Ljilbcr'* death In FEbruuy, im^- Alter tbc Scbaislkaldlc war Cif47). be wa* 
toKti to IcsTi Halle, and wanderrit arounJ to rarioiu placcti. He wm three 
|j»(a narrled. Lederf puUisbed by C. Kivemu. U.fc in RreUntyelBfUdit, 
Always Imown u Jnalui JotlU. 

(After th« dtiib n! the Kinprror Maxtniilian (Jan«ar7 ti, i}ig), FradcHe ws* 
a prfinuiMitl candidate Im ihe peiilion. 

■EnaniH» dedleaicd bl* edllijin of ibe Uitlarine Auai^iMt Sftiftam to ibc 

STrednic and Dnk« tieoqe of Soatinr- It wu first primed bf Praben ia 



Ut MI 

Highness than to make the .sttidy of the "bcivt disciplines more 
pleasing to you, and to show that 1 could repay the free 
favor of so great a prince with mutual love 

The reason why I did not »end you t)ie volume irom Bask, 
wliere it was printed, was the long distance, for you were 
then at Wittenberg, and the lack of a safe messenger. Later 
it seemed superfluous to send a took which was published 
everywhere. ' In the meantime, I may be permitted to send 
this letter to inquire, as it were, whether my zeal were pleas- 
ing or otherwise. If my boldiiess chanced to be unfortunate 
I will take care that whatever mistake has been perpetrated 
here shall he mended elsewhere. Nor do I doubt tliat your 
singular and well-known clemency will easily pardon that 
fault in one whose mind was certainly zealous and anxious 
to please, and who, however much he may have lacked judg- 
ment, certainly had the desire to please your Highness. 

But if what we dared to do was fortunate, we ask no 
other reward than that you should continue to favor the 
cultivation of gond literature, which has now begun to flourish 
everywhere throughout our Germany, and to defend tins part 
of your fame, which, perhaps, will bring no less glory tu our 
country or to her princes than war has hitlicrto done. This 
felicity will come to us if benignant princes shall cherish the 
best writers and the most promising yuullis, and if their 
authority sliall continue by force of arms to protect us against 
those enemies of the Muses and that tyranny of inveterate 
ignorance. For what do the adversaries of sound learning 
not attempt? Wliat wile;, what spies, what fraud will they 
not use? What traps will they nnt set? What engines will 
they not set up? What poisoned darts will they not shoot at 
us? What a conspiracy, what an alliance they have formed 
lo confound learning! Not having learned as boys, tliey are 
ashamed to do so as old men. and yet they could learn with 
less pains than they lake to destroy learning. How well agreed 
ai^ Ihey who never agree save to destroy! How much genius 
they show for this who are too stupid to leam anything 

Job«, i<>B. but Era^iniis' fl«di<BCion ii dtlcd a 7«ar tarlicr. run« 5, 151^. Allan: 
Otui tfiititlarMm Hraitnf, t). p. 578. 
■AccooUnc to ib« BMiathre* firMmiana. ii. jt. It «u lint (vviUUktd in ti*i. 

Let. 14t 



tictter! How vigilant llicj- are in this respect, ttiongli they 
■>Ie<-p over alt else! 

Recently some works by Martin Luther have been pub- 
lished, and at the same time rumor says that the man was 
beyond measure opprcssc«! by the authority of the very rev- 
erend Cardinal Cajctan, who is now legate of the Roman 
Pontif? in Swabia. How glad were these men, how did they 
exult and rejoice when they thought that this gave them the 
desired opportunity of hurting learning! For the Greek prov- 
erb has it, that the wicked lack nothing hut opportunity, for 
this gives them the chance to do the evil they always desire. 
Immediately their sermons to tFie people, their universities, 
their councils, their repasts, rang with the words "heresy" 
and "antichrist." And to make tlictr course of action more 
odious, these crafty men, csjJcciaUy when addressing women 
or the unlearned, would speak of Greek and Hebrew, of 
doqucncc and polite literature, as thougli Luther relied on 
them for protection, or as thou^i from these fountains flowed 
heresies. This more than brazen impudence displeased all 
good men, especially as it furnished an excuse for war to 
some men who consider themselves the champions oF theology 
and the pillars of Christianity. Behold how purposely and 
blindly indulgent we are to our own vices: we think it an 
atrocious slander, a crime near to heresy, if anyone calls a 
pettifogging theologian (of whom there are not a few) a vain 
b^blcr. But we forgive ourselves when before a numerous 
assembly we call any man we are ai^ry with a heretic and an 
antichrist ! 

As Luther is absolutely unknown to me. no one will sus- 
pect me of favoring him as a friend. It is not mine to defend 
bis works, nor to disapprove them, for I have not read them, 
save a bit here and there. No one who knows the man does 
not approve his life, since he is as far as possible from sus- 
picion of avarice or ambition, and blameless morals even among 
heathen find favor. It is not becoming to the gentle char- 
acter of theologians, immediately without reading a book, to 
rage so savagely against the name and fame of a good man. 
and that in tlie presence of the unlearned multitude, espe- 
as he only proposes bis opinions for debate and stib- 



LeL l{l 

mits them to the judgment of all, whether fitted to judge or 
not. No one has admonishciJ hini, no one has taught him, 
no one has refuted him; yet they bawl out that he is a heretic 
and with tumultuous clamors incite the people to stone him. 
Vou would say that they thirsted for human blood rather 
than for the salvation of souls. The more hatefid to Christian 
ears is the name of heresy, the less rashly ought we to charge 
anyone with it. Every error is nut heresy, nor is he forthwith 
a heretic who may displease this man or that. Nor are those 
who make such splendid pretences always acting in the inter- 
est of the faith. Rather ihe greater nuniber are acting in 
their own interests, and for their own gain or power, when 
with a hasty wish to wound they condemn in another what 
they condone in themselves. 

In short, $ince there are so many old and new writers, in 
the books of none of whom there is not some dangerous 
error, why should we quietly and placidly read most of them, 
and fiercely rage against one or two? If we defend the truth 
atone, should we not be equally offended by what is untrue 
wherever it is found? It h a most holy thing to defend the 
punty of rcligiou:; faith, but it is a most rascally thing under 
color of defending the faith to serve our own passions. If 
Ihey desire all that is received in the universities to be held 
as an oracle, why arc there such differences between this school 
and that ? Why do the scholastic doctors fight and fence with 
each other? Nay, why iti the Sorbonne itself does one doctor 
differ from another? You will find very few who agree, 
unless in conspiracy. Moreover, these men will often be 
found condemning in recent books what they do not con- 
demn in .Augiisline or Gerson. as tliough triilh depended on 
the author. They read what they like so that tlicy find 
some excuse, however far-fetched, for everything; they 
slander everything in what they don't like. 

The best part of Christianity is a life worthy of Christ. 
When this is found we ought not easily to suspect heresy. 
But now they invent what they call new criteria; i. ^.. they lay 
down new laws by which they teach that what they don't like 
is heresy. Whoever accuses another of heresy, oiight himself 
to show a character worthy of a Christian, charity in admon- 


ishing, gentleness in correcting, fairness in judging, mercy in 
condemning. As none of us is free from error, why sliould 
we be so hard on other men's slips? Why sliouUI wc prefer 
rather tp conquer a man than to heal him, to crush him rather 
than to teach him? Even he who alone is free from all error 
docs not break the bruised rccd nor iiucnch the smoking flax.' 
Augustine did not wish the Donalists, who were worse than 
heretics, to be compelled, but to be taught, and he protected 
from the sword of the magistrate the necks of those who 
sought to assassinate him. But we, whose special business it 

Lb to instruct, prefer to use force, for it is eas.ier. 

^B I write this more freely, most illustrious Dulce, because I 

[ have no concern in Luther's cause. As it is your Highness's 
duij to protect Christianity, yoii should exercise caution not 
to let an innocent man, under the protection of your justice, 

I be sacrificed to the impiety of others on the pretext of piety. 
Pope Leo desires the same, for he has nothing more at heart 
than that innocence may be safe. He loves to be called father, 
nor does he love those who under his name act tyrannically. 
Nor does anyone better obey Leo's wishes than he who follows 
justice. What they think of Luther at Rome I know not. Cer- 
tainty I see that here his books are eagerly read by the best men, 
though I have not yet had time to peruse them. Farewell. 
May Christ, most good and great, long keep your Higiuicss for 
us safe and prosperous. 

tYour Highness's most devoted 
en. jii 539, Corpus rtformalorum, i. 77. Louvaik, April si, 1519. 
. . . Everyone here approves Luther's life; there arc vari- 
ous opinions of bis doctrine. I myself h-ive not yet read his 
books. Some of his criticisms and proposals are certainly 
right, but would tliat he expressed them with as much felicity 
as freedom. I have written about him to the illustrious 
Elector Frederic,' at the same time taking occasion to ask 
him how he liked my dedication to him of the Lives of the 
rt. . . , 

qwiib. xtiL 3. 

^Sufra, D». 141. 


Endeis, ii. 17. J3e WeCtcSeideniann, vi. ly German. 

WiTTESBERC, April iS. 1519. 
My poor prayer and endeavor be always at your Grace's 
humble service. Higli-born, jerene Prince, gracious I-ordl 
I have received your Grace's letter and kind answer, and have 
commiinicatcd your Grace's opinion to Dr. Hck. and have 
liitlierlo awaited liis reply. Inasmuch as the said Dr. Edc 
has published a paper in wliich lie not only challcnKcs both 
of ui, Carlstadt and me, but taunts us bitterly and perhaps 
already sings a song of triumph over us, which, as I perceive, 
concenis your Grace, therefore, it is now as fonnerly tny 
humble prayer to your Grace, kindly to permit us to hold 
our debate. And as the affair has brought nie danger to my 
life and much enmity, I pray your Grace for God'.'; sake to 
give me a safe-conduct. For I must not venture to tempi God 
by despising human help, for which J requite your Grace 
with tny humble prayer before God. 
Your Grace's humble chaplain, 

Martin Luther, Augusiitiian at IVUtettberg. 

Endcrt, ii. S7. German. Dbesdp.n, Maj 7, 1^19. 

Worthy, learned, dear and pious Sir! Wc have received 
your second letter and noted the contents. Considering that 
if you wish to debate with Dr. Fiele, you must have his con- 
sent thereto, we previously announced to you that you shoubi 
agree with him, and that when you and he together request a 
place for the said debate, we would give you a definite answer. 
We still remain of this opinion, but did not wish to let your 
letter lie unanswered. 

Lutluri Optra lalina varii argvmtnti. Erlangen, ii. 4fio, 
Allen, iii. 5/7- Grii*ma, May 14, I5i> 

Although wc did not doubt, most learned Erasmus, that 
you would ascertain from our letter recently sent to you by 
Justus Jonas, that we were always most grateful for your 
affection for us, and especially for the dedication of Suetonius 




and the other histories, yet we have decided to answer your 
letter written to us from Antwerp April 14. It was a most 
learned and elegant letter, and put in a stronger light what 
we knew before of your theological eaidition and your pious 
— love. There is, as you write, a strange conspiracy of the 
Bkaters of sound learning who are ßt for nothing but to 
injure the good, pious and well instructed. 

Wc rejoice that the Lutheran cause is not condemned by 
the learned, and that Dr. Lutherd works are eagerly read 
by the best men. especially as the majority of good and 
learned men, as well in our dominions as elsewhere, with one 
accord praise the man's life and character as much as his 
learning. That wc have allowed him to stay in our Saxony, 
is not so much on account of the man as of the cause, for 
we have no intention of allowing punishment to fall on those 
worthy of rewards. Nor, with the help of God Almighty, 
shall wc ever suffer by our fault any innocent man to be 
given a prqr to those who seek their own ends. 

Moreover, with God's help, we shall henceforth cherish good 
letters and right studies as well as their cultivators, no less 
than in the past. Our special gratitude to you has impelled 
us to write this to you. Farewell, most learned Erasmus. 

Enders. ü. 35. De Wette, i. 2Sj. Gennan. (Wittknuekc, May, 1519.) 

■ Most serene Prince, most gracious Lord ! We arc obliged 
^o build a room,' and have humbly requested permission of 
the town council of Witlcnbcrg to allow us to build out of 
the walls on the graves, but they give us no answer. Where- 
fore we pray your Grace kindly to give us leave for this 
necessary addition, and expect a gracious answer, as, before 
God. we deserve. 

Also I pray your Grace to buy me at this T,cipsic fair a 
white and a black cowl. Your Grace owes me the black cowl, 
and I humbly beg the white one. For two or three years 

"The lUick Cloiiter wm» hiitlt right atKintt ihe «Itr irill. oultitic at wticb wM 
the Bank*' MOKtcry. EDd<n and Giiiar iLttikt*. i. jijf.) eonJKture tb»t ibi» 
~ro«>n" VM a prlnr. for ihey were vaiutHj built an Ibc nalli U axrr Ibe («wife 
•ttiaidc lit city. 


ago yfxif Grace promised me one whkb 1 never goC For 
ahhoogh PfeAnger spoke me fair, yet citfacr because of buti- 
MM or because, as people say of fann, be is slow to spend 
money, In pat off getttng it. So I was ofaUged to get mjsdf 
another, which has lasted to the present and thus saved your 
Grace'* promise. In this need I humbly pray your Grace if 
the Pnltcr' deserves a black cowl, to let the Aposik' cam a 
white one, and pray do not let Pfeffinger n^Iect it 
Your Grace's humble, obedient chaplain, 

Db. Mabtim, Augustinian at WUtenbtrg. 


Kfitlrra, ii. 52. De Wetlc-SddnnaRn, vi. t6. G«rmin. 

WiTtENSEic. May 16k 151(1 

My poor humble prayers for your Grace. Gracious, higb- 
born f'fince and Lord 1 I humbly pray your Grace for God's 
uke not to take it ill that I write to your Grace again. Your 
Grace's last Idler compels me to write, for it greatly troubles 
and horrifies mc. For J fear tliat 1 have done something to 
dinplcnue your Grace, and to deserve your displeaäure. This 
was unintentional and I greatly regret it. 

I-'or your Grace granted permission to Dr. Eck to debate 
with Cirlstadt on the simple request, or agreement, of the 
latter, but you will mil grant the same permission to mc on 
XiT. Eck's public letter in which he openly challenges me to 
debate, and this in a printed jiaper, which clearly proves that 
he forces me to debate with him at Lcipsic as I previously 
wrote your Grace. And as, according to your Grace's first 
letter. I wrote Dr. Eck to request your permission I do not 
know what more to do. and can only think that I am in dis- 
grace, Kow, my gracious Lord, 1 know that the world stood 
before me and will stand after mc, whether I debate or not. 
I have not forced it on Dr. Eck. but he on me. Wherefore I 
pray your Grace for God's Mke to signify to tne what I ought 
to da For I am perfectly willing to give it up. For I can- 

ll.<iih«r WTM« to ikr tlrctor m lUi MhjMt ia Ntravater, istf. LRU* trw» 
bwd la tmWk. «f. M,. p- >«. 
TW Or«*«N««n n Fnlwtf, tkiKcMTd to Ac «)c«Mt, 3LtFA rj, in» Wdatf, 

•flM Ci Mmmry m C tI M *-. 

LcL 148 



^Bot compel Dr. Eck to write to your Grace on my behalf. 
^Dut I will write him again and request liim to do so. Will 
"your Grace please forgive inc. and may God protect you. 

^Your Grace's humble cliaplaiii, 
D». JblARTlN LuTHEK, Auguslmiait of IViltetiberg. 
idcis, i 53. WjrTE.siiKHG. May 17, 1519. 

Greeting. Dear Sir. 1 received your Excellency's letter' 
advising me that it vrould be to my advantage forthwith to 
repair to Coblenz. Please listen to me patiently. In the first 
place, when we came together at Altenburg, my presence did 
not seem to myself necessary ; for a3 my books, in which I 
most clearly opened my mind to all, were published, I thought 
it sufncient if, after weighing my opinions, articles should 
be determined on for me to revoke, and reasons should be 
assigned for the recantation, so that it might appear efficacious 
and praiseworthy, for otherwise men would say tliat it had 
been extorted from me by force and the last state should be 
worse than the hrst. I am of this opinion still. 

But even if I ought to come, you yourself can see how 
foolish those who have charge of this affair think me, since 
you write that the mandate has not yet come from Rome, and 
that the archbishop* does not summon me in virtu« of such 
a mandate. I am not sure that tlie mandate will arrive, espe- 
cially in this crisis in the Empire,* nor am I sure, should it 
come, that the archbishop would receive iL How can I, 
therefore, trust myself to such a doubtful and perilous situa- 
tion, or how can so poor a man as I get the necessary money? 
I have already spent so much in this matter that I have wearied 
my patrons and am ashame<l to ask for more, not to mention 
the fact that during the interregnum no one can give a safe- 
conduct, particularly to a man with as many enemies as I 

Furthermore, the great debate, which the most reverend 

*DMt4 CoMint. Uay ]■ Cndcra. li. it. Lmhrt wtoir Spilatln. Uay iC, llial 
fee can*[<lcrtH] Ifiliiti** itropmal» ridiculous Endrrs. ii, j6. 

T. »,, iht AixhbJsbop cf Trier, in itfaant jarbdl«lio«i Ccbltni ma. On nferriog 
Laiker'i cau*c 10 biin if. tvfra, ro. 110. 

*n« Enp<ror BluimilJan kail tticil on Jtaiurjr la, and a Bcv clecUoB >m* 
sbMt U k b«td 




lord cardinal' refused to allow me to hold at Augsburg. \i 
coming off at Luipsic. For I am challenged by John lick, md 
sliould I decline, in so just a cause, to meet him, witli ho« 
much shame should I brand not only myseU and all raj 
(ri^ds, t)ut our most illustrious elector and our whole 
order and my university. In this debate the whole case wiD 
be examined by many learned men impartially, with gooJ 
argumenta on both sides, which could not be the case before 
either the archbishop or the cardinal. So that it is better that 
your proposal should wait on the debate than that the debate 
be hindered. . . . 

But cornel Even if all these difficulties were met, yet 
would I not wi^li to have the cause tried by the cardinal- 
I do not want him present, for he is not worthy of it. He 
tried to harass mc from the Christian faith at Augsburg, 
wherefore 1 doubt whether he is a Catholic Christian him- 
self. If I had time I would write to the Pope and cardinals 
and expose him, unless he should retract all his rank errors. 
I regret that tlie legates of the ApostoHc See arc men who 
try to destroy Christ. 

Thus, Sir, I think that I have justly excused myself from 
coming. I might add that a certain spy. armed with many 
letters, has been here, seeking first you and then me, and he 
excited a lively suspicion that he was preparing some violence 
against me/ finally he was obliged to flee, lest he should 1« 
ducked in the Elbe, as he almost was and would have been 
had not we prevented it, for men thought that he was your 
agent, especially after we heard thai you were lingering in 
Germany, though you promised us to go straight to Rome. So 
it happened that although I exonerated you from this charge, 
yet I saw that there were snares all around for me to fear. . . . 

If what you write is true about having to come after me 
with papal letters, may God grant that you come safely. I 
am very busy, serving many men. .ind am not able to lose time 
and wander .ibroad without causing loss to many. Farewell, 

exce ent bir. Brother Martin Litther, Augustinian. 

TajMu, of connt, la meant. 

inu WW probaMr (kr m«n «( »ben Lather «poke *• Molnf M tUi kin aitk 
rinumtt lawnt C/. Smirb. p. Si. 



All«!, iii. 587. Aktwdh-, May tS (1519)- 

Tfaomas Wolscy (I471-IS30>. the faraous siaiesman and cardinal. 
His lif« by M. Crciahton. On the part he look against Luther, ef- 
Preserved Smith : "Lulhcr and Henry VIIL" English Hisiorical 

AraVw, no. c. Erasmo» had known him for a long while, Cf. Allen, 

O^. eis., i. p. 284, etc 

^1 . . . They accuse me of writing every hateful book that 
^■nues otit Vou might say that il was the very essence of 
^^BUbmny to confound, as tiiey do, the cause of sound learnitig 
with that of Reuchlin and Luther, when really they have 
nothing to do witli each other. . . . Luther is absolutely un- 
known to me, nor have 1 had time to read more than a page or 
two of his books, not because I have not wanted to. but because 
my other occupations have not given me leisure. And yet 
they say that he Ixas been helped by me I If he has written 
■well I deserve no credit, if otherwise no blame, since of his 
writings not a jot is mine. Anyone who wishes lo investigate 
the matter will hnd lhi.<^ absolutely true. The man's life is 
approved by tltc unanimous consent of all, and the fact that 
his character is so upright that even enemies find nothing to 
slander in it, must considerably prejudice us in his favor. 
So that even if I had abundant leisure to read the writings 
of such a man. I would not have the presumption to judge 
t}iem. although even boys nowadays rashly pronounce this 
erroneous and that heretical. Moreover. I have sometimes 
been opposed to Luther for fear lliat lie might make hate- 
ful tlie cause of sound learning, which 1 am unwilling to 
have more burdened than it is; nor has it escaped me that it 
would be an invidious task to tear down that from which 
^j)ricsts and monks reap their best harv'csL 
^m First there appeared quite a number of theses on indnl- 
^Kjences: two pamphlets, on confession and on penitence, fol- 
^Blowed hard upon them; when t heard that some printers' 

^^p iFrobpn; KrufitcM repMN Mveral linn tfcat b« triFd to pmeni bin piintfnr 

^^^TMtkti'* worki- He did aol iiuMrd hnirrtn, lot Fr>>b«n broufhl «ul a volune 

of I.inbir'i trorlu in Otiobrt. 1518. Tkia lnclad*d so* ol lb* panipMrra mm- 

lioned «kOTt, SfTiH» de ftnamua [Weimar. I 3t;), but not. I think. At o(b«r, 

Imttmrfia ptv rantrtrioHt fteealfrum fU'eimir, L >JT)- C/. nitro, no. I3|. 




were going to publish them, I tried hard to dissuade them test 
tliey might thereby hurt sound learning. Eve» those who 
wish Luther well will agree lo this. Then followed a whole 
swann of tracts; no one ever saw me reading them or even 
heard me express an opinion, favorable or otherwise, about 
Üien. For I am not so rash as to approve what I have not 
read, nor such a sycophant as to condemn what I du not know, 
even if this is now the regular custom of those wlio are leait 
fitted of all to pronounce judgment. . . . 

Corptu Rcformatorum, i. Sen WrrrxMBERG, May 31, 1519. 

Hail. Spalatin, my dearest friend in the Lord. 1 fear Icsl 
you will not have time to read my trifles. You will greatly 
thanic a man careful nut lo speak 3 little too much. We arc 
reading Erasmus' letter.' Glory be to God who has given 
the elector such a herald for his virtues, and Luther such a 
rare, and, as the lawyers say. eloquent supporter,' It will 
be your duty to commend us to Erasmus, 

Yesterday there was with us a certain Hebrew scholar.' 
moderately learned, who studied the grammar at Heidelberg 
and Liught it afterwards and now expects to lecture at LcipMC, 
but will come to us if the excellent elector wishes, I con- 
ferred with Luther aboiit him and we both thought him 
moderately good and likely to improve with practice. . . . 

Riccius' has attacked Eck. who blandly boasts that he has 
fought against Zasius' the lawyer. Luther the theologian and 
Riccius the philosopher, so that he may seem to be a Hercules, 

*J. t.. W ib< ElMlOT TttAtnc. cf. tupra. 00. i(i. 

''SuRnxMornn prdiriura": ihc pidcrii wrre ■«niior« vb» uuld ipnk but 
BM trote- 

*Ialin CtlUriu*. of Kuntiadi, x nupparier ol Eck, wlia laict turned Zwlncllui. 
■nd (till Iii«r Luihcran. Died al Ftankforl (, III . is««. Ercler*. ii. jS. 

Tiiil Sicclui. «ho wioie tn April, 1510. ffatureha tl prppktlic» it annc fmM 
tdvtrt»! Bckitm, !Ic ii sfolir" of in tlirc Tück'tdtt (Wtimar, L na. ao}) a* 
baTlng bKB at ihr Dirt nl Raiisban, tsjj. 

■LIHcfa Z&ii vi Coii»IancG fu^i-Kovembel 14, isjj), aiairkulatti] ai TÖbiiis«D 
i^Ci, ificr loac jrcari (clurncil 11 liihoi)*! noury 10 Conriancc, in itqi went 
10 FrclburR ifl Uii{>|[*ii a> town cktb, Hf ■tuilicd Uw, lakiat; hi* dottaratv in 
l^do, IcciQfrc] on pitftrj ttll i^c^, «rhrn he obtained the |irofe»*UT>^ii» of jarl^ 
prud<Tic«, whirb be factd Itll ifat tnA of hit 1jf<>. IIU writing« an liif aubJMt an 
namereui. AlUn. e^. cil., ii. p. ttr wu al fir*! favbrabl« M Uudier, ih«« 4ni* 
buck. Hi* «piitlti aaid (o havr l««^ [iBbtiiibid by Klcncr. t;;«. 


equal not to two, but la three other men. Behold, this Chris- 
tian moderation aad how the popes, theologians, princes and 
people stand silently gaping at it! This is the fury of tlic 
I-ord. 1 am wretched whenever I Ihink of iL I beseech you, 
Spalatin, for aid. Lulhcr, the soldier of the Lord, has brought 
this on himself. Stand fast and watch wi;h us. I write this 
earnestly and in sadness thinking over the crimes of the the- 
ologians. . . . Agricola' and 1 have boguri to take down 
Luther's lectures for you, and I hope we shall all have a good 
book from them, for the subject now begins to glow. All 
your friends salute you. 

Your Phiup, 


I hoped that the printer would have finished the sermon on 
arriage,' but his laziness is too much for mc. 


idcTS, ii. s6. (WrriENBERc). May 22, isig. 

Greeting. Era.smus' letter" greatly pleased mc and my 
friends. Only I should have preferred not to have my praises 
sung by so great a man. I know myself, at least this side of 

Before j*ou leave,' please tell us what the elector proposes 
do about the professor of Hebrew. . . .' The number of 
students is growing» and their quality is good. One of the 
last 10 come was a Nuremberg licentiate in theology, a man 
of mature age, preacher in the church of Si. Sebald.^ Our 

■Jeba Arricol* ol E(>lel)«n (i4g«-is66). it WHtenbrrit t-tiA, M. A. 151S. in 
«httli rtar br puhllkhr4 Utrni bit ovn net»* t-uthfr'i faarnilJM on llie Lord'i 
prayer. He miriied i%m, ind Uuvhi ml Witwnticrii and Eiikbcn- He wm 
9r«*rat >t the Dlela of 15J6, ISIQ, iljo. lie bi'il x tldtrnl Quarrel vltb I.illbtf 
and llrlindillion. on tctounl of wbich he motcd to Berlin tboux 154». He look 
an imponam part m the liticrlrn, 1548. Life hy G. Kawetau, iBSi. Cf. Stnlih, 

4.aiii<T*> Srrm^m ten drm thetiehtn Stand, picaclicd jinour 16, 151», 
Weinar, U. til. 

■To the Rl(ct«r Predni«. Swt'o, no. 141. ll wa> puUUhrd !n ijiq by Mclclilor 
IjulAtt •( Le^ait. A* ifaj* printer did tome of [.uther't vork at (hi* lim«, w* 
BU7 eanjecture IhM Erumua' epUlle wM publtifced by Lulbee'i friend*. 

*FtiT FtanVfort on tbe Main, «berc ths elector wai («inf in take part in th« 
l*|Mrlal tiertlan 

«On thi* rf. Uit IMlef. 

*Tlie nnmlier roie from 331 in 1S17 lo 4^8 in IS'Q *ni1 579 in isio. 

■John tterbnli. «bo matrkalated K»r a&, ijig. Lnlbrr bad met hlo at 
Knrtmberf In Ihe tiiliiDin of tjiS. Enden. L jtf. 


city is almost gfiving out of lodging houses. More at anoth« 
lime. Farewell. 

Bkotiier Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

Endcrs, i, sg, German. Dkesdcn, Majr zj, tsifi 

Worthy, dear am! pious Sir! We have received your letter, 
in which you speak again of die debate, and noted the con- 
tents. We are not aware of having conceived any displeasure 
for you. though indeed it is true that all sorts ot things have 
come to our ears, on which we should not be sorry to speak 
to you, but we will let them wait until some tiniewhcn you come 
to us.' 

Wc are much surprised that, after you had heard that no 
good would come of .1 debate on these mailers, and that the 
doctors of the theological faculty of Leipsic had refused 10 
allow it. you should be so determined to hold the debal«. 
It is tnie that Dr. Carlsladl did not ask us for permission, 
but we were informed by Dr. Eck that he had agreed to debate 
with Carhtadt If the same happens in this case, and if you 
agree with one another, and if you then write us how you 
stand, wc will, as stated in our last letter, then give you a 
defmile answer. This in reply to your letter. 

H. C. Agrippae ab Nttttihrym. . . . Opemm Pars Potltrior. Lugduni. 
Per Berinßoi Fraires, j. c, p. 748. (Basle), May 3j. 1J19. 

CanliuiKula (Chansonette), of Metz, a distinguished lawyer, met 
Agriiipa at (his city in 151S while he wat stitt very young, [n 1517 
lie went to Basle to study, becoming Dr. Juris and professgr there in 
1519L Later (1533). he became one of Feidiiiand't oflicers, 
a position he held until hit death in 1540. Cf. Claude Chansondlt et 
sts Itttres inedUs. Bnixcltcs. 1878. Förslemann-Gfinther: Briefe an 
Eratmuj, p. 318. A. Frost: Corneille Agripfa, Paris, 1881, pp. 307. 
316. 345. 3Mf- Carpus Rrformalorum, xciv. 363. 

Henry Correliuj Agrippa. of Ncitcsltcira (1486-1535), born at 
Cologne, studied at Paris, was in Italy 1511-18. in Mets 1518-30. then 
at ColoRne, Geneva. Freiburg, Lyons and Paris, and th« Netherlands. 

<\Vhrn I.Bth«r came to LHpiic in Jul| lb« duk« kkd a prival« tiu«rnew witk 
liiai, on wbicb cf. Stnilb. p 67. 

Ht «u chiefly noted for his skill in the occult aits, Init wrote a work 
i>t Vanitatt Stieniium, showiitK an enlightened skepticitm. At thia 
''■'* {'S'S)! •>* »ympaihiied strongly with Luther (Prost, op. til., 
>■ lOi). later became an Erajmiin. Life by ProsL 
Agrippx. in a letter from Meli, apparcnily written early in May 
\Ofrra, p. 744), had asked for Luther's wurks. 
. . . Believe me, dear Agrippa, [ have scoured the whole 
oi Basle without finding Liiliier's works, a> ihcy were all 
sold long ago. They say tliey will soon bv printed again at 
Strassburg. Neither could I find the legal work you asked 
for. But I am giving yon Erasmus' Method of Theology, a 
work, unless, Henry, I mistake, likely to please you. I also 
send Luther's and Eck's Theses to be debated this year, and 
some trifles about the Emperor. 


Endcrs, iL 62. (Wittekbu«;), May 3a 1519. 

Martin Ctaser, of NurcmticTg, matriculaied at Wittenberg 1506. Then 
be becanc prior of the AuguKtinian Convent at Ramsuu in the 
Bishopric of Freisingen, near Munich. Later tie joineil the Auguttinian 
cloister at NuTciabcfg, but at its dia&olutioa in 1524, he became 
I evanfielical piitor at Krafisliof, nearby, and married. In 1530 he 
'»as transferred to Hilpohstein. Endcrs, vii. 145, viii. 273. Cf. ntpra, 

Venei^ble Father, you are quite rightly surprised and even 
indignant that I have hitherto written you nothing. Though 
I have plenty of excuses, yet I prefer to confess my fault. T 
hope you will be indulgent to a poor man like me in the affair 
of your horse,' on account of the intercession of the Vener- 
able Father Staupitz. Doubtless you gave it to God, not to 
mc. I hope we may ."!cc you here again, as I am glad to learn 
from Staupitz is likely to be the case. I believe that you 
know about my coming debate at Lcipsic and all my other 
doings. 1 am lecturing on the Psalter again, and the students 
are enthusiastic. The town is full of students. Rome bums 
to destroy me, hut I coolly laiigli at her. I am told that a 
paper Luther was publicly burned and cursed on the Campo 

'Perbap* • torac torrond br Luibcr on kaviof Auttburf for Uaftbtiia. 



di Fiort' 1 am ready for their rage. My commcntaiy 
Galatians is being printed; you will soon see it. 

I am well and calm, and less poor than formerly, Oor 
friend Hell' is a tine ruler and organizer— of the kitchen, for 
he cares chiefiy for the belly; perhaps lie will care more for 
his head later. 

I read what you wrote about that Franciscan babbler, but 
I am used to such hatred. The whole world is reeling, body 
and mind alike. God knows the future. We propliesy dealb 
and war. God have mercy on us. Farewell in liiin and pray 
for poor me. Bkotiier Marti** Luther. Augustinian. 

Enders, ii. 64. Allen, iii, 605. Loovaik, May jft 1319. 

This letter was published ,it Lcipsic in June, 1519. and at Augsbsr^ 
It almost immediately got Erasmus into trouble. In the first place ibe 
Bishop of Uege was indignant at the reference to himself as 1 
favorer of Lutherj a matter at once inquired into by the theolo- 
gians of Louvain. (Infra, no. 370. P. Kalkoflf: Die drpcsckf« itt 
NuHlius AlfOJidfT, p. 220). The rumor even stimulaieit the process 
asainst Luther at Rome- (L. v. Pastor: HUiory of the Popes, Eng- 
lish translation, v. jfJO.) ,\ceordingly, when Erasmus himwlf pub- 
lished the letter in the Farrago ol 1515 for "episcoput Lcodicnsi*." 
he substituted "cximius quidara." which he claimed was what he 
originally wrote (Btbliothrca Erasniiana. CoUoijuia. 1. 65). But tht» 
did not end the author's troubles. The letter was found by Hochstraicn, 
the inquiiitor, and made by him the base of an aixutation of favoring 
heresy. (Itfra, nos. 187. 188.) To dear hiinselt. Eranau« wrote to 
the Archbishop of Maycncc. Infra, no, i<w 

Dearest brother in Christ, your epistle.* showing the keen- 
ness of your mind and breathing a Christian spirit, was most 
pleasant to me. 

I cannot tell you what a commotion your books are raising^ 
here. Nor can these men by any means be disabused of the 

''Vi't know nolhinir of Lath«'* bclns barnfd in effisy at Ron«: ki* wiiiiac« 
wer« pobliclr burnc4 there on (be PUna Nbtohii abaot Jum ;, i}ii. £ndm 
plicea IkU In i}>n, u doe* Kaitocanarlil; Kemr av trmfi it Julu H. n it 
L#»n X., igii. V- lA*. On ilie true date tf. X.. Pulor: Hiittry «f tin P»f**, 
F.nnlUb ir*D*UTlon b; R. Krrr. vill. ]7. 

»Ht wM «t tbi« lim* prior it Wilteoliefi, 

■M*nb jB, IUI. TranaUicil. Sccicb, of-, eit.. taal. 

*Tti<* it (be true irftnslxiun of "lr«ior<t<j(i ru-iisrr," thouib u J. ft. Loplan 
r«i3i«rk«. with demur« ■•rcum, "it Lm bn«»« ih« fuUoa" 10 tr»«iluc tk^ 
«ord«k "mke a tnitdr." 




suspicion that your works are written with my aid, and that 
I am, as they call it, the standard-bearer of your party. They 
think tliey thus liave a good chance to suppress sound learn- 
ing, which they hate mortally as if it ofEcnded the majesty of 
thcotog>'. ... I have testified that you arc entirely unknown 
to me, tliat I have not read your books and neither approve 
nor disapprove anything. I only warned them not to vocif- 
erate against your books without reading them, and not to 
excite the hatred of the people against them, but to refer them 
to the judgment of those wbose opinion would have most 
weighL . . . 

la England there are men who think well of your writings, 
d they the very greatest. So do some here, among them llie 
BisHc^ of Li^ge.* I try to keep neutral, so as to help tlie re- 
vival of learning as much as I can. And it seems to me that 
more is acaimplishcd by this civil modesty than by impetuosity. 
Thus Christ brought the world under his sway. ... It if 
more expedient to attack those who abuse the authority of the 
Pope than the Pope himself; and similarly of kiagi. . . . 
Wherefore, we must lake care not to speak arrogantly or 
factiously. ... I have looked over your Commentaries on the 
'sainu' which pleased me very much. 

AHen. iiL fiog. Loe^taik, May 30 (1519). 

Reverend Father, do not judge my affection for you by 
the paucity of the letters I write, for I am so overwbcUued 
with letters that I hardly have time to read tliem. I greatly 
like your Christian soul, inflexible for Omstian truth. I hope 
that Chrfst will favor your plans, and those of men like you. 
Here hitherto the papists, united to do their utmost, have 

■rWrbard At ta UiKk, Prlnc Hiüiop n{ IMft tia^-ta», ■ ntmlkcf of ane 
•( Ikr meat ifewtHal faniliM in Europe. H< wu ma/le csrilinal in Aoiiut, i}ii. 
ItiMvltliilaaillnf Eraaniui' infnrinaHon, 1» slwa^a ipMart lo hai« bem lioilil« 
t» (kr sew Biovmrnl, Lutbrr taUeil kin in itj5 "a nait pmllent otgvi at 
thr dnil." ZoAtn. s. mj. • 

<OPrrali*iw4 in Pmlmat, isio-isii. Tb« finl Sir Fnlmi puMiibrd «epaniely. 
Mwdi »7, iiig. Wfimar, *.; Kostltn-Kawcran: Martin Lnihtt |B«rl[ii, ifuj). 
i p. *7|. In Octcbri, is<*< t'rnW" hid ptiMltbrd a volumr of Lulbcr'i pimpblcta 
which be acnt lo Erumtu. Endco. i i>[t. «lo-ii. Ilalloniu» lo Erumua, 
DftK^hrt f, 151B. ^Iln, Hi. 44t- 



raged furiously, but some are milder and I hope that th< 
others will sometime be a^hnmed of their madness. All good 
men love Luther's boldness. I doubt not that his prudence 
will prevent faction and discord. I think we should mainly 
try to instill Christ into men's minds, rather i!ian fight with 
professing Christians, from whom no glory or victory will be 
obtained until the tyranny of the Roman See and that of it« 
satellites. Dominicans. Carmelites and Franciscans. 1 mean 
only the bnd ones, is abolished. ] do not see how that can 
be tried without serious disturbance. Farewell, «xccUcni 
Father, to whose kindness I am aware tha.t 1 owe much. 

Erasmus of Rotterdam. 


Kolde: Analtaa. 8. Leipsic, May 30, 1519. 

Peter Schad, or Schade (c t49j-April 19, 1524) of Bruttig on the 
Moselle (hence MoscIUnus), mairiculaied ai Cologne 1512, taught U 
Freiburg 1SIJ-4. i» April. 1515. settled at Leipsic, and became profesiM 
at the Untveriity in 1517. Cf. Alleo, op cH., ü. 517. Muacllanus w« 
a sapportcT of Luther at ihc Leipsic dcbaic. at which he presided. 

Our Martin' has been again cited to Coblenz by Charles 
von Xfiltitz without the authority of our bishop and to the ffreat 
indignation of Frederic. May I.uther make it turn out badly 
for the sophists. But Iheir plans are vain, for the elector will 
not expose an innocent man (o this ambush, but will have the 
whole thing judged by the Elector of Trier, and in his own time 
will avenge this rascal deserter from liis native Germany. You 
will soon see the letter of Erasmus commending innocent 
Martin to Ihc hero Frederic. It cannot be had now. As far 
as I ?cc, the debate will not be affected by the guile of these 
men, for I have hitherto heard nothing about moving it. . . . 


ers. ii. 60. WrrnxBotu, Jone 6, 1519. 

Greeting. We have heard of the death of Dr. Trut fetter,' 
May God receive his soul, and forgive him all his sins and 
us an ours. I send what you see, not ha\'ing anytliing else. 

10« IkU. Satik. «f. nl., 95- 

*A prcmalarc maot; TrulfelleT WM ill and died kbmt I>(««BA«r 1. 


I am now publishing my proof of niy thirteenth proposi- 
tion,' on acconm of the hatred which is trj'ing to prevent my 
appearance at Leipsic to defend it. Although I wrote three 
letters, 1 could get no certain answer from Duke Geoi^c. 
Rab of Leipsic has again gone to Rome for my sake, taking 
nx>rc lies there and bringing more rasli folly back. Yet will I 
go to Leipsic to offer to debate. It is all settled about CarUtadL 

Another trial, greater than these, has come to me, by all 
of which the Ixrd teaches me what a thing is man, although 
I thought 1 knew it pretty well before. If yo« come I will 
tell you more about it. . . . Karewell and pray for m«, a great 
sinner. I need absolutely nothing but God's mercy. Thus 
their liatrcd is fnistratcd, for they know I do not need otlier 

Greet the Fathers Xatliin and Usingen for me and all the 
others. You will soon see my proof of my thirteenth propo- 
sition about the primacy of the Pope, which I hope is irrefut- 
able. Brotiieb .Martin Luther, Augujtmian. 


eeSn. 86. Weissenpeus, June lo, 1519. 

At the desire of Dr. Carlstadt. we. George. Duke of 

Saxony, grant to him and to those' whom he may bring with 

him, fur tiie debate to take place at Leipsic with Dr. Eck, as 

long as be may be with us and until he returns to bis own 

home, free and safe conduct. 


r, XT. HS6- Gcnnait translation o( Latin original. 
Leipsic, July i. 151» 

Hauen (i484-Ausniat 23. 1536). a priest, tiuglit Latin at f^ssau isi.J. 
then went to Ingokiadt. where h< became professor of Canoa Law, 
and in 1519 Prorcctor «ml in 1533 Rector. 

*RtMtl»ti* LttlAttiatio tuftr tr^ttilhnt Jrtima ttrlia Jt felrtl*!* /«^**. 
Wcirnar. ii. itv. TliJi w» itir piapoiilion ilatini that ibo papal poircr sro» trot 
fear ccaiwrica prcTioiuly. qooUd ii Ihe twelfth propoMtion ibov«, ill« numlMr 
luiTias brcB (L>na«>l bjr Iha InterpotLtlon of ooc tbou. Cf., do. t^a. Suiitb. 

■t.uih«i*i nrar *u omltKil w. i inab vt blm. In jccordoiice wlik tbli ppf. 
Csrictidt, Lutber, UcUiMbltaon and othrf Willentterien Mt out (or 



BuTckhudt is otherwise UIlkno^vn to me, save tliat he was ats» t 
profcSiOT of law at Ingolstadt, and possibly a relative of PtKf 
Burckhar<lt, on whom ef. no. 164. 

Greeting, Our frientlship demands that I should give yoo 
news of myself. At first the strong, healing beer was bad 
for me. From Pfreimd to Gera I didn't have 3 single good 
drink. At Leipsic also the beer was bad for me, so I stoppet 
drinking it for six days, and feci better. . . . 

Luther and Carlstadt entered in great state, with tut» hun- 
dred Wittenberg students, (our doctors, three licentiates, toaxiy 
professors and many Lutherans, Lang of Erfurt the View. 
impudent Egranu?, the preacher of Görlitz,' the p>astor of 
Annaberg, Bohemians and Hussitej sent from Prague. an4 
many heretics who give out lliat Luther is an able defender 
of the truth, not inferior to John Huss. . . . 

So far of Carlstadt, now of the other monster, Luther. 
[On the margin Eck wrote : "I have done Luther a good 
mischief, of which I will tell you orally."] At his arrival I 
heard that he did not want to debate, and I moved everything 
to get him to. We met in the presence of the ducal commis- 
sioners and of the university; I left everything to them; they 
w*anted l.uther to debate on the same conditions as Carlstadt, 
but he said much atxmt instructions from his prince. I said 
to him I did not want the elector as judge, though I did not 
exclude him; tiiat he might choose a university and if Ger- 
many were too small, he might take one abroad, in France 
or Spain. But he would not have any judge, and was there- 
fore not admitted to debate, for, according to the ducal in- 
structions, no one should debate who did not allow a judge. 
I desired at that time th,it the commissioners and university 
should give me a testimony of this, although many of them are 
Lutherans. Dr. Auerbach,' the physician of the Archbishop of 

Lnpaic. •here thtf BrrJrrd June «4. Carlitadi *nd Eck cUbaitd June trJalj 3, 
snd lf*in JUI7 i{ and ifi. Lulhcr ind Eck lUbiWd July ^■i^. Tfce bt>l iccoaitt 
t>( Ae (oioum ai t^iiuic anil lb« dclMIe thrrt it '«nnd in « Ictief at I.a(bcr ts 
Sp*lMln. cUiccI <WlltcnbctE). Ja\r 10. im. imMUctd in Smith, tf. eil., pp. 
tt€i. Oiticr accaiind iir liien b«loir. 

■Tb« KcforcnKcioD ww tuttrd at Cörlia in iti> b; ibe puiw FrucU ftolk* 
bui; I onnni ur wbrther he tj rbe one bere meinl. 

■11. Stremrr Kin Auctbicb (liSj-ftovenbcr 16, luf). Itmoaa ■* ibc trat haat 
of "Aoectocb's Rdlcr" tcltbmcd fa Faiut. niatikuiiteiJ U l^pak 1447. M. A. 
ISM. uogbt pbiluMphr, ftcftor pt lb« Uaivcnitr 1308. Tfacn be «udkd iac4icu)c. 


Mayence and the doctor of (he Counts of Mansfcld and many 
others urged Luther on. as he would lose everyone's favor 
if be would not allow any judge in the world. . . . Finally, 
we agreed to decide on a judge .it the end of the debate, and 
in the meantime that it should Inol] be allowed to have the 
delate printe«!. . . . The Wittenliergers are full of gall, rage 
and poison, and arouse odium against me. The Town 
Council received so many threats from them, though none of 
tbcm were definite, that on the same night they put a guard 
of thirty-four armed men in the next houses, so that if there 
was any disturbance its authors might get what they deserved, 
People still put their hopes on Lutlier, but none whatever 
on Carlstadt I-uther was not allowed to preach at Lcipsic, 
but the Duke of Fonierania,' who is Rector of Wittenberg, 
at ttie suggestion of the monk, got him to preach on tlie gospel 
for the day in the castle, which he did. The whole sermon, 
delivered on June 29. was Bohemian. On the next moniing, 
Sunday, at the desire of citizens and doctors, 1 preached and 
rebutted his hair-splitting errors. . . . 


Ende«, ii. 7S. Psacck, July i;, 1519. 

On July 16. John Poduska. a Hussite pnea, who h»<l already em- 
braced Lolhcr's doctrine, wrote him a letter of cncourasunctit. On 
the (oUowinj; day his assisiant, Rord'alowsVy. provost uf tlie Emperor 
Charles's Collegium ai Prague, wrote the Itlter here iranslated. Both 
Poditska and Roid'alowsky died of tlie plaGu«: in 1520. The letters 
reached Luther on October 3, after having been apparently opened 
and read by tome Catholich who reported the contents to Emscr, who 
on Au£u«t tj forwarded this information to Zack, a Catholic ofücial 
at Praf(uc- Lulhcr later <ame into dose t«uch with the Bohemian 
Brettiren. tnauy of whom fdlowed him. 

Dear Slariin Luther, I have read your works through and 

b«c«nunr U. D. in i)(t, and In i]i6 vu etile (iroFnucr of paiKuIof?. In 1519 
kc nuritd Ulli in <}>4 hicm« <i(>n al tbr miilicKl (aculiy. Uf wu ■ friend 
«f ErMmiu «ad Rcuchlin. and t|i«ial phjxiriin 10 Atb«n of Mi^vnce. C Wimi- 
tnaaa: Dfr Wirt ren Aanhceh4 Ktllrr. i«ni- O. Clemen In Stun Atth» fSr 
tiekiiiikf Ctrrkickif, x\iv. 1903. 

■ Duhc Uiritlni XI. of Pomrrania dsoi'ti;?.!). I)esan (c ceijTi In can Junction 
■Itb kit elder tirather Ceotfr in October, 151]. He »twdird ■< WiiimtM-rj tn 
tS'S- lAfio after «bicb be ww madt bonorarr Kcclor of the Inuitutlon, He via 
• *>iiii (rictid of ihr Refftrmatkn, »tilcb vat ortnnlud In hi* donilolDiui by 
■ofcnhatm In tfH AUarm^nt itultihr Biagratktt. 



Let tU 

through, and daily discuss with my friends who you are, whii 

you are doing, what you are trying to do. or rather what 

Christ's spirit is doing through you tn the Oiurch. And 

behold, while we were talking of these things, a ceruin 

organist named James, who loves you much, came upon us and 

toM us all that is now being done between you and Eck and 

your other enemies. I cannot tell you, Father, how pleased, 

happy and dchghtcd wc were when he told us of the glorious 

victory you had won over your adversaries and especially 

over Eck's scholastic and Aristotelian rather than Christian 

theology. His narrative gave much praise both to you am) 

to the most illustrious Elector Frederic, to you. because you 

proved yourself worthy of admiration, to him because he 

appreciates those virtues of which you seem daily to give the 

greatest proofs, and by which your enemies are cast down 

and your friends rejoiced. For are they not better thaji gold? 

Wherefore I congratulate your Reverence, and I thank the 

God of heaven, who has deigned not only to keep you safe 

an^ldst so many perils and so many enemies, but also to give 

I you a glorious victory in your just battle. Moreover this 

same James told us that you greatly desired the books of 

John Huss,' the apostle of the Bohemians, that you might Icam 

what sort of man he was and how great, not from rumor 

nor from the ill-advised Council of Constance, but from the 

true mirror of his mind, that is. his books. So I am sending 

your Reverence his book on the Church,' and I am sending 

it the more boldly because I have read certain propositions 

I which you are now defending against old and new errors at 

i I.eipsic. which are also proved in this book. It is a small 

I gift and one which might at first seem ridiculous, but, per- 

l hsps, it will not be wholly unacceptable to you. especially if 

I it comes in answer to your wishes and prayers, and also 

\ because this was the one book on account of which the author, 

*A1iBoM u Roidalowvkr m «riling iUi Luther wm d«c1*rliic In U* dcVaW m 
Lciptic (hit "kmonK tite arlicl«* of job» Huh tbtrc an nanr *bi<h «re mom 
fbrutian sixl o-initellc. «kjcb Ike unirenil Ckurcb !• n»l abl« la coAdma.** 
O. S«ili: Lfifriftr D>j^Mli>n, p. A?. 

■As tjiitn rould find na edition of tfeb fraw ■ Hiutitc preu friar t« tbü 
lim* bt t«n(lii/lri thii thf bsolf «u in minuieTTiit. It wu printed if RoTUti 
In GtrmtMj jn AncnM. 15J0. tl made ■ iremendtiiu latprtaMoa «m tatksr. 
CY- till», ii". 'Vt. *B<1 Snttli. 7i(. 



during his liic-lime, was exposed to ihe contumely of all 
the higher elerg}-, and for which he was hated, mocked, cursed 
and railed a heretic by thctn, and for which, in short, he was 
at last, though an innocent man and a splendid preacher of 
the divine word, burned so unjustly by the Council of Con- 

But enough of him now. If necessary and if you order it, I 
will gladly &end you the record of his trial with other things. 
I will only add that I am sure that what Jolm Huss formerly 
was in Bohemia, tliat are you, Manin Luther, in Saxony. 
What then do you need? Watch and be strong in the Lord, 
and beware of men. Do not quail if you hear yourself called 
a heretic and excommunicated, remembering what Christ and 
the apostles suffered and what all men wlio wish to live piously 
in Clirist suffer even to-day. 

Farewell. Martin, and love me though unknown to you, 
^JOT be sure that you are loved by me. 


C. Wurtinanii : Dtr Wirt von Auerbachs Ketltr Dr. H. Sfomtr x'on 

■ Auerbach. Lcipsic. 1002. p. oo. Leipsic, July ig. 1519. 

... At Leipsic in the castle I attended the theological 
<tebate of Eck. Carlstadt and Luther. Eck, the loud the- 
ologian, and Carlstadt disputed on free will. Martin Luther, 
a man famous for eloquence, divinity and holiness of life, 
disputed with Eck on the power of the Pope, on purgatory, 
indulgences and the power of priests to loose and to bind. 
whether they all have it or not. and on some other obscure 
theological points, tt is extraordinary how much holy the- 
ological teaming was modestly distilled by Martin. Ifc seems 
to me a man worthy of immortality. He uttered nothing 
but what was sound and wholesome, omitting all heathen 
learning and content only with the majestic goüpel and writ- 
ings of the apostles. Some, infected either with unbecoming 
legality or with malice, reviled him : he was like a harmfess 
sheep among wolves, and the more hostile they were to him 
the greater and more holy was his learning. Did I not know 
that you were already favorable to hira. 1 would write you to 



commend him to the elector, but there is no need of spurriog 
one running of his own accord. . . . 

C»rpu^ Reformalcrum, I 87. Witteitbeiu;, July at. 1519. 

John Hussgcn <Hausschein<Oeeolampa(lius; 1482-1530.3 friend of 
Zwintili iind leader in the Swiss HcfoTinaiion. He studiH at Keilbionfi 
and Bologna, and in i^i/j louk up iheuiogy at Heidelberg, winning 
hi» M.A. in 150J. In 1513 he matnculiilcij at Tübingen, where be 
studied Greek with MdBnctithon. iSis-S lie vint, xt Batle helping 
Erasmus edit (he New TcMament. From 1518 to 1S20 he wa» at Angt- 
burg; in 1520 he entered a monastery to escape ihe religious contro- 
versy, but in 1522 cmrrged and became the Evangelical pastor <►! 
Ba^e. He took a piominrnt part in the Marburg Colloquy of tSt^ 

. , . And to begin at the beginning, Eck last year pub- 
lished .some notes called Obelisks on Luther's Theses on in- 
dulgences, and he wrote too bitterly for me to quote anything 
from tliena. Carlstadt picked out some of Eck's propositions 
in his Theses, which are pubhshed. Eck answered in an 
Apology, wliich was somewhat milder tlian the Obelisks, 
Carlstadt confuted the Apology in a pamphlet; it was a tedi- 
ous accusation expressed at length. Omitting details, it was 
determined to dispute on the chief point. The day was set. 
Eck, Carlstadt and Lutlicr came together at Leipsic. Tlie 
subject of the delwite wa« digested in a few propositions to 
make it more definite. T think you will agree tliat it is proper 
in a debate to have notaries take down the speeches and N> 
have their reports published so that cadi may jutigc the 
merits of the debaters. But Eck first told the judges ap- 
pointed by Duke George of Saxony, that Maecenas of humane 
letters, that he did not agree to this plan, for be thought that 
the nature of the debate precluded its being reported, for 
that the force of the debaters wa.t increased by speaking 
ex tempore and would be decreased by the delay of writing, 
that while minds were stimulated by rapidity they would be 
cncn-atcd by delay. But it seems to mc that this is just 
what is to be desired. . . . You know how Nazianzen ad- 
vises this, and how Erasmus docs. [Follows a description of 
the debate between Carlstadt and Eck on free will.] 

Ut 1*3 



Then Martin dcscendctl into the arena, for up to this time 
it was uncertain whether he would debate, because he was not 
able to appoint judges in such a delicate matter saving his 
ri^t to appeal. However when this was settled he began lo 
debate on the power of the Pope and on whether it could 
be considered as existing jure diznno. For he frankly con- 
fessed its existence dt facto, and only disputed the divine 
r^ht. As the dispute waxed somewhat shari>, five days were 
spent on this point. Eck spoke bitterly and discourteously 
and tried every means to excite odium against Luther among 
the people. Eck's 5rst argument wa& that the Church could 
not be without a head, since it was a corporate body, and 
therefore that the Pope was, jure dnAno, head of the Church. 
Then \[artin said that Christ was the head of the Church, 
which, being spiritual, needei! no other, as is said in Colos- 
sians, i. [verse i8]. Eck replied by citing several passages 
from Jerome and Cyprian, which he thmight proved the 
divine right, ßut now certain passages in those writers whom 
fae cited as sure supporters, were quoted as showing that they 
were doubtful. He boasted the authority of Bernard's epistle 
to Eugenius. as if it were Achilles in his magic armour, 
although there are certain things in that very book which 
support I-uther*s position. Moreover, who is so stupid as 
not to sec what small authority Bernard could have had in 
this matter? From the gospel Eck quoted the text. "Thou 
art Peter, and upon this rock f will found my Church." 
Luther interpreted tliat as a confession of faith ; said that 
Peter represented the Church and that the rock on which 
Christ founded the Church wag himself; and he proved this 
by the order of the words. Again that text: "I'ced my 
sheep," was said to Peter, alone and privately, as Luther 
alleged, after the like authority had been given lo aJI the 
apostles, in the words. "Receive the Holy Spirit, and whose 
sins ye loose on earth shall be loosed unto them in heaven, 
etc.'* With llwse words, he said. Christ showed what it was 
to feed the sheep and what sort of man he wished the shep- 
herd to be. .^gainst this Eck urged the authority of the 
Council of Constance, where Luther's proposition had been 

idemned as one of Huss's articles and where it was said 




Let [64 

that it was necessary to salvation to bdicvc the Roman pontiS 
WAS universal. He advanced several reasons to show that a 
council could not err. Lullier prudently replied that all Lbe 
condemned articles should not be considered heretical, and 
he added more on the autliority of a council, which it would 
be tiresome to report here. Plainly, however, a council can- 
not found articles of faith. The audience did not care for 
this proposition, because it seemed as if I.uiher were rcsistinf 
the power of councils, whereas he really desires nothinf 
more devoutly than their authority. He was therefore ac- 
cused of heresy, Hussite opinions and crimes of that nature. 
Eck conceded that the authority of all apostles was equal. 
but that it did not follow that all bishops were equal. . . , 

After this they debated on the power of the Pope over 
souls in purgatory, and Eck took a new tack and began to 
prove from the text in Maccabees that purgatory' existed. 
Luther, following Jerome, denied that Maccabees was autbori« 
tativc. . . . 

In Luther, now long familiarly known to me. I admire a 
lively talent, learning and elo(|ucncc. and cannot help lo^'ing 
his sincere and entirely Christian mind. Greet our commoa 
friends. You know the Greek proverb, that there is much 
vain boasting in war. Wherefore do not believe all that is 
told you about the result of this debate. Farewell. 

Ecidcrs. ii. Qft German. Leipsic, Jul; 22. 151^ 

Serene. high-I>om Elector! My humble, ready service to 
your Grace, together with my poor prayers to God for you. 
Most gracious Lord I I humbly pray your Grace not to take 
it ill nor with displeasure that I have allowed myself to 
debate with your Grace's professors from Wittenberg, foi 
I did not do it to hurt your Grace's university, but, on tbe 
contrary, am much inclined to serve your Grace, as one who 

■Mwctbe« xH. 4]-6. leidt in the Vulgate: "Et facia c«IUtion«, Auodnia 
miT[)> dftchmu «rtcntl mUil JcrotalTmlm nffctW pt« pcccitii aoriaamw Mcri- 
firium, bcnp cl r*Ii|iiaM de rnurrtcrione cociUns. (niii «nin «e*. qui ««cldetalri. 
mutteciuroK ipmrpi. (uprrfluum viderpiuf. rt vinuin titxtt t>ra nuM-ttiU,) ri i|au 
COntiiWubJI. quod hi, qui cum piclilr dnt nlllonrTn iicc«|>tianl. aplüuun httwnel 
reTKHttam (riliam. Sancia ergo, d ulubrii rat coiilalia pro itrfiuiclia «lar^n, 
Di ■ pncaib lolTMintr." On Luibti'a opinion o[ Mac«al>cn, in/r«. no. 194. 

lÄ 164 



is renowned before other princes of the Empire for cherish- 
ing letters and learned men} But only for Ihc sake of the 
uth of the holy faith have [ debated, and because Dr. Carl- 
,dt compelled me to by printing and publishing certain Con- 
clusions with many words of contempt and revihng against 
me, although he had no cause to insiih people thus. As to 
Dr. Luther, whom I pity because of the singular excesses' 
into whicli his fair genius' has fallen in taking up this matter, 
t was compelled to answer him because of his publication of 
a great deal of stuff from which, in my poor opinion, much 
error and scandal will arise. Your Grace may juitge tliat he 
does not to this day in the least moderate his views, in that 
on a certain matter he denies and repudiates the opinion of 
the holy fathers Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome, Gregorj', l.eo, 
Cyprian, Chrysostom and Bernard. It sounds evil for a 
Christian to presume to say that of his own wisdom he under- 
stands the sense of Holy Scripture tetter than the holy 
Fathers. It is also hard to hear him say, as he did in the 
debate, that many articles of John Huss and the Bohemians, 
condemned by the holy Council of Constance, arc most Chris- 
tian and evangelic' It is easy to imagine what joy the heretics 
conceive on hearing such things He also says that St. Peter 
did not have tlie primacy' over the other apostles from Christ, 
and many otJier things. As a Christian prince your Grace 
may judge whether these and similar things may be allowed 
in Christianity. In my poor opinion they cannot be ; where- 
fore, solely for the sake of the truth, I will withstand them 
where I can. 

Neither Dr. Luther nor anyone else can say that he has 
received a pennyworth of his doctrine from our Holy Father, 
the Pope, or from the great heads of the Church. Yet I, 
although a poor parson, came here at my own expense to 
meet your Grace's professors, and am still ready, if Dr 
Luther thinks he has not yet debated enough, to go with him 
to Cologne, Louvain or Paris. For I know just what tlicy 
will do. Kor when they proposed to me the University of 
Leipsic, they would have had it thought that they had refused 
to debate there, but that I compassed it with the prince and 

^Thc irar^ ia iulica art Lattn. 



LCL ifif 

the university. Most gracious Lord, I do not mean lo re- 
proach Dr. Luther with all this, nor do I write to injure hini, 
but only to excuse myself to your Grace, who would other- 
wise hear untruths to my dishonor; and I also give your 
Grace occasion^ to consider what you owe to Christ, the Oiris- 
tian religion, the land and the people. Long ago I desiicJ 
to excuse myself to your Grace, and came to your Grace's 
court at Augsburg* six times, and I know not for what rcaÄm 
I was not allowed to come before your Grace. 

Although your Grace's professors departed with sundry 
threats to write much. I debated in such wise that it would 
be unnecessary to write anything. For we maiJe an agree- 
ment to keep still* until judgment shall have been given by the 
universities selected as umpires. Wherefore I left them free 
choice of all llie universities which are in good repute in the 
whole of Christendom, to take which ones they liked. Well, let 
them write; I don't care much, only I wish they wrote with the 
seriousness demanded by the subject, and not so frivolously, 
impertinently and abusively, especially as I am sure your 
Grace has no pleasure in such words. What is written Iqf 
tlieologians should be in such language that anyone who reads 
it may umlerstaml that a theologian has written it with the 
purpose of seeking the truth, and not like a groom who 13 
only able to revile people. . . . 

Your Grace's obedient chaplain. 
Dr. John von Eck. 

P. S. — Most gracious Lord, it has just occurred to mc that 
in debating with Dr. Luther on the power of the Pope,* I took 
away the whole foundation of his argument. For his posi- 
tion is not novel, many mistaken persons have held it before. 
But if from mere suspicion he has conceived th« opinion that 
some of your Grace's .subjects have given mc his recently 
printed book' (as they have told Caesar Pflug that lliey thiiik 
Dr. Peter Burckhart* has done so), let mc say that it is false 


■I>iiilnc ibe Dkt »f ijiB: LnAcr m« Eck •( AusitnirB i« OcMbcf. Cf, 

*Bctore Ott dchot« «II ^dj«* afreed n»l lo puUith Ibe ■r(iia»nl* until the 
judl«! had dt«ii]«<J. Endcf*. it. ;r. 

*ktit}ttlio . , , dt PoUilcU P*t»*, Wttmir. ii. iB» 

BSioce Sepienber, tjtS, profMMir «f amitcine ■< Wliteobcrt !■ l^ *iib- 


and that tliey do Dr. Burckliart and tlic otiiera wrong, for 
he haä never mentioned the matter to mc and 1 have not yet 
seen the book, unless, as I tliought, he read from it at the 
debate. But I know well cnougli from similar writings what 
it contains. Your Grace would do a praiseworthy act to bum 
it on a bonfire. 

iMlheri Opera varii argmmenti (Erlangen. i866), iii. 4761 

Ltirsic, July 24. 1519. 
Junes Hoclislratcn (Hoog^raatcn) studied at Lovvain, where he 
took his M. A. in 1485. He t>ccjiiic a DQmiiiic;in, was maclc prior 
and eventually cliicf inquiHtor for many years. He was tlie leading 
prosecutor of Rcudilin for licrcsy. lie loolc an active pari against 
ErasRius {in/ra, no. 187J and Luther, who wrote ngsinst him, very 
briefly, in 151Q. Weimar, it. 384. He wrote agaitut Luther Epitome 
4t Fide et Optribus in 1525. He died in 1537. M. Paulus: Di« 
deuttehem Domitikaner, p. S/T. 

I would not have yoii ignorant, Reverend Father, how I 
have hitherto withstood tlioac rash men of Wittenberg who 
despise all the doctors of the last four hundred years, no 
matter how holy and wise, and who disseminate many false 
and erroneous ideas among the people, seducing and infecting 
them chiefly by means of works printed in German. 

Recently we disputed at Leipsic. before an audience of 
teamed men, who had come together from ail parts, where 
(praise, honor and glory be to God), their reputation, even 
with the vulgar, was much diminished, and was completely 
destroyed with most learned men. You should have heard 
their rash assertions, how blind they were and bold to commit 

Luther denies that Peter was the prince of the apostles; he 
denies that obedience is owed to the Church by divine taw, 
but only by human agreement, that 15. by agreement of the 
Emperor. He denies that the Omrch was built on Petcr.*^ 
When 1 cited on this point Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose, Greg- 

■ef »f tfii b« w*nt 10 IfltnUttrtl. where he dirri In Ihe ■prlns of i;:6. H* 
ftfrtmr a mronx oppotimi of Lnilier. He hid »tiKlird meclicine at Fetrara, 
aaA Mii(bt It ai Inguliiadi alter 1497. Ztiueififi flif Kwekenfftichiehtt, xrlii. 

tMatduir svL iB. 




ory, Cyprian, Chrysostom, Leo, BL*rnard and Tlicophnus, be 
repudiated them all witliout blushing, and said itiat he akjne 
would oppose all of them, relying only on the text that Christ 
wa& (he foundation of the Church, and that other foundation 
no man can lay.' I did away wjlh this by citing Revelation 
xii.* about Ihc twelve foundations. Luther also defended 
the Greeks and schismatics, saying that tlicy would be sared 
even if they are not under the obedience of the Pope. 

Of the articles of the Bohemians, he says that some of those 
condemned by the Council of Constance are most Christian 
and evangelic; by which rash error he frightened many, and 
alienated those who had previously supported him. 

Among other things 1 said to him: If the primacy of the 
Pope is merely a matter of human law and of the agreement 
of the faithful, where does he (Luther) get the dress be 
wears? where docs he get the power of preaching and of 
hearing tlie confessions of liis parishioners, etc.? He answered 
that he wi&hed there were no mendicant orders, and many 
other scandalous and absurd things, as that a council, con- 
sisting of men, could err, and that purgatory was not proved 
by the Bible, as you may see hy reading our debate, which 
was taken down by faithful notaries. . . . 

There were many of them; besides the two doctors, there 
was their Vicar Lang, two licentiates in theology.* a nephew* 
of Rcuchlin who assumes a good deal, three doctors of law, 
several professors, who aided him privately and publicly even 
in the course of the debate. But I atone, with nothing but 
right on my side, withstood them. 

To brothers of your order I committed tlie care of copy- 
ing the debate and sending it to you as soon as posuUe. 
Wherefore 1 pray you by him whom I serve, zealously to 
defend the faith as you long ago undertook to do. I do rtot 
wish you to involve yourself or make cither your person or 
your order odious, but please aid mc with your advice and 
learning. The Wittenbergers hesitated to debate; in fact, they 

ll Corlotlllliu, HI. II. 
iRsthct, isi. 14. 

■A «unbtr of prattMut* aod two buBdrtd ilodeau ttoaifUMi Lulber ta 
Incipaic; r/. ntfr», nO. 160. 



sought excuses. Luther was at first unwilling to take 
MS judge any university in the world. The most Christian 
Duke George of Saxony would not allow any dispute on articles 
of faill) unl»s it should be referred for judgment to the masters 
of our faith. Lutlier was therefore forced and spurred on 
by hi* followers, for had he not debated and admitted some 
judge, they would all have receded from him. When I then 
offered him his choice of all the universities, he chose Paris 
and Erfurt 

As I know that your university has close rcbtions with 
Paris. I bc^ you earnestly, for the sake of Christ's faith, to 
write to your friends there, or even, if it seem good, to the 
whole universiQr, that when the excellent Duke George shall 
write them and send the debate with a request for judgment 
tfaey may not decline, but should undertake it like champions. 
as we have both agreed to them as judges, and 1 think the 
matter is so plain that it will not need long discussion. . . . 

On tlie day of St. Peter,* in the absence of the duke, Luther 
delivered at court a sennon full of Hussite errors. Straight- 
way on the day' of the Visitation of the Virgin and the day 
after, I preached against his errors to a larger audience than 
T have ever had, an<] I stirred up in the people disgust for 
Lutheran errors, and J will do the same to-morrow when I 
bid Lcipstc good-bye. . . , 

Rn, ii. 97- (WiTTENBEkG), July 26, IS19. 

Greeting. Reverend Father, I found the Vicar General* 
at Grimma, together with Wenzel Link, making a round of 
visits to the convents under their charge. You did well to 
abstain from visiting them. For be said it was his business 
now. I fear that the prior' there will give up his place. We 
re daily expecting the advent of his reverence' from Dres- 

IJbiu 19. Oa Ikii <■/. Srailh, ep. ril., 6r- 

«joir • 

'Staapili. Luther ati bin at tic wn* rcluminf (ram (h( Ltl^tit debtte. Lotbar 
apparratt)' lefl Lnpiic «fcti« Citlctidl w» •lltl dcbatlnl. oa Jiiljp i; or i<. H« 
wu 11 Wirtenb«nt <*■> July ro. Hv dor* not now itricrib« the debaw noire (ullir 
M Laac «M jireknif- 

•WolfiofiE ZcMbiru. »poktii nt by l.tithrr. Nnrrmbrr t. ttiS Ender«, L ift, 
teivT Murtr of ihc llaipicc of St. John »I Grimmi. 


den or Htrzhtzg. He told me to notify you and all othen 
that I coukl cf his arrival; please do tlie same. Eck is sing- 
ing a song of triumph everywhere. He has been taken by 
Duke George' to Annabcrg. perhaps to resuscitate indulgenca 
there. More presently. I-arcwcll. 

Bbothur Marhn LtTTHER, Augustimon. 

Corpus Reformatontm, L iqj. July 29, 151^ 

, . . Here you have Luther's Resolution' written, as yon 
think, bitterly, but as I think, prudently. You sec how he 
repels hatred and transfers it all into this fire-brand and 
author of the whole war. But I hope he will write more on 
the other propositions and dedicate il to you. . . . 


A. HonwiU & K. HartfeMcr: Britfwecktet dts Bntus Rktnammt. 
ttS6, p. 165. Heidelboc, July 301 15191 

. . . Behold, dear Beatus. how vigilant are these wicked 
men. and how they conspire to murder, not Luther or others, 
but Tnilh herself. I have read Erasmus' epistle' to Elector 
Frederic of Saxony, deploring this. It was written from 
Antwerp, and made inc suspect that he was so sick of the 
quarrels with the professors of Louvain that he had left that 
university. Certainly they are unworthy of so divine a genius. 
Smitten with grief on this account. I wished to write it to 
you. my only defence, hoping that you might have something 
happier to write back. We have little hope left here. One 
day when I was presiding at some stupid debates (for there 
is a great dearth of learned men here), I made some proposi- 
tions difTering from their rules, and barely escaped stoning. 
My chief offence was that t defended the proposition that 
charily was commanded to our neighbor. Next to that was 3 
proposition on divorce, which was debated fiercely. 

■ Oukc Ge«rt« went i* Ajtntb'rt (n the eMiHCritinn of 1 rhnreh ea July ■«. 
Eck folloo-in« Mm aeitl day. An indulfcnc« wu prwluned en tbi* ««Maien. 

^RritlmUtt Lmtttfriem* tuft» Pr^fuirum« mi Ttrtia tinima dt PoUttatt Pap**- 
L.«l(nic 151a. Wrloiar. U. iSo. 

*S*pTa, no. 141' 

Xct ]6g 



Not only Louvain' and Cologne, but Oxfonl' and Cambridge 
have declared war on Luther, their purpose bcing^ to ruin 
Oiristian philosopliy' and crush poUtc learning. The leaders 
are »id to be Cajcian and .\<lrian, both cardinals.' For the 
dcl^atcs of Louvain and Cologne agreed witli Cajetan at 
Coblenz chat he should kcop the sak of indulgences as his 
department and leave the rest to them. Tliey were going to 
cavil at this, but he. much more courteous than tliey, yielded 
to tlicm. for it was his opinion that it would Ire sufficient to 
brand as error that which they attacked as the crime of heresy. 
For I have learned from a trustworthy friend, in whom Caje- 
tan confided, that there was almost no page in a book of 
Luther's on wliich tliey had not written "heresy, heresy." 
scvcra! times. They showed the book thus disfigured to the 
cardinal, led perhaps by their own prejudice to hope that 
he would endorse their judgment at once. But when he 
bad examined llie book and their dirty notes, be said: "We 
must not strike out too much. There is a very slight differ- 
ence between some things which you have called heresies and 
the orthodox view. They arc errors, not heresies. Let 
amcs* be an example to you." . . . 


Walch. XV. 1404. German. Wittkkbejh;, August 1, ISI9. 

Greeting. Ft would be long and proli-x to relate the order 
and procedure of the Lcipsic debate; much more proh'x and 
tedious to de.'icribe the same. For as often 33 1 think of the 
said debate. I am moved and kindled, not, as God knows, for 
the love I hear Dr. Luther but for that I bear the truth. I 
doubt not that tnnli is certain, unchangeable and eternal. 
though hated by alt gross fellows. Even before this time I 

'Cf. Aa JOKili; L'aneimn* Faeuitf it tVrltffie J Lauvain, p. anClt. Uvibtt^ 
«ork> irrired in th« NetlurUnd* m Ulcit esrlr in 1514, and (beir lale wu 
JMMirtliTrlr lorUddcn by tbt Unirvnicy of Louvatn, which, xt tb« wtm« time, 
4)»|iiinfcii1 * mcMenjcr to net tb< opinion ol ibe Univrraiir of Coloini; on Luibcr. 
Tb« condoniution of bins by CdIordc folIowTd on AueuiI jo. 
11 cm Und no oiber tetcrcncc 10 riily u iblii ti< iny wlioa of Ibe Ensticll 
^^■Mveraldu Miaiiut Laltict. It wm nbtiniJantly trtic lairr. 
^^fc" n ilnlintb I ■ Cbrbtl" wu the tiimc utoptt-d bj Kiumu« fof bl* *r*tcn. 
^^PtPaBatiw: ibw ia rriikMly lAc tneanloi, ihuucb not t'lren in Du Cuec. 

Trobalilr Ifocliitttiaa, or Jtuncs, iii. i. iv. 11. t. «a. Oa ttiii -wtiDlc affair, c/. 
Jh Joiif b. fff. <il. 




knew that what Eck and his supporters brought forth w» 

This is not remarkable, for Eck is eoiirely unversed in the 
Hoiy Scriptures. And, what is more, he doe* not even kno« 
as much sophistry' as a man who wants to be thought » 
great a dehatcr ought, for he boasts and claims to be a father 
and patron of sophistry. For I have smelled about a bltk. 
and understand the affair rightly (although t have neither 
reason nor discrimination), namely, that Eck speaks all thit 
is in his mind and memory without reason, judgment or dis- 
crimination, although he can utter the words he has learned 
with great pomp and proper gesture. He docs not seek the 
truth, but only to show off his memory and to defend the 
teachers of hin school. . . 

That you may believe that what I say is true, hear a tort 
of the nible which, with the counsel of the inept and un- 
learned sophists of l^ipsic, Eck cited and brought forward 
to defend papal indulgence. It stands in Tsatah Ixi. i : "The 
spirit of the Lord is upon me; therefore the Lord has anointed 
me to preach good tidings unto the meek ; he hath sent me to 
bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim to the captives induJ- 
gcnee."* that is. forgiveness of sins. See, my dear Spalatio, 
this one word (indulgence), which these famous sophists of 
Leipsic found in the large Concordance to the Bible, wrote 
for Eck with chalk upon a blackboard and sent to him tlie 
following day to support papal indulgences which have 
recently been invented for the sake of gain. For the prophet' 
docs not speak of the forgiveness of sins by indulgence, but 
of our Lord and Saviour becoming a man. Just look at the 
unhappy, .stupid sophists. But 1 am not surprised, for they 
know tiothing. But 1 am surprised that Eck took the said 
text into the debate and uttered it before so remarkable an 
assembly, and dictated it to the notaries. 

It is true, however, that Eck surpassed Dr. Carlstadt by far 
in memory and delivery, so that I was sorry that the thing had 
been begun, not because Eck won the victory, but because, had 

'Amidaif ni^uif »cbolBtlit htitilng, bul the cfTKt it cuniic. 
*"IitdiilKntiiio" in Ac Vnlgaicj "libtilr" in cui auib»ru«d reniaa. 
*Aftcr ■]■. rAkh wM ib( mot« unhiitoirk«] «R«r, ikai of Eck «w ik« at 
Antderf ? 


speeches not be«n taken down in writing, our champions 

■uld have come oflF willi great sliame. For Eck argues and 

ms around in tlie Italian manner with nine or ten argu- 

by which he does not seek lo establish the truth, but 

\y his own honor, just as all sophists, that is, all schoolmen, 

. But the audience consider him the victor who shouts 

the loudest and has the last word, and for these reasons the 

men of Lcipsic honor Vxk as the victor. . . . 

J do not consider Eck ccjual to Luther either in doctrine or 
art, either in delivery or in mcmor\' ; 1 would as soon com- 


r Carpus Rfformatontm. \. ie6. WiTTEMaERG, August 11. 1519. 

^K . . . Eck reviled us with fierce and uncivil calumnies, either 
^^o indulge his own temper or because he thought himself in- 
sulted and thus revenged himself. , . . After our departure 
he disseminated a large number of false slanders about Luther 
among the princes. What can you do to liim? I love and 
cling 10 the pious zeal and learning of Luther aä much as I 
do to any human thing. . , . 

_Enders. ti, 124. (Witttnijerc, before August 18, 1519-) 

Greeting. Please let me know, SpalatJn, if possible, what 
you wanted done about the foundation for commemorating 
the Passion,* I am not much in favor of binding a man to 
certain stated services, unless it is a man who is profited by 
such a rule. 

We all b^ you to send us a copy' of the Leipsic debate by 
ihis messenger. We have a reason for wanting it, which you 
■rill learn in due time. As we ask you wc hiivc no doubt that 
you win comply. Farewell and pray for me, a very busy 

*Tlic EI<«lori il ibc (saSMtlcn of kla tonlcitor, Jam«» Vogt, in ($19, endowed 
• (citniJalicn for hro piioli aai eitbt acolil» lo «D( PuJina on «cfUin dvt% 
IB the WiitcnbcK CuiIp Cliurcl. 

Tliti wu a maniLMiipl Copr of <>>« niaulM of tb« d«bsl«. wbich hnd bt«ti 
.,^^1 bj McUnclitbOD to S^ilktln »n Aufutt 11. 



sinner. May the Lord preserve our elector" for us. Acttl 
HROTHEa Maktin LuTnica, AugusiiniaiL 


Enders, ii. 136. De Wette, i. 307. German. 

WrrrewBisc, August 18. l; 

Most serene, high-born Prince, most gracious Lord! Otf 
humble, ol>edient service and prayers for your Grace, Mi 
gracious Prince and Lord ! We have received your Gi 
note with Dr. Eck's tetter* and noted the contenU. Dr. Edc 
says he does not intend to slander us before your Grace, and 
yet labors with his sophistry and habitual loose talk to get 
your Grace, only on the strength of his letter and hasty juäg' 
mcnt, to drive us out of the land. Wc are not :3iirpri!ved that 
he considers your Grace such a person as he dares address 
such a letter to. For we learn cverj- day more clearly tbtt 
Dr. Eck is and remains Dr. Eck, do what he will. 

May your Grace not take it ill that we have not ^ven you 
an account of this debate before. For we esteem it an unfor- 
tunate affair, carried on with mere hate and envy, wherefore 
wc did not wish to he the first of whom people could say (as 
Dr. Eck unnecessarily fears that they will) that we desired 
with our gloo' to sliame others. But as we are forced by Dr. 
Eck's letter, we pray that your Grace will hear the aßair 
with kindly patience, although we are sorry to inflict so long 
and unprofitable a story on your Grace. But the affair will 
s;)eak for itself, and show whether Dr. Eck, with all his boast- 
ing and protestation, iä inclined to serve or to hurt your Grace's 

In the first place, Dr. Eck complains that I. Andrew Carl- 
sUdt, published certain theses against him, with sarcasms and 
contemptuous words, although he docs not think that I have 
any right to insult people. I reply: Dr. Eck can esteem roe 
as he likes, but it would have mightily become him, had he, 
along with his complaint, told how he attacked Dr. Luther, 

>The ettetor vu 111 la rjio- To conwU hin Lulktr «rau A« Tnttraittm. 

Sffiilb. «p. tH^ p. 7S- 


L«L lya 


31 S 

to revile and shame us and your Grace's university. His 
word* would liavc been loo much even for a bail woman, for 
in his poisonous OMisks, he reviled him as a Hussite, a heretic, 
a rebel, a shameless braivler. a ne^ü prophet* and everything 
else he pleased, ttiore tlian twenty times as much as 1. who 
was too moderate against his misconduct, ever called him for 
the vindication of our honor. 

For I think Dr. Eck has much less right, not only to revile 
such a man, but to slander all of us, to the shame of your 
Grace's university, and so criminally to libel us without any 
ground or reason. And if ihe goad pricks Dr. Eck too hard, 
the said Obelisks arc at hand, and we will publish them, which 
hitherto, to spare his honor, wc have rcfrainc«! from doing. 
We have deserved his great ingratitude by not paying him 
back in kind. And if necessary, wc will also collect on paper 
all the ugly, sharp, disagreeable words and gestures with which 
he made the debate n .^^imple obstacle to the truth. . . . 

May God reward him for pitying me, Martin Luther. I 
would only like to hear what are the "singular excesses," for 
which he so mercifully punishes me. But I can have nothing to 
do with him on articles of faith, except perhaps in that of 
penttcace ; as for my opinion on indulgences, purgatory and the 
power of the Pope. I confess that, "according to his poor 
opinion" (as he truly says). I have made much scandal and 
offence, not for the conmion people, but (or tlic Pharisees and 
scribes, for whom also Christ and all the apostles made ofifence. 
Truly, 1 cannot stop doing this even now, whether it wins the 
"good opinion" of Dr. Eck or not. 

He blames me shamelessly for denying Ihe authority of atl 
the holy fathers at once. Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome, Greg- 
ory, Leo. Oirysostom, etc.. and for arrogating to myself alone 
the understanding of Scripture. Thus it is fitting that a 
doctor of divinity should speak out roundly and forcibly 
before 3 prince. Your Grace may note how much inclined 
Dr. Eck is to serve us, in daring cheerfully to write such things 
about us. Had he said that I had contradicted some fathers, 
he would have had a show of reason, but his own clear con- 

Itne and eU«ttb«rf In tkla Itittr ibc «ordi pttni*<l itt tuljc* we Latia la 
fU orl|{ut 


science knows that it is not true tliat I contradicted than all 
Let me tell your Grace the exact truth : I did, indeed, set 
one doctor, with the text of the Bible, against another, whom 
Dr. Eck cited alone, naked and without the Iliblc, and I w3l 
not cease doing this my life long. That is what Dr. Eck calls 
contradicting all the holy Fathers, and says that it souniii 
badly in the new Eckian Christianity. . . . 

For I have said that when I had a clear text I would stand 
by it even if the ex^esis of the teachers was contrar)* to th« 
sense. St. Augustine often does this and teaches us to do \t 
For, as the lawyers say. we should put more faith in one man 
who has the Bible for liira, tlian in the Pope and a who!« 
council without tlic Bible. From this, my dear friends. Dr. 
Eck and the men of Leipsic conclude roundly that I ha« 
repudiated all teachers. What can one do witli audi false 
tongues and hearts? In like manner he has thrown up at toe 
the Council of Constance, and accuses me of contradicting it. 
I will answer this charge in due time, and show his false 
heart to the world. . . . 

[The rest of this letter is a long argument of ten pages on 
the power of the Pope and other points which came up in 
the debate with Eck.J 

Enders, iL m- Vfj-msBao, AngaM 18. 1519L 

Greeting. Behold, Spalatin, we arc sending letters lo the 
illustrious elector, our patron, in .inswer to the calumnies 
of Eck. We should be pleased if the illustrious elector will 
deign to send them to Eck; but if not, God's will be done. 
For the reverend Vicar Staupit^ has made us doubtful 
whether the elector would have wished us to answer Eck in 
this style, and not rather with the Latin propositions* on 
which we are now working; wlierefore we are sending both. 
But if the German tetter is to be sent, we desire that anything 
in it be changed, which either the elector or you think 
should be changed. I have looked for Eck's letter among 
my papers without finding it; I will seek more diligently, 

'Ktiatiiiioitti Luthirianot juptr propeiMonibiu nit, Wcinar. ij. j^i. Cf. 
Eadct». li. lot. 

t*t. VJ3 



Eck (wliom now, without sin, we may Juoge and accuse) 
is ever playing the part of neither a good man nor a gentle- 
man. He gave the Bishop of Brandenburg a memorial on the 
^Brticlcs which the brothers of Jiiterbogk have falsely cooked 
F^p against mc' The man is impudent and shameless, ready 
to assert or deny anything for a Httlc puff of glor>-. His only 
aim is by right or wrong to hurt Wittenberg. I am opposing 
him, and with God's help will expose the sycophant and his lies 
to tlie public. 

Meantime the Bishop of Brandenburg, without hearing 
the other side, is spreading abroad Eck's falsehoods, and by 
his name giving them, in the eyes of many, authority, thus 
burling mc, and showing fairly tlie animus he has always 
had towards me. I fear that t can hardly do anything with- 
out involving him, and betraying how like liis ignorance and 
rashness is to that of Eck. The Franciscans are working with 
them; we are the only ones who&e press is too slow to publish 
our answer quickly. 

According to your wish I liave begun publicly to apply 
myself to tlie foundation for commemorating Girisl's Pa* 
sioD,* and the more I think of it the less 1 find to please me. 
The Qjurcli is already overburdened with ceremonies, so 
that almost all the serious concerns of Christiao piety have 
degenerated into superstition. This means to have an easy 
faith in external works and complacently to leave out the real 
spiritual essence. Wlierefore I am not yet prepared to say 
bow I can make this foundation at once seemly without and 
fruitful within. It is difficult to combine both, since the gospel 
has placed the most excellent piety in fraternal love and 
mutual good-wrill, I will write more later. Farewell, and 
commend me to my patron the elector. 

Martin LtmiER. Aitguslmian. 

■Fnncia Günditr b«kQ« prcatfaer *I JüleifcogL and in Pwdon Week. 1J19, 
dcliTcred a Mric« of lermons containing vsriouf propoiilion* tonsidtted hcTCtical 
1,7 tha FruiciuiiM at ikat rillaiv. Tfaue friere publiibcd a brcMiUidf «niiiird 
Artieittt ffr Fratrii Uiwcrr/ if^ »birrvanlta ^'ofcitti . , , £fittapo Btöndr»- 
bmfgiitti (tttira LMKtratiti, «rhich ttmt into LuiLcr'i bandi in Ulf «nd wu 
uit««ted by bim or M>y 15. Ende», li je. When ibe Kkcior Jcictim or 
Bnndrnburff vliiied Leii<üt tn ll)c »iinini^ »f Mtu, be tceiucMcI Eck** oiiinion 
on ibcw cbMCU. «hieb WW flvcii ia * neinorial binded to Ibe Blibop it 

*Cf. t^fra, «»- ir>- 


Ut I» 


Corpus Reformatontm, i. 120. Wittenbebg (c. August), 151» 

This is one of the prefaces, written under the pseudonym of OtlM 
Gn'maima. to Luther's Ccmmenlary on Gotatians, which appraid 
early in September. 

... It seems, therefore, that we have very little true the- 
ology left. But if any one calls attention to tills he is dubbed 
a heretic and schismatic for his pains. Thus it happened td 
Luther, a man rt^pected for his manner of Hfc 2Jid uncom- 
monly learned in sacred letters. When he wa^ forced to 
propose certain theses for scholastic dehate in order to resist 
those who, under the pretext of reHgion abused the Scrip- 
ture for their own desires, and when in doing so he had 
differed from llieologians of indulgences and of Aristotle, 
firKt he was cited to Rome under the grave suspicion of heresy. 
Then, on account of the difficulty of the journey and moved 
by the prayers of friends, he was allowed to go to Augsburg 
instead; but when he had gone there he was tried by various 
arts and sent away so that he does not yet know why he 
went there. But, at least, it is certain that a man who deserved 
well of Christendom on accuunl of his serious and fruitful 
treatment of the Scriptures (as his numerous auditors can 
bear witness), was treated as a m.idman by certain coxcombs. 
If he speaks of this and complains of it in the following 
epistle,' it may not be pleasant, but it will be necessary. More* 
over, while he was llnis defamed and his life imperilled, he 
composed, among other profitable works, this commentary on 
the epistle of Paul to the Galatians. And being unable to 
polish it on account of his preoccupations with his enemies, 
he disdained to call it a regular commentar)', and it was 
published by his friends against his will.* . . . 


Endcrs, ii. 138. (WiTTeKSKjtc), September $, iSIQl 

Greeting. Reverend Father. I wonder why your Erfurt 

'Lnüicr'i dedicator? rpUtI« to Lnpiou» ind CtrliUtli, Tanoirjr. iji«, u mcanl. 
Stiff«, no. laj. 

*7i^ Ctmmtnlary tn CtlaHaiU t», la fact, tbc atott policed of Lnitbcr^ c«n- 
mrntuiri. t^e «lyl« bjlvtnf bctn prubablx rvviifd lijr M<J*AcbtboA. Cf. Rltl^vr: 
Phthf UiltMhIktu, ICO. 


irofessors arc so slow.' I await their judgment, although I 
txpect that they will be too prudent to mix in these foreign 
ind hateful causes. Meanwliik-, we have anticipated their 
Kntence; we judge each uthcr and are judged by each otlicr;* 
ignorant and learned alike, we all write pucms." 

Eck impetuously scatters letter?^* around and distributes 
triumphal crowns. Lripsic alone brings forth simple Hcrodoti, 
critics. Aristarchi.' Monii,* and that kind of frogs without 
number. Leipsic. who was always dumb, has only on account 
of the delate begun to bark louder than many Scyllas. She 
is driven by wretched envy to try to establish the victory of 
our opponents by mere clamor. Truth will conquer. 

I would send my little lectures on the Psaltery, but because 
you ck> not write whether you want them, or how many of 
them you have. I suppose you do not care for them. This 
man' sells my last Kesoltitions against Eck. Lotther,' at 
Leipsic, is printing for me an apology' against him. in which I 
refute the thirteen articles charged against me by the Fran- 
ciscans of Jiiterbok, and hatefully proved by Eck to be hereti- 
cal ; on my part 1 charge tbem with twenty-four articles, and 
the quarrel is getting warm. 

They tell me my Commentary on Galatians is finished to-day. 

Our illustrious elector is tempted by Millilz with the golden 
Miltitz boasted in Dresden, "Dr. Luther is in my 


*7. t^ in ffiirisg i«diin«BI on ib« Lci^ifi« ilcbolc. 

•Tli» trteri la Uclanchiboa'* Idler lo 0«ci>Uinp*diot of July it (npn, iSj), 
■sd I« Eck*» nylj. 

'S<tiHmmt imdttti aettii-r ro^—^l» Fottin. cf. Juveail. wl. jj. 

*C/. »•#»0, EA lo Eletior FRdtrk. no. rC«, 

■a pr«Tcrbi«IIr bttirr critic. 

•Accofdinc to Erarsui' Ada^i. t. v.. Mama* wm tfa« cbild «( Ni^l >nd SUrt, 
*ho ilid BOthiaj bol And f.%u!t. 

'/. *., ihe bT«rcr at iB« l«t*r. 

*Of Auc !ii SkspATi fini fount) ai Lcipiic abooi ijna, u a prinirr. Pron 
i^jS be primed a nunlKt ol Lutbci'i ibiasa, and idwiiiJ ihr «nd of iti4, witk 
tTPf boutbt of Ftohtn, tnd with h\» raunitcr broibcr MUliacI (for Hclcbior 
•nd Ukkatl Lotib<i ir«tc apparently noi old &tTlcliiei'i «ont. u End«r> tliinlcT, 
Ü. a9). fc< »larttd • prtM M WiitrnlitTS- In i}t). on MCuunt »( ilandct* alout 
btai, b* rolum«] tn I.*iiiiK, wherr Lr ilitil in i;«!. Endrr*, loe. ril., and t. it. 

*Cntra mtiignitm Etiii inJItimm, W«lmBr, U. 4«i. 

>*On ibt roldtn iom ef. mtra, Jannair >■ i)i0- MBlll« tot ibe roM tioM 
ibc Fnn<ra at Aut^buTf and took it to Allfobuis. «bcrc. In tbi abatiue of the 
«InlD«! who tar •Kk ■> L«cbBii, b< girc il, oa S«i>(«nit(i as. le On« of bt* 




hands/" but by God's grace he accomplishes nothing. 
w<ll and pray for mc, a very busy brother. 

Brothek Martin Lutues. 


Enden, il 156. WirrENimtic. Septctober 22, 1519 

Greeting. At length, Spalatin, my Tess^radeca/ is coming 
lo you, !atc, indeed, but even thus hardly having weathered 
the storms of all my other occupations. If you care to, you 
may translate it and offer it to our most illustrious electot 
with a prefatory letter. For I have begun to consider it too 
minute a thing for a double epistolary dedication to the 
elector, like a two-handed loving-cup.' 

I am also sending my "foolish Galatians.'" preserved in the 
brine oi wit.' Lotther, of Leipsic, sent them to be given to 
you, as you see. My work against Buck Emser is not yet 
done.* . . . 

The bearer of this letter begs me to write to the elector 
for him for license to exercise the baker's craft at Wittenberg. 
For I hear that the bakers have forbidden him to do so because 
he is son of a man who was once a bathman ; so exclusive is 
the nobility of tradesmen. Lest I should annoy the elector, 
I ask you to make this petition to him, in my name if yoa 

But, dear me, I almost forgot to say that I would Hke to see 
my copy of the Tesseradeeas again after it has served its time. 
For I am wont to console myself with these trifles, nor do E 
always have before me the considerations which I there set 
down, if only for the reason that by thinking of them they 
become ever richer. Farewell and commend me to the elector. 

Martin Lutuer, Augustinian. 

■Mitiiii*! wordi Id Gennan. 

•Wtlmar. n. 99. Cf. Smtik. ff. fH.. 7*- 

■A pun: *'in)pu1It" neaiu bot^ & cup wltfa tiro twndlea »ai bonWi. 

*Ct. CaiHlui». ill I. 

^'Uul'« «alp coni]!t<u": 1 »m "urit" in th* old-fubtan«! acoM nf f«a«rkl inttl. 
Intual Icrninui, Prom (be «trli«li< (taadpoiat. the G»lMua* *M ibe a*U 
ttrtfuVj prepired of ill Lutb«f'i tAmmmtkriec 

*CaniT» A*fa<tT«trm Emtrrtim. mm of the wqaeU at t&« Letptle dtbatc 
Wcunw, u. 6jJ- 







ndcT». ii. 181. Dc Wcttc, i iS^ German. 

WiTiKNBac, October i. 1519. 
Most serene, high-born Prince, most gracious Lord! 1 
humbly give your Grace to know that Charles von Miltili has 
written me to appoint a day to meet him at Licbenwerda, as 
your Grace may see by his enclosed letter. As i am better 
aware of Mittitz's ptctcncc than perhaps he thinks. I did not 
wisli to do this without your Grace's knowledge, but have 
appointed him Sunday week, October 9, not having been 
able to find an earlier date, I humbly beg. if it plea&e your 
Grace, to send him my letter with your Grace's messenger. 
I commend mysdf obediently to your Grace. May God long 
and blessedly maintain you. Amen. 
I Your Grace's obedient chaplain. 

atn. II. 

62. (WrrTEUBKic). October 3. 1519. 

Greeting. I send two copies of "foolish Galatians,"' rev- 
erend Father. I do not care for what I have written, as I 
see the epistle could have been expounded so much more fully 
and clearly ; but who can do alt things at once or many things 
at the same time? I trust the work may prove clearer than 
previous ones written by others, even if it does not satisfy me. 
My commentary on the Psalms is in press, but is delayed by 
the slow printer. 

Our elector, now restored to health, remains at Lochau. 
Charles von Millitz has appointed next Sunday to meet mc at 
Licbenwerda; he has the consent of the elector and his letter 
was honeyed, but I know him for a fox. I know not what will 
happen at this inter\-iew. He has at length brought tlie golden 
rose to Altenhurg, liaving tried to bring it to Wittenberg with 
great pomp. The elector was absent when he arrived. . . . 

»T have just received letters* from two utraquist priests of 

»Cf GtlttUnt. ai I. 

*SiifTt, no. i«i. n« RuMil*« 1^ gtthtnA m Ifc« tfipMC debate. I.uibor 
te>4 ilie bM>h «( t(uc> turlj in ij*i>. it wm lb« D* Etflttim. For iu fttM influ- 
mec an bin. ef. Smiib, «p. til., f\l. 


Prague, learned in the Scriptures, togelher with a book of 
John Huss, which I have not yet read. They exhort me B 
constancy and patience and say that I teach pure theology. 
The letters were Erasmian in both contents and style. They 
came to me through the court, having been forwarded by 
Spalattn. Everyone knows of lliem. 

You have seen Melanchthon's Theses,* somewhat bold, to 
he sure, but most true. His answers are miracles. If Christ 
deign. Atclancbthon will make many Luthers and a most 
powerful enemy of scholastic theology, far he knows both 
their folly and Christ's rock; therefore shall he be mighty. 

Letters have come from France reporting that Erasmus 
eaid: "I fear Luther will perish for his righteousness." and 
of Eck that his natne lacks one letter and he should be callc<J 
"Jeck," which is the Dntch for fool.* Thus Christ beats down 
vainglory, so that him whom Leipi^ic adores as Eck, all learned 
men (they say) simply detest as "Jeck." 

My Bishop of Brandenburg has brought forth a monster; 
a Fine fellow he is, like Moab, boasting more than he can dou 
It is reported that he said he would not lie down in peace, 
until he had burned Luther, "just like this stick," at the same 
lime throwing one on tlic fire. Thus have Eck's windy words 
inflated this poor bladder. 

So much for others, now about myself. What will you? 
You arc leaving me. I have been sad for you to-day, as a 
weaned child for his mother. I pray you praise the Lord 
even inasinner like mc. I hate my wretched lifc;Ifcar death; 
I am empty of faith and full of qualities which, Girist knows, 
I should much prefer to do without, were it not to serve him 

Tile Franciscans are holding a chapter here and having 
such a merr\- dispute about the stigmata of St. Francis and 
the g!or>' of his order, that we, who formerly respected both, 

'DcnriOJ iranautwtanitaiion. rd. K. ini] Vf. Krafi: Brir/r owl Dontrntmrr, f. C 
Tte MOM pun vu naitr I7 Clitcan wrliinc tram Parii to Zwlaftl, Kov«wber> 

1(40. Zminfiit iVrrii (Tq(i.|ff). vni, jKj. Alto b^ ZwtntU. IJI14. iktä, iii. St. 

jMk It Ike itme u (be rare Encliih weril. g«k (fool) «i«d br ShalNtM*r** 

CymhtUnr, *<l ▼., «ene It.. line tj, Cf. iIeq 0. Sdiadc; Suirtu *mi Fut^illi 

(ISJS). i hB. 




Dw hcgin to doubt both. For they bring up points which 

tern more false than true, and the same fate overtakes them 

their excessive praise of their founder as has happened to 

le Dominicans who too greatly lauded St. Thomas Aquinas. 

aired of this fellow Luther leads them into this dispute, 

and they disseminate runwrs that I have preached against 

pie sligmau. Thinking that this gives them a weapon ready 

io their hand they h<^)c soon to take action against me. I am 

ppy to see that they all love to attack me so that they even 

,vcnt doctrines and attribute them to me in order to overthrow 

era, but 1 regret that they needlessly bring ridicule upon 

icir whole order. It was a man of Erfurt who started this 

debate, indeed, a colleague of our friend Lang in the university. 

To-morrow Peter Fontiniis' will delate, who intends to stab 

me and all our little dabblers and sciolists by the theory that 

•we ought to have the same insane day-dreams as the ancient 

lathers. W'c shall see great feats frum these little Franciscan 

prestidigitators. What needless tragedies such ignoramuses 

ttuti I say "needless," because their baccalaureate James,' 

who to-day spoke for the whole company, excelled them all 

and both of our professors, too, because he was moderate 

and stated bis llieses in good form. He is of Zwickau, edu- 

cate«! at Wittenberg, equally good and talented. Christ 

'htimblcs the proud and exalts the lowly. 

Last night I had a dream about you; I dreamed that you 

Were leaving me while I wept bitterly, but you waved to me 

knd told me to cease weeping, for you would come back to 

mc, which, indeed, has happened this very day. But now 

arewcll, and pray for me in my wretchedness. 

Brother Marhn Luther. 

'. Bnrdcfaardt-Bi^ermann! ßomfacius Amerbaeh und die Reforma- 
tt'oK. Basle. 1894. P- IJ7- Basle. Octol)« 3 (rsi©). 

Bonifftfc AmerlMich (October rr, i49S-April 5, 15$2), son of the 

■Of ?«raa. bniiile (a the Kcfofinatlon nalU iti5. «ben lie mamedl and brcainc ■ 
VMtor M WokUu. 

■JiBca Ftibt« vt ZirUlnn. took his ba<hclD('« desr«c u Wiiicnbeis Ociaber i, 


I«eL ilD 

Basle printer, matriculated there i509> M. A. 1513. He then ttodied 
law with Zaüiu» at Frcibute:, and with Alciaii at Avignon May, i50> 
1534, with an interval of May, i52t-May, 1522, at Baale. He lodc 
his doctor's degree at Avisnon 1525. after which be spent his life 
teaching and practiitng law at Basle. He was one «f Eraimnt' bat 
friends, and liis executor. Allen, vf. eit., ii. 237. 

. . . Martin eililK comincntahes on Galaliatis at Witten- 
berg. It is said that he wilt Koon publish commentaries od 
the Psalter. We already have in our native tongue his coni- 
mentary on the Seven Penitential Psalms and his sermon on 
confession. The speeches of the Leipsic debate are being 
printed at Leipsic so that Eck, who as an unconijuered 
Thraso. boasts of I know not -wliat triumph, may no longa 
be able to claim the victory as he does. Indeed, he had the 
egregious folly to tell Capito he found Martin's lungs full of 
heresy. How sweet it is (o live, especially now, when all 
sciences and especially theology, on which our salvation de- 
pends, have left trifling and are brought back to llicir sister, 
light. I send you Lutlier's pamphlet on the power of the 
Pope. You will enjoy reading it. I know, for it is Christian 
and cannot be assailed by the Pope's Batterers witli reason, 
but onJy with scurrility, for this stiff-necked throng does what 
cannot be done by reason by reviling and papal thunder. . . . 


Gcss. L loa DutsuEN. October 4, 1519, 

Greeting. The Rector and Professors of our University of 
Ldpstc arc sending you the acute debate of John Eck of In- 
golstadt and \rartin Luther of Wittenberg, professors of 
theolog>', which was held on some matters of theology and the 
Bible a few days ago with our permission at the University 
of Leipsic, and which was taken down from the mouths of 
the debaters by notaries public. Both sides agreed to refer 
judgment to the canonists and theologians of your ancient 
tiniversity, excluding the Augustinians .ind Dominicans, and 
we also desire this for the sake of the public peace and the 
pure doctrine. . . . 

2.a. i8a 




Endert, iL 187- 

^- <Liek:<wirda. October 9^ or WrmicBnc, October 10, 1510.) 

^g First, he* bade me give his greetings to our most illustrious 
dector. Secondly, he told rac to give his greeting to you. 
Thirdly, he asked whether I would stand by the agreement 
we made at AUenburg to have the Archbishop of Trier as 
judge. I said I would. This was the last act of our farce. 
At the end he said that by this conversation he had executed 
the papal commission, and that, as he was soon going to Rome, 
he did not wish to leave without having spoken with me about 

ri conunission. 
Martin Luther. 
P. S. — Instead of a chorus' we had a comic dialogue on the 
power of the Po[)e, in whicti we .Tgreed that the Pope did 
not have by divine right that power which lie certainly did 
have, but that yet he had a sort of commission from the other 
apostles; and when 1 asked what other kind of power there 
could be for the other apostles, he said that it was the same, 
save thai the world had been given lo Peter in a different sense. 

(Ah, we shall soon agree on this matter,"* he concluded. 
^näer», ii. i93- (WrrrENBERG), October 13, ijio^ 

Greeting. I never said a word, dear Spalatin, nor even 
thought of going with Miltitz to Trier. 1 am surprised at the 
man's impudence or foi^et fulness. When I was hardly 
brought to come to him at Liebenwcrda. is it likely that I 
should promise to make so much longer a journe}' in his 
company? ... I believe that liecaiise be has been frustrated 
in his hope he thus trifles without conscience, or else that 
he simply romances according to his custom. A certain doctor, 
a provost of Kollcrbni^ in Pomerania. who dined here yester- 
day, told us that Miltitz was such a man. Tlie doctor, who 
bad just come from Rome, went with us to dinner with our 

*J. r., Ilillilt. wilk oboni Lalb#r btd ■ m<«lin( •! LJcbcnwcrda an Ouohet 4, 
tmfn, tut. 177- 

■Laih*r rrldmtlr tfeoiutbt of ibe charna u 1 urt «f «ntr**«!». 
■MJItitc'i otarib in Gcnnmn. 




R«tor, the Duke of Pomerania, and told us that in Rome 
people thought very little of Miltitz. They say he so boasted 
of his relationship by marriage with tlie Dukes of Saxoay, 
that he was always called by the Italians after his relative, the 
Diike of Saxony, Tlie provost told other vain, ridiculous 
things about Miltitz, concluding that the man was to be pitied, 
for as he always had been mocked he always would be. . . , 

Please excuse my sudden departure. I did it because I 
know the name of monks is in bad repute tn courts,' and also 
because X did not wish to offend that man of whom I spoke 
to you, who, I tliought, regarded me as an uncongenial guest 
at table. You know that for the sake of one man we ou^t 
to refrain even from lawful acts.' You also see how sharply 
the men of Leipsic observe me. If that man had secretly 
written to his friends at Leipsic that I had been gay and 
frivolous, and had played at dice with our baker, would not 
they have seized this chance to compare my life with the 
Word, which my teaching makes odious to them, and would 
not they have thus caused me to become a hindrance to the 
gospel of Christ?" What would they not write, who through 
Kubeus* have blabbed that at Leipsic I carried In my hand a 
bunch of flowers," for the sake of their odor and beauty? 
Had tlicy dared they would have said that 1 wore the flowers 
on my head. I neither can nor wish to prevent all such 
stories; I will give place, as far as I can, to weakness and 
envy. Wherefore 1 did not hurry away in scorn, but £or 
fear of oflfcnding. 

A cruel pestilence is raging in Switzerland, having taken 
off sixteen thousand men, not counting women and children. 
The provost above mentioned told us this. . . . Vicar Stau- 
pitz came safe and sound to Nuremberg on September 24,, and 
thence went to Munich. 

■ "Prapi«T autw et ollu," liiertltr "by ceuns md poi«,*' a dcrotMory wtf «i 
•pcikina n( (oiiru rbirOir rrcotnorodcd by Iht poiu 

'C/. I Connlhiaiu, riii. ij. 

'Ct. I Carlntblani. ii, it. 

'John Rubrtia. ■ Fianconian studrini at Lcip»t(, hid publlahnl an account of 
the dcbalc UvoMblc 10 Eck. Pot tht till« ol bia work, and Montan ni'a anawn 
ID it, cf. Enden, ii. 137. 

^LuthtT vai vcTf [«od el flowarai »od U luualir Mid 10 bare Ufricd 
of ibca ■( the Lpit>sl< dtbaie, Cf. Smith, p. fty Bat 4««a he «at K«ai 
thii to (be paMage itte Iranatated! 

i • bouiinn J 





Now I begin to wish and to ask that our answer to the 
lector be sent to Eck.' He has written to the Pope, glorify- 
ing himself, and telling how he left us two conquered and 
prostrate at Leipsic. The man is boasting-, boastful, boastitied 
and boastiferous. He even dared to ask the Pope to reim- 
burse him for his expense in this matter. The above men- 
tioned provost told ns this. Farewell, in greit haste. 
^_ Brother Maktin Luthes. 



[ Endcr», iL 195. WirrEMBERG, October 14, 1$!^ 

Sdifintni) born at Hcilbronn. sympaihizcd wiih iJic Reformation, 

I «nd for a whilf vfas a (r>IlowH?r of Müi«er. He died in 1548. He 

wai in 151Q in a little vill^tge near Mansfctd, and wrote to 3sk 

^L.mher it it were pemiissibtc lo flee from a plague-stricken town. 

^f Greeting. I have received your letter with the questions, 
excellent Sir, and I greatly appi^ve what you say about 
fraternal charity and bearing the scourge of God strongly. 
Would that all Christians were such as those you here describe. 
But what shall we do if they are not all equal to all things?* 
Ought we not to bear with and support the weak, as Romans 
XV. teaches?* Wliat you say about the duty of bearing one 
another's burdens* seems to me rather to pertain to those 
against whom you quoted it. For tliose who flee death 
are weak, rather than those who await it. Moreover, famine 
and war are doubtless plagues sent by God as much as is 
pestilence, as is said frequently by the Prophets. . . . 

Wherefore, in my opinion, all men should be exhorted to 
bear the hand of the T-ord with fortitude, but they should 
not be forced to do so. or called sinners if they do not. or. if 
thej are called sinners, yet they ought to be borne as weaker 
brethren. Did not Girist bear with the apostles when, fear- 
ing death, they woke him up,' and did he not bear with the 
infirmity of Peter,* although he reproached him for fearing 

^Sufra, IM. i;>. Il h«il *)rnily be» t*nl lo Eck on Oclobrr i*. Eoder» iL 191. 

■Adapted Icoid Viriil'i "tum omnia irawunui omnu." 

■ftmiMW, XT. ■ and ut, i. 

•CalatJMi*. vi. i. 

»Matikrv. vUi. tiL 

■Uatlicw. aiT. a I. 




to walk on the sea? If the pestilence and all other scourges 
of God are to be borne passively, it follows that we have ao 
ri^t to pray the saints of God for bodily health. Tlien let 
us remove all physicians and apothecaries, since we are dM 
allowed to seek through theni an escape from or remedy of 
the scourge of God, although even inßnmty is a scourge of 
Goil. But the divine goodness provides such things for Ifae 
weak in faith. 

But the perfect, who spontaneously seek death, hare do 
need of these things. For when the Church prays to be d^ 
livered from the plague, lightning and tempest, she does not 
pray, as It were, for the weak, in trying to avert the scourges 
of wrath. It would be an evil prayer, were it not allowable 
to flee from, rqjcl and shun, as far as possible, the scourge 
of Gcd. But when a man. of fraternal love, perseveres in 
these as in other ills, his virtue is perfect and very praise- 
worthy, and when necessary, is even commanded, as Ion 
to one's neighbor. And it is necessary when there is no 
one else to go to those who dying of the pestilence, or to 
ser\'c the sick. For I am sure that the priest who has tbe 
cure of souls may not flee or appoint a substitute. 

On this matter read the learned epistle of Augustine to 
Honoratus, which is found in the eleventh part of his legend 
written by Possidonius. towards the end.' He teaches that 
the shepherd must be with the sheep of Christ, and lay dowo 
his life for them,' as one whom it behooves to be perfect. 
Wherefore let us who are strong bear the infirmities of the 
weak,' and let us give them permission to flee and save llieir 
bodies, even if we do not praise them for it. Take it in good 
part tliat I write briefly. Commend me to Jonas Kammerer,* 
and please all pray for me, a sinner. I also desire to be well 
in body.' and 1 despise the barkings of my enemies. Farewell 
in Christ. Brother Maktin Lutheb. 

'PoMldoniiu. Dt vita ttmoutlimi, c^ap. utx. 

■Jobn, X. II. 

'Ronuiüi. iv. 1. 

<Put«r ef the CfaunJi «f St Ccorn al Tbalin*iuf«ld. 

'Eiid«t( r«f(n Ih« wcrdi "carDicm mcain quoque ratcre capio" to t-ulkrt't 
limQj, wh« ÜTcd at Elflthn. nol • iixM dütancr from Tb>Iiii*njf<td. bat It !■ 
I3iit\j {» more nmtsrsl I0 r*(«r ifaem to tha IxHiilr fae«ltb o( wbkli Lntbcr ha* 

iUM bwn t|>cakiiif •( Itnftli la iliia Itntt. 





Endcis. Ü. 217, Dc Wett«, 1. 386. Gcnnan. 

(WiTTEKBEBG, middle of October, isi(>) 

Margaret, a daughter of Count Conrad oi Rictbcrg, married on 
Novrnib«r lO, 148J, Duke Frederic of Bmnswick-Luneburg. wbo died 
March 5, 1495. Lullicr liad never seen her, Jujra, no. 183. 

Id dating this letter, the dedication to Luther's Sermoni on the 
htroMtmlt, which in Enders is a&signed simply to October, with a 
queation mark, I follow the St. Louii edition, vol. xxi., no. 226. Tbe 
first »ermors appeared early in Noveiiil>er, and the dctlication must 
have been written earlier See farther Luthers Werkt, ed. Clemen, i. 

Mijh-born Princess, gracious Lady, certain of my friends.* 
priests and gentlemen, have besought me to dedicate some 
spiritual and Christian writing to your Grace, as a grateful 
recognition of your gracious favor and pleasure in my un- 
worthy self, and to show my humble service. My own sense 
of obligation often urged me to do the same, but the di£S- 
cutty was that I had ver)* tittle material ready with which I 
might satisfy my desire and discharge my debt, especially .is 
I am certain that Christ, the master of all of us. has long 
since anticipated me. But finally I have allowed myself 
for the sake of your Grace's pious love of the Scripture, 
which has often been told me. to publish certain sermons* dedi- 
cated to your Grace, on the holy, precious and comfortable 
sacraments of penance, baptism and of Christ's Ixwly. For I 
considered that many consciences are troubled and pained, 
and I have found people here who do not know the holy and 
full grace of the sacraments nor how to use them ; but 
alas! presume to seek peace rather in their own works than 
in tlie holy sacrament of God's grace. For doctrines of men 
have hidden and taken from us the holy sacraments. I pray 
that your Grace will recognize my small service and not take 
my presumption ill. For \ am always humbly ready to serve 
your Grace, whom I now and then commend to God. /Vmen. 

'pMtkwlirtr OHo Bcckmuin. iifra, no. iSS- 

'S*rm*fi4 v«n drr B*tat irr Täubt, »nJ <t(n Lrichnan Chritti. WcJour. (L 
jiyB. On LuUi«r'* Mcmacniat iirddii. ämitb, vp. til., £«(.. Mta, ao, tai. 


Let i|j 

Eodera, ii. 22a Wittekbejcc (middle of October). 1519 

Go the second postscript to this letter, which belongs to Luther*» 
letter to SpaUdn. March 13, isia if. supra, no. I35- 

Endert datei; thi« letter as late as early m November, 1519. becaiae 
of the second postscript, without whicli, he ssys. the date might be 
the end of October. But the postscript tioi belonging to thU letter. 
the allusions to MiltitE and the dedication to the Duche» of Brum- 
wictc. indicate the middle of October. The Sl Louis edition dato 
October 15. Vol. xxi., no. 223. 

Greeting. Dear George, 1 liave been asked by several people 
for nothing more often or inore earnestly, than for that wbicli 
you write the most illustriovis elector asks of me.' Of att 
that I do there is nothing I would do more willingly than 
that, because by this means alone I believe T could succor the 
priests and monks, so that they might cut off and reject those 
dirty fables of &ernion-writers, which rather proscribe than 
describe Christ, and that they might have something by which 
they miglit publish llie pure theology of Christ among Ihc 
people, and expel those errors which flood the land like a 
deluge. Would that the great prelates would care for ihw 
matter, for it is their duty. 

The more I wish to succeed in this matter the less I fear I 
shall do so, for I am too busy to attend to this, or if T do it I 
shall have to limit my puWic lecturing and preaching, which 
will be diHicult. But I will tiy and arrange it; if it please 
God. it will proceed, and \ only desire to scire him in this. 
Farewell and commend mc to the elector. Stromcr's excelknt 
advice pleases mc. 

r think no answer should be .lent to Charles von Miltita. 
The thing was done as I wrote and said, .xnd I cnnnot speak 
Otherwise unless I wish to lie. If he played the riddler with 
me. who attended only to his plain meaning, it was not ray 
fault. Bkother Martin Luther, ./iu^ustinian. 

P. S. — You will l)e surprised tliat I may dedicate my 
sermons to the duchess; I am surprised, too, for I never saw 
her, but I have been besieged by the prayers of our OttO 
Beckmann to gratify so highly praised a woman. 

V. «,. M wriM PmIW«, ot h«iiillic* m lb« losp«! sad eptulc lot San<Ur> and 

Let. 166 



End«r$. u. 204. Bologna, October 16. 1519. 

John Jag« of Dorahcitn <Cro(us Rubcanus, 14S0-C. 1539). matricu- 
lated at Effort. I4i>8, B. A, 1500t M, A, 1507. In 1510 he went wUh 
Huttcn to Fulda. In 1515 he published the fust scries of the Eputolae 
ObseuTorum l-'ironiin. From 1517-20 he was ai Bologna. 1524-31 with 
Albcn of ärandenburg' (Duke of Prussia) at Königsberg, from that 
mne on a canon at Halle. Until 1531 he was an cnthusiaMic 
admirer of Luther, more from patriotic than religious reasons, but 
after thi} he broke with the Kcformcr. Life in Aitgrmfw deuttcht 
Biographie and cf. G. Slolces: Bpistotat Obscurorum P'trorum, Intro- 
duction, pp. Ix.S, and W. Reindcll: Luther, Crottti ttnd iiutten. 
Marburc i£^ The bearer of the letter was John Hess of NuTcni- 
berg. Luther received it early in December. 

Greeting. Two things, reverend and beloved Martin, have 
kept my love for you strong: first, our intimacy while in 
jfouih we were studyitig at Erfurt, an intimacy whicb time 
and similarity of character made the foundation of a clusc 
friendship; and secondly, because we have in you a splendid 
defender of true piety, which you protect with the shield of 
Scripture while others, in the main, try to destroy it. Where- 
fore it has come to pass that I who have been so long absent 
chat with you, cEasp your hand and dream of you more often 
than those whom you have near you. I make our friend 
Hess' witness of thi.s, who is my ambassador to you as well 
as his own. 

Martin. I am moved by your controversy with the Domin- 
ns. who, with many others, conspire against your life. 
And bad you not been sent by Heaven to this corrupt age, 
and had not a celestial Hartd guarded you as a teacher of 
Christian doctrine, we should long ago have delivered your 
funeral oration, so great is the fury of those who prefer their 
doctrine to that of Christ;* so great is Roman avarice that it 
would find a thousand ways of poison and treason, if there 

■)«ka H«M «( HattnhtTt (t490']annarr S. 154^1. (radl*d st L.rlp»ie igoS-io. 
Ihm >( Witltab«Tg tit) t(I]* U« iI"« bpone iKrMary of Jobn Tuns. Biifaop »f 
BrrdiB. In isi? b« wai in litly, in jjig back ai Wittenberg. Then be went 
W BrMl4D. which he tclalmcd, tfe had a good deal to do «llh Citpar 
Sch «rack (eld. la iju be irdC to Orl», in ifJJ t» Nutrmberi. and Ibeo back (» 
Bmlan. «bcfe be tentaintd Ibe irii o( hi» lift. Dioirapby bjr KAMlIn In 
Zntttkrifl fir Ctithukit und 4Uniiiin S(hltittiu, vl. 97II. 181II, ili. «lull. 


I as 


were any gaiii Ihercin. While I was slill in Gemiany,' yoar 
Punic war was nol yet heard of; a year afterwards, wh« 
James Fudis,' a sincere admirer of yours, canie to St. Peter*» 
on a vow, he brouglit us the first news of ihc captured armi. 
The first thing from the literary battle which came into cor 
hands was the Dialogue of Prierias, that acute tlieologiait, 
whose scurrilous wit was so felicitous that it might even havt 
broken your "iron nose."" After that, Andrew Fuchs,' dem 
of Bamberg, sem us your Kesoiutions and your Acta Augvs- 
fono. We read them eagerly and passed them on to man; 
learned men at Rome in order to suppress the fal« rumon 
about you circulated by evil men. We had to do this sccrctij. 
that they might come into (he hands of the readers withoat 
our names being mentioned, lest wc shoiild prepare for our- 
selves in those places where the power of the priests is formid- 
able, a misfortune by our imprudence, for at Rome thow 
who have your books are esteemed heretics, and those who 
import the books do it at the peril of their lives. Rome h 
intolerant, proud and always fearful lest the truth should free 
.tome of those over whom she tyrannizes. When your cause 
was known the most prudent theologians discussed it with 
their heart for you, but dissenting from you with Ihcir lips, 
not so much because they feared the power of the Pope as 
because they feared that detracting from his authority wouM 
disturb the peace of Christendom. Let them answer for 
the righteousness of this opinion; for my part I believe that 
Christianity does not need fraud, and that he who says what 
he does not believe in his heart is not the disciple of Chrift 
who taught us that our words should be Yea, yea, and Nay, 
nay.* And If the more recent theologians, who are as 6mi 
as brass walls for Aristotle's decrees, had nol acted on thb 
principle, we should not have come to the present state of 
affairs, when we are forced to obey rather the will of the 
Poi>e than the commands of Christ, nor would you, in this 

■Cratui «u lui in G^rminr in tst^. 

*Jatn» von Fuchi. k nohleoiin and caeao at B«mb«rf aed Würi^if. Afttt 
ijij h« rcni>itn<*d bU ptitutj ttiBraeier utd mtmtd, dyioc tn IM«. 
*A quoiaiion (torn tbe t>ial«tut, 
*A brothn of ike fodDcr, alio canon of Bacnberg. 
*IIaiib«w, T. tr- 



controversy, have been so harassed by the Pope's authority, 
nor would Rome liavc yet changed the Catholic faith Into 
another. For now the head of that faith, tliough a mere man, 
allows divine honors to be paid to him, despising the example 
of him, wlio. though he was God, emptied himself, talking 
oa the form of a servant.* It is commonl/ said at Rome, even 
by those who seem to have sense, tliat it is impossible that 
anyüiing which pleases the Pope should not be most Christian, 
even if it goes counter to a hundrett Pauls and the whole 
Bible. For they say he is Oirist's vicar and is guided by the 
Holy Spirit, and they bandy about some texts of Scriplurc 
badly understood, by which tliey try to stop the mouths of 
their opponents at the banning of the argiuncnt. 

What good, tlierefore. will your controversy do us? What 
fruit will tJie Scriptures bear us. whai we disregard all other 
authority? None, forsooth, unless princes and bishops deem 
it more holy to defend the Word of God than to pour out a 
mighty quantity of gold for all their pallia, indulgences, bulls, 
rifles and nonsense, to enable the holy fathers to support 
beir harlots and male prostitutes. As, in conversation with 
a certain Dominican master, I was once blaming the immoder- 

I ate license of Rome, by which the people of Christendom were 

I (pressed and their morals polluted, he replied that it was 
alt done by divine Providence, and that wc should not question 

I the will of God. I answered: "If crimes can be defended 
under the plea of Providence, it would be much more holy 
to cut them down by the authority of Scripture, the sword 
of the spirit, which is the Word of God.' For we know the 
will of God only from the testimony of Scripture, which has 
issued from the mouth of the Most High."* 

I I tell yoti this, Martin, that you may understand how little 

it avails at Rome to say. "Thy testimonies. Lord, are wonder- 
ful, therefore doth my soul keep them.™ For they have got 

^Ud such a degree of impiety that the words "good Christian" 

f Kf. C«!**»'« urine )h«t tb« Bib!» Bowfrf "ex IptiaMm» Drf et«." Tbe "Pto««^ 

' nut rniKip)*" »' t^ mivrtat tulberitr af tbe Blbl* wu tbu« utir ■»iolof 




or "theologian" are epithets of extreme contempt, but il is 
esteemed great good fortune to obtain the title of chamberlain 
or buller to the Pope. The Pope holds the first place of 
honor, Qirist the last. When the High Priest goes forth, 
as many cardinals, protonotaries. bishops, legates, provosti 
and attomies follow him as hungrj' birds gather around car- 
rion. But Christ's cucharisi follows on an ass m the last 
company made up of unchaste women and prostilvited boys. 
1 was recently at Rome with our Hess; saw tlie ancient 
monuments and the seat of pestilence ; I was glad I saw li, 
and yet sorry. There certain persons, who thought ihenh 
selves clever, attacked mc on the subject of indulgences and 
the power of the Pope, as though I either could or wished 
to dispute about them, especially at Rome. . . . 

Wherefore, Martin, you do not conquer — although armed 
witli the armor of Scripture and with the sword of the Holy 
Spirit you seek the life of the enemy^for the judgment of 
victory is with the Roman See, not with the Scripture, for, 
witness your friend Prierias, the very Bible gets its authority 
from the Pope. But your appeal to a general council saves 
you from this clifßcully. The appeal itself is drawn up so 
carefully, according to divine and human laws, that it de- 
serves praise even from enemies. Yet it excites extraordinary 
anger from the norcntinc faction,' which fears, if it loses 
the power of giving indulgences for' the dead, tliat afterwards 
similar arguments may deprive it of the power of issuing 
pallia, reservations, bulls, privileges, and of its wide juris- 
diction and other things to which have been ^ven the name 
of ecclesiastical liberty, though they are really but nets for 
catching the money of poor wretches. Germany will be blind 
as long as she remains in her error, and as long as scholars 
do not declaim and write against the bad morals with which 
Rome infects us. Let ihem admonish the simple people of 
the Roman guile, and that we, who have so often been de- 
spoiled under the guise of religion for pallia, for confirma- 
tions, for fighting the Turk, now suffer a greater wrong in 

>/, *., tkc p*pat fnction. L«o X. b«lnff a F1or*ntiti? Il ncllfd all lb« mar« 
wrklfc bMAtU« U«r« w» evta inonc Catholici' ■ l>r(« putr which «Ai>tlliL«d 
Uat » Mnacil vu yattrUr t« Ike V^f«- C'f. SmLtb, Uc. <tl, p. ff. 

Let. 186 



being forced to receive cardinals in the midsi of German;; 
I for the event will soon show what this new step of the 
^Jlorentincs means. 

H Whenever you, Martin, arc mentioned, I am wont to call 
"you the pater patriae, worthy of a golden statue and of annual 
feasts, for having first dared to deliver the people of the Lord 
from noxious opinions and to assert true piety. Go on as 
I you have begun, leave an example to posterity ; for what you 
' do is not without the inspiration of the gods. Divine Provi- 
dence intended this when, as you were returning from your 
parents, a thunderbolt from heaven prostrated you like an- 
other Paul on the ground before the town of Erfurt and 
forced you from our company, sad at your departure, into 
the walls of the .\ugustinian fold.' After this time, even 
thou^ I rarely saw you, yet my mind was always with you, 
as you may have learned from the letter I sent you last year 
at Augsburg, if you got it,' at which time I earnestly com- 
mended you to Thomas Fuchs,' a knight esteemed by the Em- 
peror. Vou arc now weary and have suffered much in body 
and reputation, hut arduous deeds arc not done without hard 
labor, and when your evil days come to an end, you will 
remember them with pleasure and will say; "I went through 
fire and through water and am saved.'" Then Germany will 
turn her face towards you, and will hear with admiration 
the Word of God from you. But by your kindness I pray 
you, do not hereafter descend Into (he arena of public debate, 
especially against rash men. Do you not know what boys 
say: "Strive not with words against the wordy man"? De- 
bate within your monastery, with the pen, (juictly ; that ar^- 
mcnt is held most exact, which is set down on paper, but 

'This pauofc !■ noBt inlfrvMint u l^lng ibe curliesl JUtEnel accDtinl of A* 
•Wfm and "Ttilon" wbicb. irn July >, tsoi. decided Lulh«t lo cntti A* monu- 
tefT- Cf. thr ucounU by Jook*. i5j9. le SrbHl; Doet$inmU ru Lulkert 
Enlwicktlumfi, p. JO. lud hf Lutbcf. isjo. In H. K. 6ind>ail: Lutktri C»llagtiia, 
iii. 'St. Alto Sieilli. rp. rit.. p. g. Amtrican Jewn^ of Piycheiaay, **iv. 
(I9U). 3608. 

*Not «Staat, cpctten of br Lutbet in a Inter of November 15, ijiS. 

*A brother of }imt» and Andrew, a kitiihe of Schn«ebecg. lini>rrJaI cipnin 
al R4lid«n. m (rffict olxajned artcr a conttorcny briwtcn Ibat tlly anil ibe 
EnpcTor Uuinilian in isn- Cf. mfts. no 108. Aficr isn Fuchi icok a 
■ctttnl aRllude totitidt tlic Rcfannaiian. 

«nitm In. If. 


that which h bandied to ami fro orally lacks judgmcnl and 
often leads the mind of the debater from the truth, not to 
mention tliat it is base for a theologian to descctid to strife 
When wc first heard of jour debate w« were sorry for it, for 
Bologna and Vienna well know Eck's character.' But the 
epistles of Lang and Melanchtfion inform us that the debatt 
resulted favorably to us. 

Farewell and love me. 1 will not cease to love you. As 
much as 1 safely can I will defend your honor here. Pardon 
my haste; I preferred to write you at length and without 
care, rather than to compose a aliort letter with elegance. 1 
have hardly had a chance to reread it. 

Crotus Rudcanus. 

Silsttnsjjberichte dfr phil.-hist. Ctasse der kaiserlickeu Akademit drr 
Wustnschafleti. Wien. li&i. c 6Sa 

(LouvAtx. middle of October, tstf.) 
Horawit^. who piibijtiicd thi* leller, datcit ii 1520, but the true d»W 
is given by comparison with that of October 17 to l-'uher (no. iS8>, 
in & pan of which imt translated Erasmus speaks of Hochiiraten'i 
visit, and still mor« ctetLnitely by the tninules of the thcnlogiul facultr 
of touvain (printed by dc Joitgh, op> <>l., p. 43). in which it is itatei 
that Hocbsiraten on October ta handed to Louvun the condemoatkn 
of Luther bv Cologne 

Martin Liptius, t>orii at Brussels, »pent his life as an .\uKiistimia 
cani>n al Louvain. He died 1555. He was a gre^t-uncle of th« men 
famous Junius Lipsius. His coneapondcn« has been publükcd tS 
HorawiK. loc. tit. Life in Biographie Nationale de Belgitjue. 

Hochstratcn is at I.ouvain. He found my epistle' to Luther. 
and thinks it sufficient to convict me of favoring Luther, though 
I myself am publishing* it to show how little Luther and I 
have in common. If I favor him. what is there monstrous 
in that? Hochstraten influenced the courtiers, especially the 
Lord* of Bergen, but there were some who rightly an<ter> 

■ick hid prerloualr iletulcd al bolb Salofiu and VIcnn*. 

■I» lb* Parrfffo nn» of Otiobpi. i!i?- 

'Ifailmilikn dc* IleF(hM. t.<HiI of TcrEnbcrgbea. onr sf the nmajra iu gMad- 
(«na of John t.stK«, tbe wartiar oE Philip lb« Cood. Ilr t«c«aic( pfowtlanil M a 
dipltmai at ibr rim« of Ibe «iMtion of Cbult*. Seaal nMkca of fcia ta 
A. WalAcrt V>t Am/Jlmgi Kvit V.. 1911. 


Stood the aHair. Yet I suspect that Briselot' the suffragan 
bishop of Cambray and Hochstratten have conspired with Es- 
mond,' not 30 much against nic as against Luther. . . . 


Eratmi aftro (1703), ui. 511. Louv*ik, October 1?. 1519. 

John Fiiher (14S9?-I53S), made Bishop of Rochesi« iso<. For 

many years connected witb Cambridge University. In May, 1530, he 

preached a£ainst Luther, and in tszj wrote two books against him. 

Cf. BnglUh liitiorieal Revitw, c. 657, fiSQ. Fitter was put to death by 

Henry for refusing 10 rccoKnixe the king as head of the Church. 

Life by Bridge«, and in Dittionary of National Hiit^raphy. 

. . . IThe first part of this letter is on various enemies of 
Erasmüs, and on the death of Colet] . . . The Elector 
Frederic of Saxony has written to me twice* in answer to 
my one epistle. I.tuher is protected by him alone. He writes 
that he has given himself to the cause rather than to the 
perMin of Luther, and that lie does not propose that in his 
dominions innocence should be oppressed by the malice of 
those who seek their own profit and not that of Jesus Christ. 
. . , (Follows a high eulogy of Frederic for declining the 
imperial crown which he might have had.] 

E. BScking: ITutleni opera (Leipsic. 1859^), i. 313. 

^L Stcckkmikrc, October 26. 1519. 

^BJIrich von Huttcn (April zi, 1.188-AuKust or September,. 1523). 

^Kd been forced by his father to enter the Benedictine monastery 

^m Fulda in I4<H. but ctcaped six years Cater, and wandered to various 
aniverstties in wretchal health and dire poverty for eiRbt years. In 
1513 his brilliant defence of hi» cousin, Jolm von Hutten, who had 
been murdered by Duke Ulrich of Würtcmhcrg, made liim prominent 
He visiied Italy 1515-/. In tjiö he putilishcd the gt^cond series of the 
Bpistolat Obtcuromm I'iromm in defence oE Rcuchlin. He embraced 
Luther's cause with fervor, chiefly for patriotic reatont. His plan 

■Jahn BriMlot (IScptcmbcr i>, iS">)- «tudlcJ at Parit, D. D. ijoi. H« ww a 
CmmcU«, SuSrasan BJihop of Cambnj, and in bia tasl rcati Conftstoi of Ptiac« 
Cba'lc* of Sp*in. Alle», lii. 4. 

>Kkbela« Rsrchrcn of F![tnnn>l in HoIlanH, «Cildici) al L«uviln, then tiuilll. 
Doctor «f lbcolD«7 1505, hetimt a Carjitcliie in ijo; al Uslinc*. In ijin h« 
r«titrB«J ta Laavaia, ohrr«, cxupt tar tbr jrcir iji; at Brut*«)*, he ipeni tb* 
f««t «( hU life qniil fail dcaib on Adkc»! a*. iJiS. He waa dean of ib« fatuity 
i{>« and tjM, knd toqoUltot from it3t.& He waa 111« mnat decided «fKniy of 
Craimiu and LnllMr. De Jonith. iS'R. 
[.•No. 14s. The Mcond Itiwt 1» roi eiunt. For Eratitim' leuet, ef. nfrj, no. 141. 


was discT«ditftI by the fäll of Sickingcn, in May, 1523; and he 6^^ 
a lonely and broken exile. Life by David Friedrich StrauM. 4Cb rf-* 
1B95 (English translation). 

Scim« days ago, wbtii I told you what I was writing, * 
asked to be informed what you were doing and whether yon 
dared aught for the glory of tlie fatherland and the freedom 
of this nation to be redeemed from the Roman tyrant! 
Pray try something, and meantime let me know what it is, 
that I may refresh myself with hope. I dare not adimi 
Luther as an ally in this attempt, on account of Htccior 
Albert, who is persuaded rashly that tlic affair pertains to 
him. though I think otherwise and regret that this chance of 
signally avenging the fatherland has been taken from rot 
Even if I do nothing else meanwhile. I will do that, and pet- 
chance more directly because by my own motion. Besid«, 
Luther has in Melanchthon an author able to polish Im 
works. . . , 

Enden, ii. an. Bolocna, October 31. ip» 

Greeting. At Rome Eck is celebrated as the victor ef 
Lcipsic, So much is one's own testimony worth, when peo- 
ple are already prejudiced in one's favor. I told them not to 
be too hasty with their judgment, lest Rom« should again 
suffer that which she lately suffered with shame, when she 
awarded the Empire witli certainty to the French King, al- 
though our princes elected Qiarles.' But let her have her 
own opinion as long as it is clear that all her decrees arc not 
just. But it is folly toth to decree the victory and to be in 
doubt about it. Eck sent a letter^ to Rome, seen hy very few 
besides the Pope and two theologians. While it was being 
secretly read, a certain physician who is my friend overheard 
it, and what he was able to retain in memory he communicated 
to me with fraternal faith. I report it to you, Martin, in 
the same confidential manner, asking you not to give it out 
lest it harm the physician. The cpisllc was divided into many 
headings, explaining the order of the debate at Lcipsic. and 
telling the Pope what he ought to do. The bishops for 

'Oa Jun« »6, t;i9, tlic elector« eboM Oulis of Spain Eatarari ikc dcftited 
c«i4idal( b«Ing Francli I. of FrBD(t, »opporKd by Leo X. 



iwing up your condemnation are appointed, with a certain 
number of otJicr persons necessary for giving judgment; the 
methcxl in which those whose opinions go counter to the 
Church arc treated is shown, and some precedents are given. 
You are held up to hatred first on account of the Bohemian 
heresy and your appro%'al of Hussite dogmas; then poets 
and cultivators of polite literature arc accused, my friend 
Hutlen being mentioned by name, some of whose songs on 
Florentine fraud are cited." As an additional proof of the 
ifnmcdiate peril of the Cimrch, the new and daily increasing 
study of I Jttin and Greek is cited. Then the Pope is diligently 
admonished in this dangerous stale of aiTairs to lose no lime, 
but 10 force the University of Paris and ours at Erfurt to pro- 
nounce sentence : for if he delays, it is said that he will soon lose 
Thuringia. Meissen and the Mark,' and soon after that, other 
r^ons in which the people are embracing with all their heart 
your "heresy" as Eck calls it. The pliysician did not remem- 
ber the rest, and I can't tell you what 1 don't know, but you 
can guess that it was something like what went before. As 
it is no small matter, keep it deep in your mind, but keep it 
quiet so as not to endanger me and the physician. When next 
spring I come again into Germany, I can show my contempt 
for the false apostles who devour us and smite us on the face; 
but here I must dissemble. As a reward for his debate, Eck 
asked to be appointed chief inquisitor over three dioceses, 
but now he has changed his mind and asks for the parisli of 
Ingolstadt, and in the aforementioned letter he lakes the Pope 
severely to task for not quashing someone else's claim on the 
parish in favor of himself who has suffered so much for the 
Church. Salute Carlstadt In haste. . . . 

Cndcfs, ii. 218. CWiTTENBERn). November r. 1510. 

Greeting. Please thank Mark Schart,' dear Spalatin, for 

>£pwramii«M Hmittni »i Cn*. Rub. it ttaiu Rnnaiio rr «rt« mitt*. Hulirni 
Oht». «1. Bfickln«, ilL ty*. 

*Tbr I>iKkr »f Ht-in«!). iroond ibe city of that nwne. wu the tar« «f Dnk« 
Gtorgc'i donialoa ot Albcnln« Siutanr: Ae M»t1c li BrinilrnbUTi. TbcM 
diurVii rmtlncd Catbolie tor Itrrnir tnd liilcrn Txin rtt[>cctircl7 >fMr the 
dMc «rf ikb ktitr. 

*A neblc m*it»cr at Tftdttit tb« VTut, vbo cruiled bin Gt(> In 1496 in 


the ten gulden, and send him some of these books.' Tru\yo!i 
the same day on which 1 became rich, the need of ctruin 
men to whom I was obliged to lend something made me pooret 
than ever. 

I am ashamed that among the people of Christ there is se 
little charity left that those who have less than twenty gul<l« 
are obliged to succor cacli otlicr. I think that the money *« 
given to me because the Lord wished to help them throu^ 
me, but it was not enough. Wherefore, after consulting you. 
I will even apply to the clement elector to relieve pover^. 
By God's grace I ask nothing for myself. 

Furious Eck has published a defence against my letter to 
yoti.' I am answering him, having this week completed six 
sheets and gi%'en them to the press. It is remarkable how the 
man rages, stuffed with lies as he is. When he attacks me 
hardest and most cle\'crly he imprudently forgets his hyp«- 
risy, on which account alone, passing over other things, I 
have laid hold on him to force him still further to hctny 
himself and his Leipsic supporters. I will soon send a copf 
of my book. . . . 

Farewell in the Lord. Mabtiw Luthei. 

Emmi optra. Hi. srj. Loitvain, Novemtwr 1, 1519 

... In the first place, I must preface that I never had 
anything to do with the cause either of Reuchlin or of Luther. 
I never cared for the Cabata and Talmud, whatever they may 
be. I was highly displeased by the violent collisions between 
Rcuchlin and the party of James Hochstratcn. Luther is as 1: 
unknown to me as any one can be, nor have I yet had time \ 
to read his works, except that I have glanced at them hastily, j 
If he has written well I deserve no praise; if otherwise, there '' 

rnum for tcrricu_ Liter be bcomt the tuior of Prrdrric'* n*turil mm, 
Frt(l«ic ind .Vbuilan von Jc*»tn. *iib Khom he liycit in Inaca nRlü bij 
duth on Mkrth ji. ijag- Atckm für fCe/amaiiomstickuhit, ri. p. M, utd ilil. 
!>. ji. Scbarl «¥(»1 lim» cotc Lutbcr moncr. <f- Endti«. lil. 74. 

'Tb«rc ■• eiUtll > tCfy o( Lilllict'» Sfrmen on Prtpmotifn for Dt^h, «tlh 
fajt Own inscription. "Ta my Jfir fri«ntl Mark Scbart," 

■On A«(V*t IS Lutlitr d«di<>(«J 10 Spatktin bis KtivltäUnt» rtitrr prpftti- 
lionibiii tiii, Ende», ii. ia>. Eck nplled on Scplenbcr i. LathtT"* nwnr, 
Dt Wfttt. i as- fM^tn, lU *I4- 

L«. 191 



is 00 reason to cliarge it to mc But I see that good men are 
little offeflded with his writings ; not, I think, that they approve 
everything, but that they read him in the same way that we 
read Cyprian, Jerome and even Peter Lombard, winking at 
many things. I was sorry that Lullier's books were published, 
and when some of them began tu come out I did my best to 
prevent it. principally because I feared they might cause a 
tumult. Luther has written mc a right Christian letter, at 
least 10 my way of thinking, and I answered, incidentally 
warning him not to write anything seditious nor insolent to 
tlie Roman pontiff, nor anything too proud or angry, but to 
preach the evangelic doctrine with sincere mind and all gen- 
tleness, i did it courteously so as to have more effect. I 
added that this was the way in which he could best conciliate 
the opinion of men ; which some liave interpreted to mean 
that I favor him, although none of them ever warned him, 
bat only I. I am neither the accuser, nor the defender nor 
the judge of Luther; I dare not judge his spirit, for that is 
most difficult, especially to give an unfavorable judgment-' 
But if I did favor him as a good man, aa all, even his enemies, 
confess that he is, or as a prisoner on trial, wliich even sworn 
judges are allowed to do, or as otic oppressed, as humanity 
would dictate, or as one overwhelmed by those who use 
him as a pretext to crush sound learning, why should I be 
loaded with so much odium? At least I do nut interfere with 
the cause. Finally I think it is Christian .w to favor Luther 
that if he is innocent he may not be condemned by wicked 
faction, and if he is in error he may be rather cured than 
<lc&troycd. This is most agreeable to the example of Christ, 
who. according to the prophet, does not quench the smoking 
flax nor break the bruised reed.' I should prefer that that 
heart which seems to strike forth some splendid sparks ot 
fOfpd truth should not be crushed, but corrected and called 
bock to preach the glory of Christ. Now the theologians 
whom I know neither warn nor teach Luther, but only traduce 
him with wild clamors before the people, or attack him with 
violent abuse, having nothing at their tongue's end but the 

•"PruwrtlB fai parttn ptjotttt," or, "tapecMly tbc «orvl «14« of • Man" 
lubk. idfl, ]. 




words Iieresy, heretics, heresiarchs, schism and antichrist. 
It cannot be denied that these epithets arc odiously applied to 
him before the people by those who have not read his boola 
It has been found that some have expressly condemned what 
they have not understood. One of their charges is this: 
Luther has written that we are not bound to confess momt 
sins, except those which are known/ meaning those which are 
knowQ to us when we confess. But someone interpreted his 
meaning to be tliat we need not confess any sins except what 
were publicly known, and he made a tremendous ado about 
this thing he did not understand. 

It has been found that things are condemned in Luther's 
boolcs as heretical which are considered orthodox and edify- 
ing in Bernard and Augustine. I warned them from the b^ 
ginning to keep from clamor and to treat the affair in writ- 
ings and discussions. First. I said, that should not be publidy 
condemned, which has not been read, weigiied, and, if 1 may 
say it, understood. Secondly, it was unbecoming for theologi- 
ans to do anything by clamor, for their judgment ought to bt 
mature; tliirdly, they should take heed how thc>' ran wild 
against a man whose life was approved by all. IHnally, I said, 
perhaps it was not safe to ventilate these matters before s 
promiscuous multitude, among whom there were many who 
did not like to confess their sins at all. If they should 
hear that there were theologians who considered it unneces- 
sary they might easily get a wrong idea. Although I only 
told them what every decent man must think, they immedi- 
atety conceived the suspicion that Luther's books were largely 
mine, written by me at Louvain. although I never wrote a 
little of them, nor were they published with my knowledge or 
consent. Yet. on account of this false suspicion, without 
the least warning they stir up commotions here which are the 
fiercest I have ever seen in my life. Moreover, though it b 
becoming for theologians to teach, I now sec many who try 

'In the Stmt 4t PtrniUnHa OS'S. W«tm»r, t. 3»*), Uvthtt »»j»: "Do not 
lalrt u|<on ^outsell la cunfn* a'l dalj •ifi*. nor rirgn all mortil »in», hi no on* 
can knoiv all mofUl «ins. >nd tarmtrlj ni<n onir Coaletard poblie Bad Inowa 
norul *>ni-" ThU wu eondrmrifd by Ih^ bull F.*t»r^t D^tmint, tnitlt 8, ia 
15». Wken Crittnut wtnNi, li w» »n th« point «f b«*t eoadeoui«4 «Im bf 
ihe Ibeoluitiui« of Loaviin. (Navnaber 7.) 



to do nothing but compel, destroy and crush, although Augus- 
tine, even against the Donalisis. who were not only heretics, but 
Mivage robbers, docs not approve those who only compel with- 
out teaching. The men who should be the gentlest of all seem 
to thirst for nothing but hiuiian blood ; they only pant for 
Luther's capture and death. But this is to be hangmen rather 
than theologians. If they wish to prove that they are great 
divines, let them convert the Jews, or those hostile to Christ; 
let lh«n amend the morals of Christians, than which nothing is 
more corrupt even among (he Turks. 

How can it be right that he should be haled to punishment 
who first proposed questions for debate, theses which have 
always been debated in theological schools? Why should he 
be chastiicd who wishes to be instructed, who submits him- 
self to the judgment of the Roman see and to that of the 
universities? It should not seem strange that he does not 
care to entrust himself to the hands of those who would rather 
see him dead than right. Let us examine tlie origin of this 
c*-jl. The world is loaded down with human laws, with the 
opinions and dogmas of the schools, with the tyranny of the 
mendicant friars, who, though thej- are the retinue of the 
Roman see, have become so powerful and numerous that they 
arc formidable even to the Pope and to kings. When the 
Pope docs what they want he is more than God ; when he 
acts against them he has no more authority than a dream. 
I do not condemn all. but there are some of this order who 
snare the consciences of men for their own profit and tyranny. 
And with brazen forehead they have now bcgim lo omit 
Qinst from their discourses and to preach nothing but their 
own new and impudent dogmas. They speak of indulgences 
so that even laymen cannot bear iheJr words. By such means 
the vigor of the gospel is gradually vanishing, and it will come 
to pass that if things keep on going from bad to worse, 
finally even that spark of Christianity from which charity 
might be kindled will be extinguished, and the whole of 
religion will be reduced to more than Jewish ceremonialism. 
Good men, cvca theologians who are not monks, deplore this, 
and even monks confess it in their private conversations. 
These things, I belie\-e, have moved Luther to dare to oppose 



1^. (91 

their intolerable imputlcncc. For what else can be the motive 
of one who desires neither advancement nor money? I do 
not now discuss the articles with which the)' have charged 
Luther, I only speak of the cause of his action. Luther dam] 
to doubt indulgences, but others ha<l too impudently as: 
their power. He dared to speak imprudently of the 
o£ the Pope, but others before him had written too imi 
atcly about it on tlic otlier side, especially lliese three 
icans, Alvarus/ prienas and Cardinal Cajctan. Luther 
to despise the laws of Aquinas, but the Dominicans al: 
preferred them 10 the gospel, tie dared to raise some scruj 
about confession, but the monks had long abused it to snare 
the consciences of men. He dared partly to neglect the scho- 
lastic canons, but they had honored them too much, and, 
moreover, differed about them among themselves, and these 
canons moreover, they were continually changing, repealing old 
laws and passing new ones. It tortured pious minds to hear 
in the universities not a word of the gospel, and to learn that 
the ancient and approved Fathers of the Church were ooB- 
sidcrcd superseded, and that even in divine service not a 
word of Christ was spoken, but a great deal of the power cf 
the Pope and of the opinions of modern doctors. Their whole 
speech was nothing but open avarice, ambition, flattery and 
guile. I tliink it is their fault if Luther has written too 

Whoever loves the gospel loves the Pope, who is the first 
preacher of the gospel, just as the oilier bishops are. All 
bishops are vicegerents of Christ, but he the chief. We should 
believe that he cares for nothing more than the glory of Christ, 
whose minister he is. Those >vho in adulation attribute 
more to hlra than he himself recognizes or than is expedient 
for the Christian flock, deserve ill of him. And yet some of 
the authors of these tragedies arc not zealous for the power 
of the Pope, but use it only for their own gain and arbitrary' 

'John Atvarca {"48B-i;j7), a t>o(ninicin, Imnfb-t Hi Sitisum. No«in*lrd 
bubop br Cluln v., bul dcclintd. Forced by Adrlin VI. lo take tke 5« et 
Ca«lo». Cicatcd C'tdlnal i5j9l. Zealoiu Kgminit htrtty- Ditinario ii Entdif«**, 
(d G. Uoroni, Venice, ifi^ufl What h« WTOt« aitiliial Luther 1 cMBOt And. lit it 
•n«niion4d M I dMpie«bl« ihtolailan bj Ctotui Kub»nn* in • Irlltr lo 
Konc, July i, isi». HtUltM «fm, i. at7- 

ID Huttca. I 



lower. We have. [ believe, a pious Pope, but one who does 
not know all tliat is going on behind these tumults, and even 
i( he knew it could not prevent it all, as Virgil says: "The 
charioteer is carried along by the horses, nor docs the car olfcy 
the rein»." His piety will be helped by those who exhort him 
to tlo what is worthy of Christ. It is no secret thai tliey incite 
his Holiness against Luther, or rather against all who dare to 
mutter against their doctrines. But great princes should 
rather consider what is tlie permanent will of the Fope than 
the duly tliey owe to a. command wrongly extorted from 
him. . . . 

Thej- take it vcrj' ill that sotmd learning and the tongues 
should flourish, and the old. worm-eaten, dust-covcrcfl authors 
should revive to recall the world to its former state. These 
men fear for their own failings; they cannot bear to sccni 
ignorant of anything, and they arc afraid that something may 
wound their dignity. They kept the sore spot covered for 
a while, but at last pain has conquered their pretence and they 
have iMd to show it. They, especially the Dominicans and 
Carmeliies, whom I prefer to consider fools rather than 
knaves, did their best even before Luther's books appeareil. 
But when Luther did begin to publish they took his works 
as a convenient excuse (o attack Greek and sound learning, 
Reuchlin. Luther and even mc, confounding us all and not 
separating the good from the bad. In the first place, what 
on eartb has the degree of a man's learning to do with his 
piety ? And then what have I to do with Reuchlin and Luther ? 
Bui they mixed all things together so as to render all culti- 
vators of sound learning invidious alike. One can see how 
little candor ihey displayed when they themselves confessed 
that there was no author, ancient or modem, in whom some 
errors were not found. But they don't notice the many errors 
of Alvarus, or Cajetan. or I'rierias. because they are Domin- 
icans. Tliey only clamor against Retichtin because he knows 
Hebrew and Greek, and against Luther because they think 
him more learned than themselves. But Luther wrote much 
rather imprudent than impious. . . . 

Formerly a heretic was one who erred from the gospel 
truth. . . . now whoever displeases ihem is a heretic. It is 




heresy to know Greek, to write a polished s^le, to do whai- 
erer they do not. . . .* 


MilUÜMngen des Vereins für Anhalliscke Geschickte vnd Altertum- 
künde, x. 137 (1^)04). Wittenbe«;, November 4, tjij. 

Margaret of Anhalt- Dessau, nee Duchess of Münstcrbcrg, mairici 
EmKt of Anhalt in 1494. He <tied in 1516. She is not to be coo- 
Jounded with Mar^irct of Anhalt -Co I hen, nee von Scfawanbnci 
(Endern, xi. 327). or Margaret, wife of John of Anhalt, b>- birih of 
the house of Bi^ndenbu rg (Enijcri, xt. 256). She wa& a friend of 
Wenzel Link, who early in 1514 dedicated to her a tract 00 marnigt 
anil on January 33, 1515, wrote asking her to send him some vetufoa 
for a bftnquct he was to give. Dessau, where she lived, was cbI) 
tweniy-five miles from Wittenberg, and Luther must ofien ha« 
passed throuKh it on the road 10 Erfun. W. Reindcll: IV. Litck «w 
Coldili. i809, p. 353. She was the mother of Luther's friends, Gtor^r. 
Joachim and John. Willy and pious, she was at tnt inclined to tht 
Reformation, btti turned awa>- before her death on June .2S, IJ311 
V. Westphal: Fürst Ceorg ro» Anhalt, 1907. 

My humble prayers for your Grace. High-bom, gracious 
Princess! I( is long since 1 have been with your Grace, and 
although I could give good reason and excuse for tliis, ytt 
will I not do .so, for my heart and mind have never been away 
from your Grace, and 1 have always been inclined to coire 
to you. For the same reason I have rot written to you nor 
conferred with you. It ia the fault of my pride that I do not 
willingly blame myself to anyone. But that your Grace may 
see my linmble devotion, I have charged this relative of mine 
to offer your Grace my humble prayers and give you tliese 
sermons.* I am sorry that I have nothing better; also 
they are so many who give me a bar] name, that I hardly 
dare publish my own sUtlT. but must let them burst forth 
and hold myself in, and endure tt as well as I can. But if I 
get a little peace and time I will return again, hoping to do 
your Grace's pleasure thereby. God keep your Grace. But 

■Tbi* Inter wu rninutcd for dtlJnrr to Ulricli von nntien. C/. Hfta, 
Januur M>, t sm, no. ito. 

^nue Mtmons »«t lia»e been tbit on Prtparation for Drvh. W<im*r. It. 681. 
and ilie one uji Pttutnct dcdicatcil 10 Uarsurct u( Biun*wi(k, middle of Ottobrr, 
MMfrt. no. lA^. 

Let. 194 



if on account of my bad name my pro^nce would displease 
your Grace or any of your courtj please do not conceal it 
from me, for I know well that my wind will not blow from 
Leipsic or Merseburg. Herewith I commend myself to your 
Grace. Your Grace's chaplain. 

Dr. Martin Luther. Augustittian. 

Enden, ii, 224. WirtENBcuG, N«yember 7, 1519. 

Greeting. I am girt up for the labor of explaining the 
Epistles and Gospels,' and am very busy, dear Spalatin. But 
I senü what I can. . . . 

1 know nothing nor have I ever beard anything of the au- 
thority of Ecclesiastes' on purgatory. But the farthing men- 
tioned in Matthew.' with which Eck attacked mc at Leipsic, 
is as applicable to purgatory as to anything else. What will not 
anything signify to those who take it apart from its context 
rather than rightly consider it? But even by the text itself 
Eck is evidently refuted by the adverb "till," which in bibhcal 
use doe» not signify a definite time, as they think, as, for 
example, in Matthew, ii.' "and knew her not till she had 
brought fonh a son." See Erasmus* and Jerome. Secondly, 
because Christ speaks of a man who would not agree with 
his adversary, that is. who did not obey Christ's command, 
and thus, as they themselves confess, sinned mortally. 
Wherefore that prison is hell, from which no one is freed, 
for even Eck and his friends send only into purgatorj' those 
who have done all and have agreed with their adversary. 
Therefore the te.xt is only valid against them, unless they 
i^T^e that those who die in hatred, wrath and dissension with 
their enemies only go to purgatory, which I hope even they 

•n« («-caD««! Chuiih FcMIl», or Mmini on tbc Gotpcl and EptuU far 
Sndap *mA Uux dir*. *hicb lirtt «ppcar««! in Harcb. ts*i. CI. tifra. n». tSj. 

t^dwiitto. i*. 14, tit«d by Eck: mpra. no, ifij. 

ntatlbcw, V. j6. tlted by Rrk. "Tbou ibah tj no nw» come out tbtnrr, 
tfll (koa kcu paid Ikr mierniost farUint." 

•Ruber Uuikcw, 1. 25. Luibrr «lw«rs tit» br chapict* alone, bccautc (b« 
dlrblen idio Tttsr> wu aan ni4< until alifr bli lloic. 

*Cf, Ciamiu' not« oa ih« .Vcw Tntammt (Oftra, 170J. tu p. it). Wllltam 
Tyndak. In bii Iraiukrion e( tht Ntir Toltnicnt, »rt ilui ihr worilt did not 
(■Bty ibal "Si. Jo*tpb knew Our L«<lx~ eves «der ahc had bocnc Jtmia. 



LeL iji 

■will not have ihe brazen impudence to assert. Any boy caa 
see that Christ speaks of such mer. The passage of the 
apostle to the Corinthians* was taken from Eck, as it wm 
by force, though he babbled about its being very clear for 
him. Paul's words clearly mean that the day of the Loni 
shall prove everyone's works, which day, he says, shall be 
rcv-ealed by fire. Whence even an insane person can see th« 
Paul's words speak of the last jiidginent, in which the worH 
will be dissolved by heat; and that only by force or a figure 
of speech (for which there is no evidence) can they be 
applied to piirgatory. Christ's words in John,' about purg- 
ing the Branch, have been applied to purgatory by a ecrtaia 
Vincent," than whom no one ever twists the sense of Scrip- 
ture more. If Ihe word "purge" always connotes the irfei 
of purgatory, why don't they apply it to the text of Luke, ii.* 
"When the days of her purification (purgationis) were ful- 
filled," What can ihey understand who consider Vincent's 
words articles of faith ? The text in Maccabees* is left, and 
is quite plain. Dut that book docs not niakc articles of fatlh, 
nor do the Fatliers consider it an authority; the second book 
especially is several times rejected by Jerome. In short, 
although I know that our Church believes in purgatorj-, I do 
not know that all Christians do. It is certain that no one 
is a heretic for not believing in purgatory, nor is it an article 
of faith, .since the Greeks who do not believe it are never 
considered heretics, except liy these new almormally keen 
heresy hunters. And at ihc council of Basle the Greeks gave 
a splendid account of their faith. Farewell and pray for me. 

Mabtiv Luther, ^tigustinian. 


Enders, if. 236. German. [vcoLsrADT, Novembtr 8, 1519. 

This prolix letter of nearly thirty pages is mzitily a drtaitrd thr- 
ological atgumait in aiitvrer 10 Luther's Irltrr. jufra. no. 173. I 

'■ CvrintliHu, iii. i;. "It anj man'« wvrt dull be burned, be (kiD mtSit 
lou: but lie himielf aball 1« i.i*«<l: ret m u b; fire." 
'lohn. IT. I. 

■ViiKeni d( Bcwj*ai*. died 064. treau af inirgMory In Ua Stttrntam 
*Lukr. i). ta. 
*i Bluubeci, lii. 46. «DDtcil Tk^a, no. itfj. 

Let. 195 



translate only two pauagcs, Ih« first, Enders, lines i»-ij7, expreu- 
ing the Catholic doctiinc of the intcipret&tion of Scripture and the 
second, lines 7IO-719, containiflg some personalities. 

And as every Christian knows that the Holy Scripture is 
prized and honored before all else, I have written that no 
one should interpret Scripture according to liis own reason, 
but should follow 1I1C doctrine of thc Fathers. Then here 
cotnes Luther and calls it my own prating and sets up this 
as his ^al, "that if he has a cluir text lie will abide by it 
even ii the exegesis of the doctors is against it." May your 
Grace note the impertinence tliat is concealed in his cowl! 
That is the same principle which led all heretics astray, 
namely, their own self-conceit, so that they won't follow 
anyone else, but think tliat they understand better than all 
the holy doctors. If the text is clear he will abide by it. Is 
the text clear then? How, pray, did the sainted doctors 
not understand it? How is it then, if one thinks he has a 
clear text and yet errs as did the heretic Arius? I trust 
much more in tlic dear saints titan in my own blunt reason. 

I knovr not whether Luther had a devil in his box or under 
his cowl; but no one at I.etpsic ever heard ine say anything 
about iL It is true tliat he had soniellting on a chain, and a 
silver ring on one finger which caused much talk. If Dr. 
Luther thinks I am a slanderer and abuser of your Grace, 
he does me as much wrong in this as in other matters. For I 
was always desirous of serving your Grace, as much as I could, 
as an honored and famous German prince, and I offered to 
do so. 

It is certain that the heretics rejoiced in his doctrine, for 
they publicly prayed for him,* and certain of them were 
secretly at the debate.' But now he throws up against me 
this argument, and I lay it before your Grace to ask if you 
conwder it good: The heretics in Bohemia rejoice in Luther's 
doctrine and turn it against the Christians, but contrariwise 
the pious Christians in Bohemia have conceived displeasure 
against his doctrine, and are wroth with it and against tt. 

*Eck IcaratJ ibl> (ion Paduika'i Imict to Luthrr, ef. tufr^, a*, iCi. 
line; (/. Smltb, »p. tit., f- 6j. 



Can't anybody see from this that his doctrine is obnoxioiu 
to the suspicion of heresy? . . . 

Corpus Rtionnatorum. xciv. 218, 

FuiBURC lit BmsGAU, Kovcinbcr i^ 151} 

Ulrich Zwingli, the Reformer (Jsnuiry 1, 1484-Octobcr 11, 15J1). 
was born on the Toggcnburg, studied it Basle, Berne, Vicniu uA 
again at Basle, where he took the degree of M. A. in 150& Then lHb^ 
came parish priest ai Glanis. After some years here, and a short itü/u 
Einsiedeln, he moved to Zurich ia 1519. where he remained as leader 
o£ the Reformation till his death, He began hia rcEorms at once bj 
an attack on indulgences, as had Luther, though hii movement ku 
quite independent at (he start. Luther crossed his horicon VXA 
after the posting of the 95 Theses. The present Iciicr is in answer 
to one from Zwingli, lost, »king for information about Luther. It ii 
doubljr interesting for this reason and as showing the cultivated, 
consemtive opinion of Luther at this stage in his career. An excellent 
life of Zwmgli in English has l^een written by Prof. Samuel M. Jack- 
son. A new edition of his works is being published by Drs. E. Egli, 
G. Finsler and W, Köhler, in the Carpus Refarmalorum, wU. 

... I should like to say much to you about Matttn Luther, 
if the brevity of a letter could hold it all. Much in him you 
would praise and defend; but again there are some things 
which seem a bit too strong. He has rightly taught that all 
our good works are to be attributed to God and that nothing 
but evi! is to be credited to our own will. He proves this 
from many authorities, and especially cites the book of Psalms 
in every possible place. The Church doctors teach the same: 
Chrysostom in several places in his commentary on ^fatthew, 
Gregory most openly in his sermons, and others whom I 
have consulted and brought together with the purpose of 
pleading the cause of this most upright man on this point, 
if the Lord permit.' But as to indulgences, I have my opinion, 
but I have notlting to say. For I have no wish to attack 
dangerous men.* For it is an old complaint, and a doubtful 
question, as the commentator says.* But the subject of pcai- 

■Zaiiui nrrrt did to pulilicly, bat ellicr referenen hi bU worts ih«v tkM be 
Baa tcalljr reading the Kttberi bn* n«nUan«d at thi« linw. 

■Lil(isl))' "n»n will) hare ihejr bomt bottnd in hay." a igun taken [rom 
canle atioic horni hail la be wraiiped ap. Horace, Soirn, L 4, a«- 




tence and remission of sins needs the decision of a council. 
not being of private interpretation. Our Luther has tried to 
loOK the Gordian knot with more boldness than success; 
yd many chink that what that learned man has written is 
gospel truth. Imagine the rest! What Luther has written 
on penitence and faitli I think quite salutary. For the whole 
purpose of our life is that it may cast off vices and grow 
in virtues, and wc must strive always to be armed against 
our immortal enemy, to take up the cross, to buffet our body 
and thus to improve, for this is the true business of a Chris- 
tian. Who flees from it flees from salvation; who resists 
it commits suicide. For' (his end nothing is more apt than 
penitence. Wlio has dared to deny that faith is most potent 
in the sacraments? But as it is not my profession to discuss 
these things, I appeal to the theologians, I mean those who 
love the truth. 

In the aforesaid matter I follow and admire Luther, and, 
as much as my legal studies enable me. 1 am prepared to 
defend him on them. But there are blemishes in the Lutheran 
doctrines which I dislike. His proposition that we sin even 
when we do good, unless properly understood, is a strange 
assertion. For in a certain sense wc can tolerate this propo- 
sition, considering the doer of good not in the particular 
good act. but in his general character, so that even a righteous 
man sins, being imperfect and at fault in many things.' Thus 
far 1 understand Ltithcr; I agree with his opinion and even 
embrace it, for it takes aviay pride, cultivates humility, c.k- 
ciies love and reverence for God, and is founded in the Holy 
Scripture. But I see the Theses' of the Wittenbergers seem 
to understand the aforesaid proposition in a complicated sense, 
even of the very good act, as though he who did a good deed 
sinned even In doing it I do not see how this can be so. or 
else I do not understand their meaning. It seems to be mere 
nonsense with what it implies, as I explain more fuUy clse- 

•SMdlar "kd" for -M." p. MO, line «. 

Tki* ■• a <otDp]c(« mwntxltntafidinf of Lutlter** peillion, wfaicfa wM IliM «ny 
"saivfat" (S«d acl, uninipiKtl by G«d'i irxr. U wiufficienl to merit hii fiver. 
•«■) tbu« onaot be coniiJcred sImtc At lutul levtl of O-ur imfol allure. Cf. 

Stniib. «jt. fii., p. ee 
'J, f.. ihc Thtut for ibe L«j|wie debate. 



where. It would be better to refrain from such deccpti« 
propositions which lead tu sophiätical fallacies, and to stm-e 
after those doctrines which give wisdom to the simple. Mor^ 
over Carlstadt, a learned and upright man, as I think, un1<ss 
led astray by self-love, asserts in liis ThfSfS' that tliat cannot 
by called the literal sense of Scripture which is gatliered sim- 
ply by examining it, nor cveii that given by the meaning of 
the words; in short, that that is not expressly stated whidi 
appears from the intention of the speaker; and other prop> 
sitions of that sort. ... 

FinaÜy. in his laM book' Luther treats some fundamental 
positions in which he thinks he proves that the Pope is not 
by divine right tlic universal bishop. I can hardly say hovr 
much this displeases me. In the first place, thai is repugnant 
to the decrees of St." and other Popes, which Lutlier 
makes light of and almost spits on, as "vain," altliough he 
has no right nor ground for doing so. In short, supposing 
that what lie says were true, which 1 do not concede (for I 
intend to confute hnn on this point, thinking that it is one 
in which a layman h competent to do so), yet what does he 
gain by wearing himself out in these arguments, which are 
fruitless and poisonous as well? We see how wretched is 
the condition of man, how easily he falls and declines who 
thinks he stands and can stand easily. Luther's case shows 
us how much danger lurks in a bitter controversy. How mucli 
harm will the dctcrminatinn to win at alt costs bring? The 
VVittenbergcrs try to refute Eck even where he is right, and 
thus they have hurt themselves almost as much as hinu How 
safe it is to be humble, not to think loftily, not to strive 
obstinately, hut rather to yield where you can conquer than 
to try to annihilate your foe! On whom does the spirit of 
the Lord rest, if not on the lowly and the peaceable? Would 

'Carltiadt'a TKtttr on tbo autbotily of Scriptuie, LStcltcri f'cltitäidi^ 
fi(/«r>»afin>w Att» uitJ Csrvirnfa. t^lpjk, ijtotL, II!. St. fitrsc. KwrttMät, 
t. 117. Zttilu tccin* »liKbllr to have mi*unilerita(i<l Catblxlt, the cuenc« of 
wbiHc ponilicn wM ibit Ihr tilcrat (ncining of S<ri|>l»r* wtu uol ike tcB^iUnl 
inckn Ing. 

*KtirUtio Luthftiin* tuftr fr«f«taionr ra« ttreia dmm» at fflrtlatt t«tat, 
Wciamr. li. iSt. 

■la tlie work juit cited. Lotlicr cumlnea tks dicfee« a>f PtVC L«a I. aad athu* 
I» ihnr "bow wcaUf Ihcf provr Aeir point." 



hat some upright man would urge Luther not 10 go so far, 
It to keep the moderation he is always praising, and not to 
lix dross with his gold! Then we shall name him Elijah,* 
rftnd whatever else is greater than that. . . . 

Uuucu Zasius, Lin. D., Professor at Freiburg. 

Koldc: Analttta, 9. Nurembcrc, November 19. 1519, 

I returned to Bologna ( for 1 had been at Rome and would 
lave gone on to Naples had not the robbers prevented it), 
and there, dear Father. I found )-our letter, for which, Heaven 
knows, I was thankful. I showed the account of the Lcipsic 
debate to the lovers of Martin. o£ which there are a great 
number in Italy, and they read it with pleasure, their joy 
being proportionately greater inasmuch as the Reman indtd- 
gcncc sellers, those evil speakers and spoiicrs* as the poor 
Greeks of our age call them, liad previously triumphed, hav- 
ing heard from Eck's letters that he had won. But I will tell 
J-ÜU more when I sec you, which I hope will be soon. I left 
Italy a few days ago, for two reasons : first, on account of my 
health, and, secondly, to hear Martin. For that upright and 
leame<i scholar, Crotus Rubcanus. and I. have both recently 
become theologians. Therefore. 1 am now going to Witten- 
berg, though alt my patrons believe I am still deep in Italy. 

Ender«, K. 363. (Wittenbehg), November 30, 1519. 

Greeting. I am sending you the work for one Sunday,* as 
^ sample, dear Spalatin, so that yon. who are more skilled in 
polite letters, may more easily and happily point out places in 
the others of my collection. I am too busy to do it myself, 
but I might get Melanchlhon to do the work, by which he 
would at least show his devotion to the elector. 

*H«r* ZuLiu« employi ■ tenn from Zwinsl''! I«tt«t be !■ kniwtrint, for Zwincli 
■w* Ibo pirMt in a Icltcr ol Jinuirr 4, ijto, Ctrti' Rtfarmttoram. »it. 151. 

rnc ir«tiU in iialic* lie tn Greek. 

*/. r.. the Foilitia, (I. tat**. nO' i9*- t-ulbet wanted SpaJMin lo cortccl them 
•U «««rdinc to As laiBpIc bf (im in thm one. 



Let IM 

Dr. Breitenbach' and Dr. Henry von Schleinitz' honored 
me by an invitation to dinner. They were very civil to me; 
I never knew tliem before. We talked of nothing but of the 
Lcipsic tlieologians, of whom Breilcnbacli docs not seem to 
think mucti. From him I learned one apothegm : "If any- 
one," said he, "sees theologians of that sort, he sees tlie sc^-ca 
deadly sins." See what reputation we carnal sophists bsw 
given our profession of theology before the people. For, 
except our belly, our purse and our pomp, is there anything 
notable in us who are of this sort? For what good is it to 
count envy, wrath, lust and sour laziness? May God have 
mercy on us. 

Eniscr pours out his fury,* but in such a manner that he 
confirms my letter. I regret that such coarse, stupid, gross 
bullies interfere in this business. If respect for my name, or 
rather the fear of Christ, did not prevent me, I have not 
found anyone who has given me a better reason for writing. 
What mockery I could heap on this mole, and perhaps also 
on the men of Leipsic! Truly I will keep silence and wait 
for Eck. so that, if necessary. I can answer the lies and 
curses of both at once.' 

I send some letters received to-day from high quarters, so 
that you can see what is being done there. Please return 
after reading. Farewell, and please attend, as you promised. 
to my petition for Melanchthon, though I made it against 
his will. Martin Lutiibb, Augustiniam. 

Ender», ü. 537- Creuoma, November 2z (1510I. 

In Enders this letter is superscribed "Fr. 1. Iralus to Luther." the 
pCTBon beiuft unknown to the editor, .tnd the dntc is given "November 
30, iSMi" wiih a qucilion msrk. The "Novcml)« ao" is a timiile 
miiprint, for the epistte iü dated on the day of Si. Cecilia, which is 

■flrorGc Ton BfclicnbMh, s Ixlp*ic jutUi. in ■{>; [iToft-Mor it the aniTrniii'. 
Ltlci lurncil asiin*! Lutbcr, «b« citlcd tiini ■ "dcrlllib Uwjcr," Id ijj9, 
bew«vcr, *t tbt acccuiDn of Uie TroiMiant lIcnrT the Pioui (ef. Smith, tf. nl, 
p. joi)> lie tatir fiicii<]i w!ib ibc R^tcrincr «(«in. In ■S4a be entered tkc aerTic« 
of Joschini of llrandcnlKrE, He died toon after 

tTW lltaA Uaiibal of Duke Ctaigs. 

■ Cmut'i aniiw«r la Lultir'* AdJilio, enlitleil A frnaliimr Afgv<ereltt atttwtl». 

•E<h*( Pro flirr. Smurr, 4ediei(e4 (4 thr Bi«bop of MctMcs and datad Otlobce 






bvcmbcr 22. The "1520" is foun<l in the first edition of the epistle, 
entitW "Revocatio Martini Lutheri ad Sanctam Se^lcm," but it is 
certainty a misphnt here, as shown by allusiana Luther and others 
make 10 it as early as August, 1520. Luther mentions it in the begin- 
ning of bis Babyhnidn Cafttvity (Wcioiar. v\. 49S ; Wtrke. cd. 
Clemen, i. 437). 

The author of the work wa& simultaneously i<lenti6ed by Kalkof) 
(Zfitsckrift für KircheitgeschUhte. xsxii. 49ß), and by F. Lauchen: 
Dit ftaliemtehtn Gegntr Luihers, sood. Isidore Isolani of Milan en- 
tered the Dominican cloister in that city, taught theology 15 ij at 
Pavia. 1515 at Verona. 1517 at Milan. 1519 apparently at Cremona, 
and iSzi again at Pavia. In thi« year he also took his doctorate at 
Bolosita. He died between April 22 and July 4, 1528, at Milan. He 
published various things, the first the /itii»iö«afi/y af the Soul jn 1505. 
He attacked Luther again in his Diifutalioncs Catkolkae, 1522. 

Amiable brother, I am greatly astonished that a man of 
ch excellent i>arts as you, one who has penetrated the deep 
ysteries of divine writings, and who has been initiated into 
the family of the holy mendicant order, should be so obstinate 
and &o bound by the chains of a mind wandering out of the 
paths of salvation, and that, although publicly anathematized, 
you should not amend, but should rely on the uncer- 
tain protection of a future cecumcnical council. Unlearned 
wise man, endowed with noble mind, do you really do tliis and 
worse? Do you try to execute so mad a plan, O man of 
candid mind and clear eloquence? Alas! alas! why, more 
SAvage than any wild beast, do you turn your hand and sword 
against your own bowels? Why do you hold douTi the truth 
of God in unrighteousness?' When you know God, why do 
jou not glorify him. instead of using up your powers in your 
vain thoughts?* Your foolish heart is weeping and mourning 
and quenched in hell. . . . 

There is little light in your two letters to the very reverend 
le^te.* Walk while you have the light, that the darkness 
overtake you not.* . . . 

£r)ders, ü. 265. (Witttniictc. before November 2<>. 15T9.) 

Greeting. First, if you cared at all for my opinion, you 

*ltoi»*p«, L 18. *Roinani, ■ >i- 

The t«a Ititcn of Ociabct 14 ind iB, ijiS, bad been puUisbcd In ihc Att» 
A^guttatf, tjiS. 'Jobn, sil. jj. 


I,«L an 

would see that it is beyond tlie power of one master aloot 
to administer the school.' Secondly, if both Quinttlian aiuj 
Aristotle cannot tw read on natural history, it is belter to 
orait Aristotle, especially as I'liny will easily supply his pUa. 
Quintilian is the only author who will make the best youth*, 
or radier men. But above alt I beg that whether Fach' or 
Hess* is made teacher of this subject, at least they shouM 
have the same method. For myself, I prefer Quintiliia 
to almost all authors, because, while instructing, he also 
teaches eloquence; that is, he teaches the subject and style 
most happily. Everything else is all right. Farewell. 

Brot]ier iMartin LuTHEjt, Auyustinian. 

Enden, u 437. (Wittexberc, near Dec«n)l>er i, 1519.) 

In ihe years i5i<>-30. Duiigetshei»i engagcsl in a long- winded priviu 
controversy with Ltitlicr, which lie iniiiscIC printed in iMi- The iint 
Icitcr is placed by Endcrs (i 355) on January 18. 1519. but ihould 
rathrr hf d.itcd October 7, 1519. Sec KnMkc in Thtetttgiteke Studu* 
und Kriliken, itjoa. p. z&j; Ki>»tlni-Kawerau, i, 158. Ltithct*» reply 
came M>on after this. Enders. i. 365. Dungersheiin wrote again, lue 
ill November. Endcrs, i. 373 (placed in January, 1519), and LuUkt 
replied with the letter part of wbicfa is here translaied. 

Greeting. Behold, excellent Sir, I have received your sec- 
ond letter, in which you write again about the papacy, and 
among other tilings again review the case of .^thanasius and 
the statutes of the Niccnc Council. Pray take a brief reply, 
for I am still waiting for Eck's answer,' which, having again 
poured forth insane words, he Iiombastically promises. Pray, 
what ought I to confess more than I have done? For [ al- 
low that the Roman Pontiff is superior to all in dignity, aEid 
is to be reverenced, from which It follows that he is con- 
sulted in crises, althoufrh I do not know how I can defend 
even this opinion against Ihe Greeks. Nor have you showed 

■Tbii donbilraa refer) 10 the buy*' tcbool «moectcd «rilh ibc (gtnMicrr, «f 
wfaltfc Luihcr vu ai on« llai« nMi». 

Ilaltbaaar Fabrlciu* ron Fxli. ni>tricul*l«d al WillMiWrt (}ot. RMtor of Ikf 
Vnirtraiir >}■? <■»(! is'i, Dran ijaB. Msriicil an ijjo. Atei |n)y 4, 154'' ^1- 
Enden, >iv. itB. 

■John He«. »Ua called Monianiu. al Wittcdberr, wai« Reetor «f Ihe UaiTrrnlT 
If) I. He (lied, in (fee poaition of Cli»ac*I)«r of Ike UnlvenilT at Uarfaort, la 
tfjl. Snden. il iM- 

*Sut*t, no. i»8, luiir; Luihrr rccHvtd ti 0(1 DeMniter j. 

L. aci 




V to do so. It does not follow that be must be con-' 
or that no bishop has any power without him in any 
place, nor that nothing can be done in the Church exce]>t by 
his command. . . . 

In iliis manner, therefore, I desire that the süperiorily of 
the Roman see be maintained, if necessary, aithougli, as I 
said, ncitlier at Leipsic was I able to demonstrate this, nur am 
1 able to-day. nor to ihow any text of Scripture to those who 
oppose it. For thus I have no fear, le$t, in case a war arises 
with heretics, we be exposed to mockerj- for having relied on 
our commentaries and for having spoken without tbe authority 
of Scripture, For tlie devil docs not fear the reed of Egypt, 
but the sword of tbe spirit. In this matter you and all others 
would greatly please me by examining the words of tlie 
Fathers in the light of Scripture, as we read in Acts* that even 
Paul's words were received by men who examined the Script- 
ures to see whether these things were so. You and Eck arc 
accustomed to accommodate the words of the Bible to the 
words of the Fathers, as though they did not desire to draw 
us to the Bible, rather than to themselves. Hut contrariwise 
it is my custom, following tlie example of Augustine, but 
reverently, rather to follow up the streams to the source, as 
Bernard boasts that he did. 

As to the second place, in Philippians, ii.,' which you think 
t I, following Erasmus, have misunderstood, tt is really 
you, who have cited not the text, but the opinions of the 
Fathers. . . . 

I It is necessary to defend theologians against Satan by the 
one simple, sole sense of Scripture. This is my desire and 
tlie essence of my controversy with Eck, who defends a 

ulliplicity of senses, which does not please me. Finally, I 
am glad that out of our debate has arisen the zeal for inquiry, 
but I am sorry iJiai tliis inquiry is directed not to the ncccs- 

ry things, but to this one point which is not necessary, in 
which [ give up a good deal more than T am able to justify 
by argument. But I sec quite well what many people seek in 
this debate. But God lives. Farewell in him, excellent Sir. 

'AcU, Krii. II. 

TUllppüna, tt. it. Dunce rib«! 01 '■ artuaicai. Enden, 1- 391. 




Lutlieri opera- varii argumenti, iv, 176, P. Frcdericij: Cofpui mtpiär 
tionis Stertandieae, iv. (1900). p. 17. 

PAurcLUXA (Sfaix>, December 4. tS9 

Adrian of Uirecht ( i4j')-Sepicml>cr J4, 1523), matncuUird »! 
Louvain 147a. in ivii became professor of thcoloto*. In 1507 lu 
was Appointed tutor to Prince CharteB. In 1516 he wu made Bishop 
of Tortota, Cardinal June i. 1517. and Pope January 9, 153X Ai 
Pope he tried both to rtform Ihc Church and supprcta Lutlieruisa 
L. Patter: History of the Pcfes, EnglUh iranilation, vol. be, 1914 
P. S. Allen, op. (it., i. 380. 

Famou-i and learned Professors, and dearest Friendst 
Your letter of November 7 was delivered to me on the 26dl 
of the same month. In it you show plainly wliat affection 
you have for Christ and what zcaI for his most Itoly faith. 
I saw the errors which you copied from the divers writings 
and tracts of Luther and sent to tne; they are such crude 
and palpable heresies on their face that not even a pupil ia 
theology of the first grade otight to have been caught bjr 
them. ' 

He proves himself a heretic most of all by saying that he 11 
is ready to undergo the stake and death for his opinions, and I 
that anyone who thinks the contrary is a heretic. I pass fl 
over the reasons which might be adduced to show the heresy ' 
of his single articles, so that I may avoid prolixity in matters j 
not ambiguous or requiring it. I am greatly surprised that 
one who errs so manifestly and obstinately and who scatters || 
his opinions broadcast, is allowed to err with impunity and 
with impunity to draw others into his pernicious errors. 

You certainly descr\'e praise for having resisted, as much 
as you could, the pestiferous dogmas of the man. opposing 
to them a doctrinal condemnation so tliat his errors should 
not involve you, and that you should not be held guilty before 
the Lord of souls, which perish by reason of Luther's perverse 
doctrine. This would have happened had not you proved 
the falsity and perniciousncss of his doctrine by your cen- 
sure and by showing the plain truth, as the Saviour said: 


Whoso is not with me is against me, and who gathereth not 
with me scattcrcth.' . . . 

Endcrs, ii. 371. (Wittt-Nwjic). D««inber 7. igig. 

Greeting. I sec. Spalatin. that llie plan wliich we heard 
from nunor and hoped was true, namely, that the whole 
court was coming here, has been changed. But 1 see that 
princes must first make and then see their works, for they 
also are gods.* For what is said and expected before it 
happens usually fails. I had much to talk of [willi you and 
the elector], esjiecially about our curriculum. For I hear 
that the course on Aristotle is not as successful as we hoped. 

Dr. John Hess has brought from ftaly a mystic Aristotelian 
theology,' recently, as they write, found in Syria, that is. as 
I suppose, concocted by some rascal in order to dress up against 
Christ more speciously this enemy of Christ. Hess also 
brought letters of learned men.' 

1 know not yet whether 10 publish my Tesseradecas, es- 
pecially in Latin, as that sort of work, which savors of 
Christ, is Tcry hateful to the sophists. . . . 

Brother Martis Luthek. 

J. Joftin: Lift of Erasmus, ii. (1760), 353^. 

Meissbk, D««mber 7, 1519. 
Julius von Pflug (i^Q^-September 3, 1564), pupil of Moiellanu* at 
Lcipsic, a modciatc Catholic who took a prominent part in the 
rclisiouf conirovcTsiri of the day. In 1541 he was elected Bishop of 
Nzun^nirs. but was prevented from takinx possession of the sec by 
John Frederic, who installed .\msdorf. .'\fier the Schmalkzklic war. 
io iM7t Ainsdorf wxi removed and Pflug given the position. 

I see that you are desirous of learning the history of the 
lusc of Martin the thcolt^ian, which has been brought to 
ic point at which it now is by the emulation of the sophists. 

'UaMkcv, lit 31: Lokc. XI. 33, 

'PmIb Uuili. fr, "t fiid, V« »n aodi . . . ««vcnliela« r< •hkll die like men, 
•nil fan lib« »nc «f lit pnK«a." LMber alirar* arplicd ibil rcne Io pilnce*. 
>■ i«tmiti«l Atitit*. Ob "fin) iiul:ins, *nd ihcn Hvini ibcSr work*," tf. 

CcMMl, I. J I. 

*S*fttitiittimi PMotefin Aritl«trl'i Flaniriti« Ti'Mogm. Ron«, i}iy, Jna« i. 

*f, t., of Crotiu Knbcam«, Mffa, no. tl6, t^a. 



Althotigli my opinion of it is such as would be unsafe l» 
commit to any letter, no matter how carefully sealed, 
not to seem to neglect my Julius, I will briefly and in 
faith act forth llie whole tragedy. But ah.i, beware how yd 
let anyone see this letter. Aiso remember that I was pres«! 
[at the Leipsic debate] by chance. 

In the first place, it is loo well known to need my repeatiij 
it, how much hatred blartin has won from all who do 
not know the impiety of the Romanists, £rom those who at 
seduced by their vices, and from those who spend their whole 
lives in trumpery sophisms. It is also known how both sides 
fought by publishing theses throughout Germany, Luther ei- 
ploding from tlie theater of the theologians Aristotle's phikwo- 
phy to which they hold without understanding it, and thcj 
defending it hke Üieir mistress, with what arms they coukl, 
force and fraud, all fair in war. Not only did our Leipsic 
professors oppose Martin's theses with their own, but Eck 
also, the Bavarian theologian, walking on air and like Soeraits 
despising even God from his basket,^ moved by the novelty 
of Luther's propositions, he drew up certain deductions 
against him and showed them to the Bishop of Eichsüdt. 
When Luther heard of this from his friends, he sent Carl- 
stadt, Archdeacon of Wittenberg, against Eck, thinking to 
force the man (o retract. Eck answered once and again, but 
in my judgment too coldly to win the confidence of any wise 
reader. For Eck's pen is not as able as his tongue is prompt: 
a terrible talker, but a weak speaker. Wherefore, despairing 
of victory in a combat of reasofl, like a horse let loose in a 
meadow* he challenged them to a public debate. The Wit- 
tenbergers did not refuse. So they got permission to debate 
in the thinking-shop.' rightly so called, of oor theologians. 
beginning on June 27. Both sides arrived promptly. Ed( 
came with only a .single personal servant, and with letters 
of introduction to our duke from the Fuf^ers.' Luther and 

'In Ibii IcKcr »11 noidi in itilict sr« Cr««li in the MlflaiL In Arialopkanwr 
CItuAi. S«mtri vat drawn up lata Ihr air in > buktt. 

*Gr«l[ proTrrh for mlrcnuf Fkitmni 

*T%« eomlf ward applied bj Ariciopbanes fa Tht Clmdi lo Sociale*' »cbool 

*The ir«at tunkert ol Auitburs, fur «bora Eck had ilebaied on lb* risfcl nf 
tiUai lawre«! on moner. 




irlsudt brought with them the greater part of their uni- 
rsity, among their companions being Barnim, Dxilcc of 
>racrania, a modest youth loving letters and particularly 
racious to me. Men of every estate galhereü to see the 
Ebatc, abbots, counts and knights, learned and, 
tliat this large university had no hall big enough to accom- 
_ nodale such an audience. The duke showed his foresight 
in providing a capacious hall in the castle for this event. 
And as the Bishop of Merseburg, instignted by our tlieologians, 
was unwilling to allow this debate, the duke took the whole 
responsibility on himself. He charged the town council to 
provide lodgings, and he had an armed force ready lc»t a 
tumult should arise. All things were done rightly, especially 
as your father (Caesar Pflug], at the duke's command, was 
not only present at all the events, tut presided over them. 

When the day set dawned, there was at six o'clock at St. 
Thomas's a magnificent mass for the success of the affair. 
Then in a splendid procession all hurried to the castle. To 
prevent a tumult armed guards were stationed at the doors. 
When all had come in and taken their assigned seats, I, poor 
man, in a fever, came in through the back door and ascended 
the platform, to speak, in the name of tl^c duke, to the 
expectant audience. I confess that at first I was fright- 
ened by so great a concourse of prominent men. all expectant, 
and before so great a prince, whom I feared I would represent 
unworthily. Yet I spoke, if not with great applause, at least 
so that the duke and other grandees approved of it. When 
I came to the peroration, and all were anxiously expecting 
ine to finish (for I spoke almost twice as long .-is usuat),^ some 
musicians, prepared at my suggestion, were introduced 
through the same back door and started the hymn Vent sancle 
Spiritus, which they sang sweetly while the audience reverently 
kneeled. Tlic time until noon having been consumed with 
these I" re para lions, we went to lunch. A trumpet announced 
when to come back. All returned expectant. 

Carlstadt and Rek, each asking the usual indulgence for 
himself, descended into the arena. They debated on free 
will, L e., what it has to do with the work of salv,ition. For 

'Efluxwunt cnUn dutp prno cl-rptiyilrac. 




Carlstadt sought to prove tliat whatever was meritoriou» in 
the words or deeds of a man was due wholly to God, aad 
that man, of his own accord, could will nothing good, unlesj 
he received an influx of divine grace; in short, that God was 
the smith and our will the hammer ^^'ilh which he forged our 
salvalion. Eck rebutted lliis opinion, wliich, if I understand 
aught in these matters, is by no means absurd. For almost 
three days he argued that merii was due partly to grace, 
partly to man's will. It finally came to this, that Eck con- 
ceded the whole good work was from God, but not wholly.' 
This fine dtstinclion Carlstadt not only confuted on tlie spot, 
but afterwards, in a long public letter, exposed as an invalid 

Luther followed Carlstadt to sustain the thesis that it wis 
only by recent decretals that the Roman Qmrch was proved 
to be superior to other Churches, against which stood tbt 
authority of Scripture and the Niccnc Council. Eck left 
no stone unturned to overthrow this opinion; he summoned 
all the forces at his command, spending eight days on it and 
doing his best especially to make his opponent invidious by 
dragging in some Hussite articles. Luther at once under- 
stood the snare, and raged as though inspired by some spirit 
at being thus insidiously betrayed on a side issttf. With great 
indignation he rejected some of the dogmas imputed to him. 
white embracing some of them as Christian, relying every* 
where either on well weighed testimonies of Scripmrc. or on 
the decrees of ancient councils. In short, his main effort was 
to remove far from himself the suspicion of favoring the 
Bohemian schism. Eck also bent his whole cnci^ on im- 
pressing the audience with this opinion of Luther, no matter 
how much the latter rejected it. In like manner they debated 
on other things, the state of souls in purgatory, fear as the 
root of penitence, and indulgences, consuming nearly twenty- 
days in all. 

When they had finished each side claimed the victory. 
Eck triumphs in the opinion of all who like asses playing the 
harp do not unilerstand the subject at all, men who from 

■Tocu« wd not loiditcr. 0. Stiu: Dtr »utKtntiitkt Test in MHagtr IM> 




1»oyhood have betn brought up on Peter Hispanus,' or who 
have some reason (or wishing the Wittenbergers ill. The 
victory of Luther and Carlstadt is less acclaimed, because 
learned aad judicious men arc fewer and less confident in 
proclaiming tlieir own opinions. 

Vou have the story for which you asked, told briefly and 
in desultory manner, for I left out much not to the point. 
What? Don't you applaud? Perhaps 1 seem clumsy or 
artifidal to you, or else you want more. I will fill you lo 
repletion with these banquets, and I will give you portraits 
of the leaders in tiiis war. Martin is of middle lieight with 
slender body worn out both by study and care, so that you 
can almost count his Imnes. Me is in the vigor of manhood; 
his voice is sharp and clear. He is so wonderfully learned 
in the Bible that he has almost all the texts in memory. He 
has learned enough Greek and Hebrew to form a judgment 
of Uic translations. He has no lack of matter to speaking. 
for an inunense stock of ideas and words are at his command. 
Perhaps you might miss in him judgment and method in 
using his stores. In daily life and manners he is cuhivated 
and atTable. having notliiiig of the stoic and nothing supercili- 
ous about him ; rather he plays the man at all seasons. He 
is a joker in society, vivacious and sure, always with a happy 
face no matter how hard his enemies press him. You would 
hardly believe that he was the man to do such great things 
unless in.'ipircd hy the gods. But wliat most men blame in 
him is tliat in answering he is more imprudent and cutting 
than is safe for a rtformer of the Church, or than is decorous 
for a theologian. I know not whether this vice is not also 
common lo the pedants. 

Carlstadt is like I-i«lier, hut smaller. He is shorter, his 
face dark and burned, his voice thick and unpleasant, his 
memory is weaker and liis .inger more prompt. 

Eck has a tall stature, a solid, square body, a full, German 
voice, strong lungs as of a tragedian or crycr. but emitting 
a rough rather tlian clear sound. So far is he from having 
that native sweetness of the Latin tongue, praised by Fabius 

11* »•(Bot of 1 w«rli utUd Svmmultt. Lonf iclentifitd, bat wilLoal evitaiB 
vtlh Job» XXI., Pop« 1176.7. 


and Cicero! His mouth and eyes, or rather his whole 13». 
would make you think him a hiitcher or Carian soldier ralbc 
than a theologian. He has a fine memory ; were his under- 
standing only equal to it he would possess all nature's giftk 
Tlie man cannot grasp a thing <|uickly nor judge it acutd). 
so that his other talents are vain. This is the reason why tn 
debate he brings together all his arguments and texts, of 
Scripture and quotations from authors without any selection, 
not considering that many of them are inept and impertinent 
to the subject, and that some are apocryfihal or mere sophistrj. 
He only tries to discharge a copious mass of mailer, thus 
deceiving his audience, most ol whom arc älupid, and front 
whom he thus wins the opinion that he is victor. Add to 
this incredible audacity covered by admirable craft. If he 
thinks he is falling into the snares of hb adversary, he turns 
the debate into another channel, sometimes embracing his 
opponent's opinion, clothed in other words, as his own, lai. 
with equal guile, imputing his own absurdities to his 
antagonist. . . . 

Krause, 647. FsEtBUitc. December 13, 1519. 

... I should like to know your opinion of Luther, O most 
candid of all men, for 1 know that you cannot judge good 
men amiss. There is among our Germans a mar*xllous van« 
cty of opinions about this man, whom I might well call a 
hero. All those instructed in the pure docirinc folkjw Luther 
without reserve. But the monks and scholastic theob^ans, 
except a few good men, condemn him. Two of the best 
approved and most learned theologians of our umvcrsttjr, 
John of Breisgau and George Wägclin [Achaeus] receive, 
bless and favor Luther and compare him to the ancient and 
true theologians. The whole of Switzerland, Constance, Augs- 
burg, and a good part of Italy adhere to Luther. If we dis- 
agree with some ecclesiastical lawyers and some litigious 
slaves of business, we have to fight for the man now in this 
way. now in that. I accept Luther with reservations. For I 
do not approve his calling the decretals "vain," by which he 
intends to overthrow Leo's claims. And it is not necessary 




Or human salvation, for which the good man so constantly 
arSt to outdo himsdf in paradoxes and thus give occasion 
his enemies to slander hira by saying that be is not very 
Fercnt from a wicked Hussite. So, though I consider 
ither the best of men, by whose doctrine 1 have learned to 
foliow Christ more truly, yet I cannot agree with what he 
says of the primacy of iJie pope, which can be easily con- 
futed. But I wilt not write against him, and would consider 
it a sin to wound him. Yet I pity ihc condition of humanity, 
that we are so iragiie and so Ihlle that even those who are 
most perfect deviate from the right way when they seem 
to conquer and become powerful. . . . 


Enden, u. 277. Wittesbkbg, December 18, 1519. 

Greeting. There is a rumor that Cliarles MUtitz yester- 
day passed through here. I am surprised at it, but let it 
pass. 1 have read what you write of his mocking me by my 

I do not know whether I can write sermons on the Gospels 
and Epistles for Lent, as you urge me, for I have much 
to do and am very busy. Don't you believe it^ My lectures 
on the psalter require a whole man; my sermons to the people 
on the gospel and Genesis need another whole man ; a third 
is required by the little prayers and regulations of my order;a 
fourth might do tliis work you ask. not to mention my corre- 
spondence and my occupation with the afTairs of others, in- 
cluding my meetings with my friends, which steals so much 
of my time that I almost think it wasted. I am one man; 
certainty I prepare for work, but if what you ask is to be 
accomplished, all else must be omitted. Woukl that I could 
give myself quietly to this alone. I should consider it a 
great pleasure, so far am I from not wanting to do it. 

But there is no reason why you or any man should expect 
from me any sermon on the other sacraments,* until I team 

'iMtei had alrcidr piFicbed oo btplisni- lb* cucbuul and penine«. dedlcitinc 
U* «cmon* to Uartucc of Iliun*iirick, t¥fra. e.o. ifj, middtr ut Octubrt, Tit 
CMbalk Cbrjrch alio rrcoiniivil as M<rin)enli, conümiitiaii. orden. «itrmic 
■aetian and nutrinionjr* Luihet'i riewi nerc expanded in his work. On Ihe 
SsAyteaitn C*ttivits cf th* ChMrOi. (i)»).) Cf. SsiUb. gp. til» tvt. 



by what text I can prove that they arc sacraments. 1 csteea 
none of the others a sacrament, for ihat is not a sacramcni. 
save what is expressly given by a divine promise exerdsing 
our faith. We can ha\e no intercourse with God save by Ihe 
word of him promising, and by ihe faiili of man receiving the 
promise. At another time you will hear more about their 
fables ol the seven sacraments, . . , 

Endcrs. iL 280. Wmtttntxa, December 18. 151» 

Greeting. Reverend Father, the money of Brother Cacsai" 
shall be treated as you suggest. Caesar was not al home when 
your letter came. You shall decide whether to leave him 
here. Formerly you wrote for him to stay here until be 
could return to you as lecturer. He give^ lectures on llie- 
otogy, and his work is not bad, except that I am sorry I can- 
not send all the brothers to Meianchthon's lectures on Mat- 
Uiew at six o'ciock in the morning. This little Greek beats 
me even in tlieolcgy. 

1 do not know whether you have received both commentaries 
on the Psalms, mint- and Meianchthon's. I expect that my 
other trifles reach you without my sending them. I have re- 
called my sermon on usury" after sending it to the press, as 
the pure doctrine of Christ offends many. I send everything 
else. Please let us have the report of the debate as soon as 
it is printed.* 

Eck threaten.«; .something dreadful to me and Melanchthoa 
and Carlstadt and our whole university, not to say the elector. 
He vomited up a chaotic German letter* to the elector; you 
would have thought him God Almighty taUdng. It is lucky 
that such a sophist has met such a prince. 

Your Frfurt faculty are pleased to delay judgment. For 
the debate is now vain, and it is vain to expect the judgment 
of the Parisians, which, by God's favor, will give an opening 

'J«bii Citaar, nn AucuMinUn, wbo mtlriculilcd it Willtnbtri in MkTt ISlS- 
The Ofrratiaiuj in Pialmat. 
tic Ilule lenDon on luuiy, WelmM. ri. i. 

Tlic notrt of tbc Ltipaic debate »c» lubaiiltcd lo tbc Ethrt iacntty tm 
Judgnrnl, tint piimcd cb(t*, |ii«b>blr nmlvr Luis'* cw*> 
'Su/^a, no, igj. 

1>t. aoS 



for speaking against ihe Roman Antichrist. A tract by a 
certain Bohemian, as is thought, is being circulated here. It 
is writien, in both German and Latin, with great theological 
learning against the tyranny of the Roman coiria. 

1 did not quite understand your meaning when you wrote 

reek, that it was due to your efforts that the debate was 
sent back to Duke George, and why you and your theologians 
and doctors were so amitlenJ' 

1 shall not answer Emser in a separate book, for the man 
is so clumsy that he affirms and admits what I chai^ him 
with, and he doesn't speak to the point at all, but only reviles. 
When Eck's prumised attack comes out I shall answer hini 
and lünser leather. 

Charles Millitz is doing his best, now at Toi^ii. now at 
Lochau, to get me to go to Trier with him. My enemies arc 
frightened and while plotting against me rage to tliink tliat 
my destruction is yet unaccomplished. The bishops write to 
Rome against me. I do not yet know what will happen. 
Perhaps, under safe-conduct, and if summoned by the arch- 
bishop, I shall go to Trier. 

Our reverend father V'icar Staupiti is well and honored 
Saliburg. He writes that Eck is everywhere courting 
the favor of prominent men, but that liis "moderation" 
displeases Cardinal T^ng. 

Lx>tther of Leipsic is founding a printing establishment, 
with Greek, Latin and German types, at Wittenberg, 
^^ Study goes on apace, especially in thcolog>'. Leipsic is 
^U>cipsic, according to her custoni. I am very busy. Farewell 
and pray for me. . . . 

^ Brother Martin Luthes, Augustinton. 

«k«, iL 263. De Weite, i. 3R1. Gtrman. 
WinrKBCRc, December 23, 1519. 
On December la, 1519^ Fuchs wrote Luther asking his advice, on 
behalf of the Ratisbon Town Council, as to a strife with the local 
bitfiO|L Eoders. li. a7& The present letter is his answer. 

My poor prayers and good wishes for you. Noble, honor- 



I.«. aoB 

able, dear Sir an<! Friend : I have received and carefull/ 
7«ad your letter and question. Xow i know that 1 am bound 
to serve your Honor, as I found you so true to mc at Augs- 
burg, and, thcrtiore I should like to answer tins letter chsHj 
and rightly. Uut llie gospel prevents mc, for in all such 
matters Christ gives a short judgment, saying: And if any 
man would go to law with thee, and take away thy coat, lei 
him have thy cloak also.' Therefore, it becomes roe as a 
tlieologian and is on my conscience not to give other advice 
herein. No party among you will satisfy the gospel unless it 
lets t)ie other do what It will. The bishop should let the 
council do what it wishes, and contrariwise. The bishop is 
not helped by his spiritual right, nor the council by its use 
and custom, for the gospel supersedes everything, It is, in- 
deed, true that the Pope has decreed that the third part of 
such an offering should go to the bishop," hut I leave it to htni 
to an.swcr for his power to make such a law. It makes no 
difference to selfishness. For we are obliged to suffer violence 
and even wrong. Wherefore it would be my advice and 
prayer, that tlie bishop and council agree in friendly vnsc 
without insistence on tlieir rights ; perhaps the bishop may be 
prevailed upon to give in. But if not, tliey have no right to 
reserve the case for the judgment of Komc, Take this opiaioD 
kindly and in friendship from me as from a tlicologian, whom 
it docs not become to advise strife and lawsuits, but peace 
and patience. I am always ready to serve your Honor. 
Bhother Martin Luthek. Auguslinian at IVitlenberg. 

Geji. i. ria Dkesdek, December 27. 151^ 

Highborn Prince, dear Cousin. On Christmas eve I re- 
ceived a book containing a sermon' published by Dr. Luther 
on the body of our Lord. When I had looked through it 
I found that it was very Bohemian and had much heresy 
and scandal in it, especially as it is in Cemian, and seetns 

'Uattbew. T (fl. 

^n Ihf Cinon Law, Decret. P. It, <au», lo, qu. i, c. j. 

*WdBW. U. riS. On (hin complaEnt »nd I.utbcf'* anivcr, vkich wxt m^n 
ndiMt Ah lliE ufwioal »(moD, t/. Smith, op. tU., jt. 

t. 310 



rac likdy rather to break down tlian to build up simple 
Ik. As I know well tbat your Grace would not willinjfly 
ivc strangers damage our holy iaiih, so was 1 sure that you 
wQiild be still more unwilling for your subjects to do it. Es- 
pecially as Dr. Luther is a famous man at your university of 
Wittenberg, he will doubtless bring great notoriety to your 
Grace and the land of Saxony, and do something contrary 
to the Christian religion and favorable to the Rohemian here- 
tics. For many already have thought tliat the Scripture com- 
mands that the sacrament he taken in both kind^, and hold 
many other articles which are unchristian. 


Ceu, i. 112. LocRAU, December sg. 1519. 

Highbom Prince, dear Cousin. I have received your 
Grace's letter about a printed pamphlet published by Dr. 
Martin Luther, which contains a sermon on the venerable 
sacrament of the true body of our Lord Jesus Christ. I have 
also received your Grace's notice and opinion of the same. 
and in friendship to your Grace will not conceal from you 
that I have never undertaken to defend or champion Dr. 
Luther's sermons or disputations, and do not do so now, but 
keep aloof from such tnalters as I told the papal cardinal 
legate, and the nuncio Charles von Miltilz both by letters 
and orally. -Mthough I cannot know how the said book will 
be esteemed, yet I hear that hitherto Dr. Luther's doctrine 
has been by many learned and wise men considered Chris- 
tian. However I leave it to its merits and him to his reckon- 
ing, for your Grace knows that Dr. Luther's aflFair and dis- 
putation is awaiting judgment, for which he also offered him- 
self to the papal nuncio, who commanded him to come forth 
in the proper manner. Now, however this comes out, I will 
act. God willing, so that no one can rightly blame me. for it 
would be a heartfelt sorrow to me to have some error in the 
holy faitl» appear in the lands of my brother.' your Grace and 
myself, or in any other place, and still more would it wound 
le to have it protected by me. from which may God guard 

^Dulcr J (An. 


L«. aiji 


Geti, i. 113. (Erfurt), December 39. 151^ 

We have received your Grace's letter recently sent us, con- 
cerning certain articles and points which Dr. lick, Dr. Liithtr 
and Dr. Carlsladt publicly debated at your Grace'.": University 
of Leipsic, and staling your Grace's desire and the said tna- 
vcrsity's friendly request that we should diligently examine 
the sai'l disputation an(\ give you our opinion and judgmenl 
on the same. In this as in all other matters wc desire lo 
serve your Grace with all our power, but, after repealed con- 
sultation, we find that in this case it is not fitting for us 10 
decide and judge the contentions which were brought for- 
ward between the aforesaid doctors in this debate, inasmuch 
as the disputants did not agree to ask our opinion, either in 
letters or otherwise. Moreover we are credibly infonncd 
that they are not of one mind and accord on this matter. 
Furtliermore it is not agreeable to us to exclude from the 
decision the learned doctors of the two orders, Dominicans 
and .\ugustiiiiaiis in our university, as your Grace requests. 
Wherefore^ we humbly pray your Grace to excuse us. . . . 

£rMi»ii opera (1703). iü. 534- Louvain.' (Lalc>, iSlft 

. . , They are starting a foolish and pernicious tragedy 
against Luther. They will later know that I favor not Luther. 
but the peace of Christendom. However Luther may have 
written, this tumult does not please any wise man. . . . 

Cvrfuf Reformatomm, xciv. 3?8. (Louvai». end of 1519.) 

William Ncscn ()493-i524>. uf Nastättcn, matriculated it Bwle 
1511. M. .A. 1515. Atioul this tim« he became proofreader (or Frobco 
and met Erawnus, Early in 1517 he went 10 Pari* as ttiior to the 
sons of Nicholas Stalbergcr, remaining with them till 1519 when, at 
EratmtiV tnviiatlon, he came lo Louvain. His Icctiirr? were pro- 
hititied 1i>- the university, so he undertook to teach a Latin mIiooI at 
Frankfon 15203. He then viHitecl Ltithcr at Wiitcnbcrir. the Re- 
Jortacr ilnlicating to him hi» Advtrsus arMalum Vintwt Cottilatum, 
'Ex moK« nonro. 




ebruary. [$23 (Endet», iv. 8j, Weimar, xi. 393). He carried Lulhef'i 
iter of April 15, 1524 (Enders, iv. $19), to Enunnus, and iJionIx 
after his reiam, July 5-6. was drowned while boaitng for plcmsurc 
on the Elbe. Life by Steitz in Archiv f. Frankfurts Gtstk. N. F. vi. 
1877. Alien, ü. 65. 

This letter was written about the end of 1519. alter the University 
of LoQvaia had coadcmned Lulhcr (November 7), and before the 
death of Briard. January 8. 1520. It was expanded 10 the length of a 
pamphlet and published about a year later. C}. Kalltoff, in Corpus 
Rrj.. toe. tit^ 419. no. s. I translate only the principal pa5»Kc about 
Luther, pp. 384-7- 

When Luther's works came out he JEgmond] terribly 
feared for his gains, mindful of how much he had made from 
papal pardons. lie had not yet read one page, and he wa5 
so stupid that he would have read in vain, but over his cups 
he heard from his gossips that there were things in those 
writings which would injure that trade. So he lept into the 
pulpit and confounded everything with his insane cries, call- 
ing Lutherans heretics, seducers and antichrists, and pro- 
claiming that the world would fall unless he propped it up 
with his shoulders. I am nol the man, my dear Zwingli. to un- 
derstand (he deep points in Luther's Ixjoks, nor do 1 mix in 
his cause, especially as he has no need of patrons like mc. Vet 
[ am not so dull as to admire Kgmond's stupidity. Here is 
one example from which you may learn how well that ass 
understands f.uthcr's dogmas. More than a hundred times 
he shouted to the people that Luther taught thai it was not 
necessary to confess mortal sins except those which were 
known.* Luihcr meant, known to us. that is, which we judge 
to be mortal, which is certainly, in my opinion, not in every- 
one's power. But Litis beast thinks that he means known pub- 
licly. What would you do with such silly brothers? He con- 
stantly bawls against Luther, and only brings it to pass that 
people all buy Lather's books thinking that there must b< 
»omc good in them if the}* so displease this cheese-eater.* 
Then they complain that some buy Luther's books, when they 
not only stimulate (he appetite for them by their vociferations, 
but also disturb the peace of the Church with a dangerous 
luarrcl. This monk thinks he is very holy if he does ool 

y*Ct. ntfr*, no. 191. 

I*A canmoa lern uf G«atcapt (ot tlic nonlu m bunicri cf ililicaci«*. 


Let m 

eat meat Wednesdays, but fills himself up to the point « 
vomiting with eggs and fish, and yet he does not think it i 
sin to attack the reputation of a good man with manifest bes 
and wicked calumnies, and to infect the minds and ean 
of his hearers with such sycophancy, Latomus' shouts, Es- 
mond shouts. Ruard^ stammers against Luther as a heretic. 
and an unlearned and stupid one, and no one admonish« 
Luther, no one teaches him, no one refutes him, although he 
himself asks to be taught, and desires to be heard and lo 
hear. 1 do not know what kind of man Luiher is, except 
that the books which he has hitherto published testify that 
he is well versed in the writings of theologians, not so much 
the ancient as the recent; moreover they show that his mind 
is sane and his heart graced with many and various Christian 
gifts. But I know these others to be such men that i£ there 
were no other Christians beside them, so love me God, I 
would not want to be one, so much are they given to am- 
bition and a\'arice. They help none, and wish well to none 
except themselves ; they hurt many and wish to be feared un- 
der the pretext of religion. Luther does not offend them ty 
treating the Pope's majesty too severely, of which they them- 
selves do not think very highly, nur because he attacks in- 
dulgences, which they themselves do not approve when they 
are frank with each other. But they call Luther a heretic 
because he despises Aquinas, whom the Dominicans take as 
a fifth evangelist, because he rebukes the professors whose 
authority Ihey want held sacred, because he docs not keep 
before his eyes the scholastic dogmas, to which, putting it 
mildly, the world owes so many monks* quarrels, so many 
ceremonies, and, if not the extinction, at least the corruption 

'Cf Di Jonib, p. 17J. Jam™ Uaitan (Laromtit) ©f C«nbroB, t. tin.. UTi- 
»ludicd *t theColltB«»(^'"»^i:u at Pkrii, nioTed to LoUTntn is«a, «tier* b< bcx*a 
lo Itich abaul IS'O. and »criirJ tha D. D. in isij. He died U*k1i 19, 1344- 
Hc v>u ibc able»! of die oppanciiti of Luthtr and Kraimu* in lli« Nt Iherland«. 
I-otbcr'a annvi to ti<> il«trnc( ot ilic Condemnation by Calofii« and Loural«. 
■ Sii. icfirintcd, Weimar. tÜL 36!!. In tjij LaloiDU* vtol« on the p4irtr «f ik* 

po^ agaltiit l^ibtr, an-d tutr attaeicrd W. Tyndal« and MElanchtliofi. XmI. 

*Ct. Dr loflsb. p. iSn. Suard Tapper of Holland. B. A. at tannin tsa;, 
tiu'Iml nndtT Adrian of tJtr*chT. D. D. 1)19. He lodt an aciirt part agiinat 
■be Befonnera. parrienlarlT in ihvlr ra-ndnntiation b]r hit nniTeraitr im (Smitk, 
p 41M}. and look pari in ihe Council of Treni. lie waa alao laoabtlor lor a tine. 
He died Mactll *, ISS9. X *bc ttx of arvcnlT. 





of the Christian religion. To these also the world owes the 
cxUtcnce of unlearned tlieologians, and the neglect of good 
authors, and on these dogmas Professor Latomus promised 
a third book, but when he saw his first two received by all 
the learacd with a loud laugh, he tliought it belter to suppress 
il, rather than to disgrace the scholastic doctors by coming 
on the stage again. . . . 

Now hear how mad they arc. Listen! They expect Luther's 
capture. WTiat is this but to thirst for human Wood? They 
arc unable to teach hira. yet they want to destroy him. Is 
this the role of hangmen or of theologians? How great will be 
the indignation of posterity if they read that Luther was a 
pood man, of a life miraculously pure, brilliant, learned, can- 
did, a good Christian, and a German patriot, and yet that 
when he first, in this age of perverse theologians and de- 
testable monkish tyranny, dared to warn them and to vindi- 
cate Christ, whose worship had been stained and almost wiped 
out by human doctrines, he was crushed not by arguments or 
texts of Holy Scripture, with which he always invincibly de- 
fended his own innocence, but by a fraudulent and tyrannical 
conspiracy of scoundrels? . . . 


SUruMgsberiehte drr fhil.-hiit. Clatsi der Akamedie der Wisstn- 
ickajten. Wien., Ixxxv. (1S87). 175- Ingolstadt, Jaciuary 3, 1520, 

Hammeiberg of Ralisbon (I4S7-I527). studied at Paris 1504-11, 
aixl M Rome 1514-1?. his »pecially being Greek. Shorllr after his 
return 10 Ritisbon he became a teacher, »ni! X'i sttch enjoyed much 
reputation with the humanists. Some of his leite« published in J. 
Paquicr's edition of Alcandcr's correspondence. Allen, Qp. tit., i. 515. 
Attgemnnt dntschi Dtoffraphie 

... I am holding Mclanchthon back lest he should be 
blamed for being such a faithful Achates to bis Luther. But 
youths have no prudence. Perhaps he is sorry for so learned 
and so upright a theologian and takes it ill that Luther has 
suffered so much reproach for the love of the orthodox 
Church.* . . . 

■Rciuklin. MrlvKbibon'i unck. mu irrinH ii ihii rime lo ftt hin to Ini«!- 
na<li 10 witbdraw him from Lutbn'i influence. Eck alio look ptn in Ihia plan. 



Pirckhtimrri optra, cd. Goldaat (l&lO), p. 333. 

ErsTCTT, Jaauary 8, 15» 

Venatorius (Gcchauf) b^ 14S8. al Nuremberg, Dominican in Ba- 
raria, called to Nuremberg through Firckhdmer't influent« i$n 
15^ the first Lutheran pastor at the New Hospice clturcli, 1544 ior i 
while at Rothenburg, died at Nuremtirrg 1551. Kaders, vii. 301. 

I'lrckhcimcr (i4;«-i5Jö), bom at EUhitädt, studied in Ilaly latjo-l- 
After his rcium to Nuremberg became a councillor, and. having in- 
herited wealth, a patron of the arts (Uürer) and learning, an<l himtdt 
translated a Rood deal from the Greek. Ailacfueine deuitcht Bicff- 
nfltir. He was »t first an etil:hu!iia).lic Lutheran, was aeaised of 
writing a tatirc on Eck {Oi-r al'fjthifbelle Bck), and was cxcom- 
tnunicaied by the bull Ersurge Dominr. afterwards making submistioa 
to tite Pope and receiving abBOlulion. Sec a sketch by F. Roth in 
Schriften der ytreins für Reformatiansgnchiclile, no. 21. 

. . . Do not let what you wrote about that false theologian 
Kck bother you. (or he is impious and seeks occasion to quar- 
rel with all learned men. which is easy for hira to do. For 
Rcuchlin and the best part of the University of Ingolstadt 
disagree with him. Recently, when a bookseller had im- 
ported some tracts of Martin Luther, Eck, together with 
the university, decreed that they should all be burned. Bui 
when he did this I cannot say how tnuch laughter be awak- 
ened against himself, and how he departed alone covered with 
blushes. His only triumphs are those of calumny. . . . 

Endert, ti. 3901 WtmKaeac, January 10, 15301 

Greeting. I send you. Spalatin, a letter' with some news, 
by which you wilt see how unhappy is the hatred of Leipsic. 
and how maligpnantly they abuse the simplicity of Duke 
Gcorse, not fearing; to allcRc that it is a great error and here^ 
to communicate in both kinds.' And yet. although Christ's 
gospd ordained this. I would not comm.ind it to be done ex- 
cept by the authority of a cmincil. By this example alone 
you can easily learn what they say in other matters. Please 

■Ob tbli, Smiili, p. 78. and tn^o, no. mo. 

*L«ith<r'» Srnn^n bad on ihc tiile-p»tc iwa motuHjUKet. vbkb Dnke Gccff 
«iMMkrcJ a »yaAo\ ol c««a>uniaR in both hind*. 




id the rest about the mysterious meaning of the mon- 
strances, and about my birtli, education and family. I hope 
tfacy will soon pretcad that 1 have a wife and children in 

I do not wish to send Eck's slanders published by him in 
reply to my articles.' If you <lesire you siiall see it when you 
are here. You have read The Unltarned Canons^ I think, 
eloquently and loftily attacking ibc sophist. Farewell in 
Christ, and may tlie Lord be propitious in this afTair of the 
prblces.* Amen. 

Brother Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

"Enden, K. 29a. tWiTTEHDOtc), Jantiary 14, 15». 

Greeting. I am very glad and thank God, dear Spalatin, 
that my cause has gone so far that, other charges being dis- 
missed, I am now accused of taking the eucharist in both 
kinds' and with my family. I hope by the si^al mercy of 
Christ shown to my unworthy self that I shall not lose on 
account of any worthy opinion which has real weight, such 
as my doctrine of free will, of grace or of the keys of the 
Church. For now my enemies seem to despair of doing 
anything against them, since they seek out such ridiculous 
accusations. For just as Christ was crucified for the words 
"king of the Jews," so am I on account of taking the sacra- 
ment in both kinds, which I never either commanded nor 
forbade, just like the schoolmen who treat of it. 

On my family no one can speak more certainly than the 
Counts of Mansfeld. T believe these heroes at least have so 
much reputation and authority in the Empire, that they de- 
serve to be credited on this subject. I believe that this (ic- 

■ l^tb«r oion« lk4 ruaon ctrculaieil tt)~ \l» «ncini«i that b* wu of Bvlicmikn 
oricia. uf wbicb, hawtv«r. th«Te ii nolhinft in Duke Ceorcc'a letter. SpiUlin 
•IK-iJi* of Ilia firti in hi« Annclri, ep. Ucnclc. Li. ;.;q. Annthpr rumor ii found 
about 1)3« '» ■ "TJiini of Ifntt Sylviui <Cri»r. ii. 6?5>. asd in Cotlilaem' 
CemmttUtri«, qnoled here \>j Endera. Accoidlnit to this, Lutfacr wu brnottcn 
by an iacvbiu. 

■ Kelt's often-mniiiDned Ffo Hirr. Emttr. 
*A aalirc agiiiut Eck hj Occalampadiiu. 

•A mcctiuf of the Gemui pxincu at Zerb*t C>«« •nperMripilad of ihl* iMiet) 
I» tcop tht war bciwcrn Bruotvkk ^aä. Läiicburg. 




tion was cooked up by the Leipsic theologian Ochsenfart,' j 
man who represenled that Eck was crushed, for the sake oi 
spying on us, a mao who cannot stand peace cither for hii»- 
self or anyone else, always ready to hurt, wretched and yO 

1 was born at Eisleben, and baptized in the church of St 
Peter there. I do not remember this, but I believe my par- 
ents and corapatriüts. My parents had migrated thither frora 
Eisenach hard by. Hisenach has almost all my relatives, anij 
there I am to-day recognized and known to most of tbei», 
since 1 studied there four years.' nor does any city know me 
better. I hope they would not be so foolish, that one shouM 
call the son of Luther nephew, another uncle, another cousio 
(of whom I have many there), if Ihey knew thai ray father 
and mother were Bohemians and other than natives of their 
town. The rest of my life I spent at the university and 
monastery of Erfurt until I came to Wittenberg, except one 
year, my fourteenth, wlien I was at Magdeburg. 

You have the story of my life and family. I should pre- 
fer, as Christ did before Herod and .\nnas. to keep silence 
on this matter, so these furious men could imagine anything 
worthy of themselves about it until they blushed. For it is 
a generation moved neither by song nor by mourning, in wham 
we vainly seek a profitable man. 

This same hour I have received your letter about Charles 
von Miltitz, who, you say, swore that he had not seen me. 
Why then did he confess to .\ndrew the barber, who ac- 
companied him to Pretzsch' (as the latter openly boasts here) 
that he both saw me and did I know not what terrible things 
against mc? But let them lie, invent and be as wise as they 
please. Everything is against me, and would that something 
would happen quickly to free mc from the duty of lecturing 
and teaching. For I desire nothing so much, as far as in me 
lies. But if I must continue teaching, I do not understand 

'Oeb*en/an bad juii written to Lntlirt u*in. Enden, t. 451, pUctd In Uartb, 
■ $■«■ but thould br in Jtniury, ijio. Sifr», no. tot, In ibi* leirtr. hawcrtf, 
ibcrc U n»illns ftb«ul LuÜKf'i fkioily. 

*t497-is«i- Smilb. irf. lil., p. «(T. TbrM) (uU itxtiit Loiter** t^j life MC 
w«11 known and »m^tf allcdrH, bul Ikii a«Mint it !Bler«atiaB. b«ii(, ■• far ■• t 
know, tha «arlUal »lanl. 

*A Ullle rfllkgc ba lb« KIKe ttrkt Wlitcnben. 

Ut. ai8 



your council, SpalaiJn. and thai of your friends, that I might 
teach sacred theology witlioul offending the prelate?. Script- 
ure is especially hard on the abuse of sacred things, and 
that is what the prelates cannot bear. 

I gave and offered myself in the name ol the Lord, whose 
will b« done. Who asked him to make me a doctor? If he 
has made m< one. let him keep me for himself, or else, if he 
repents, let him destroy mc. But my trouble does not so 
wear me out as fill the sails of my heart with an incredible 
wind, so that I now feel in myself why devils are in Scripture 
likened to winds.' which empty themselves by their fury, but 
(ill wlut they Mow upon with the intent of hurling it. My 
only care is that the Lord may be propitious to mc in the 
private affairs between him and me. Pray deign to help 
mc, as you can, in this. 

Let us in faithful prayer commit this hiunati cause Co 
God. and let us be at peace. What can they do? Kill? Can 
they raise up to kill again ? Will they brand me as a heretic ? 
Christ was condemned with the wicked, seducers and cursed 
men; whenever I consider his passion, I bum to think that 
this trial of mine should not only seem to be something, but 
should even be considered great by many strong men. when 
in truth it is nothing, unless we would altogether do away 
with suffering and evil, that is, with the Christian life. 

Let them do as they please; the more powerful they are 
the more securely I laugh at them, I have determined in 
this to fear nothing, but to despise all things. Did I not fear 
lo involve the elector, 1 would publish an apology full of 
confidence in order to provoke those furies more, and to mock 
their silly rage against me. . . . 

Martin Lutheb, Augustinian. 


Corput Rfjormatornm, i, 131, Mavsmcb. January 30, rSKX 

Perhaps you have already noticed how Francis von Sickin- 
gen' by his own power, but at my instigation, has freed 

*Hckrm. i J. [.atlicr t<g«rded the derll» U erll •nfd)- 

'SKktsjm {ifBi-lfaf 7, iS'j), *^' ^* £1>crnburg n<ir KrctamAcli, k kntgkl 


Reuchlin for us from those liarbarous scoundrels; to Sictdc- 
gen they gave him and will be obliged even to pay the cosi^ 
Now the same hero bids nic write to Luther, that if he suffen 
any mischance in the present affair and has do better ahcr- 
native. he should come to him and lliat he will do what k 
can. Doubtless he can do as much as he did for Reuchlin. 
I have not done aä he asked for many reasons, but I write 
to you in his name, to tell Luther what a protector he has. 
who with such kindness offers his assistance, and that h« 
should write to Sickingen. Believe me, there is no better 
chance of safety anywhere. Would that you had seen whit 
he wrote to the monks. I left him four days ago at McustalL 
where he now is. I will also take care of Erasmus' business, 
for he writes me tragic letiers about hU rivals. First, wt 
must conciliate Ferdinand,' of whom Sickingen deserves well 
After that it will be easy to frustrate tfie wicked. Sickingen 
loves Luther partly because he seems good to him and to 
others, and is therefore hateful to those men. and partly be- 
cause one of the counts of Solnis' commended him in a letttr. 
TeM him at once where his hope and safely lies, and farewcO. 

Enders, ii. »98. HFAaa.ttt»ü. January 33, 15» 

Hail, reverend Father, sincerest of theologians and strong- 
est of Christians. When, in your debate here a year and 1 
half ago.' you illuminateil our university with your Chris- 
tian rather than quaint learning, L smitten by great love for 
you, as though wounded by the sharj» arrows of your words, 
or rather of God the Mighty, dared to have a conference 
with you. If it was impudent to seek it, the result was as- 
suredly happy. For received at dinner by you and your pious 
superior. John Stsupitz. I was wonderfully and bountifully 

whr> (u»*«!!«) bin fattier in ijoj lo Isrs* (tomiina. Ke hul a fcoil la ijij «Imi*! 
Wormii. and onr uriih H«uc. On Oclot>«r 3j. T51Q, h# wM miiir Im^rül 
r«unciI)or tnH rhsmherisin. Ht wu lelrreiird by Kutua in ihe eaiiM »I 
Rcactili« and Luih«r. In (511 he «ii ntadr crncrat nt (h( amv iciin» Franet. 
hut (lilfd TA aetntniktiiJi much, chiefly tbrounb Isck <>f fDiidi In mi he knacbc4 
THvr »iih ibe purpoBv of Itadini >n iokurrntion. btti wu dtfraicd 4nil kiU>4 at 
L.tnditiib]. Uf« by II. tJlniinn. id?), and ia Allgr. Otvuikr Biographit. 

>Thr £nip«Tur's brolher (iSoj-64), dvcttd Kini of the RaaMt is]i, 
pcfor. iSiS. 

ipcrhapa Philip, count of Soln*. a couiticr of Altert «f Utrrace. 

*On thl«, rf. nfrt. m. tj. 

l«t SI 9 



refresh«!, not only by the excelleni delicacies of the table, 
but by ihe exquisite and sweet meat of the Scriptures, for 
which, indeed, I came more hungry- tlian for the bodily food. 
Among the other excellent gifts of your mind, thf genuine 
humiiity of our Lord Jesu^ manifested itself with special 
brilliance; your face, words, gesture and whole body testiäed 
to iL This is the reason why 1 now dare to approach you, 
»o great a priest of eternal wisdom, who perpetually sacrifice 
to wisdom from the field of your genius richer and more 
fertile than any Arabia, sweet incense, and to write you a 
letter, not only in poor Latin, but inept and most unseasonable. 
1 am sure that you will condone this sin. 

The occasioo of my writing now for the first time is my 
ioimense desire for your Commentary on the Epistle of Paul 
to the Galattans. For I only liad a chance to sec it, when a 
certain man brought it here from Nuremberg. By various 
wiles I extorted it from him and sent it to Beautiis Khenanus,' 
so that, if no one gets :ihead nf us, it can be reprinted by Laz- 
anis Schürer.' For each of them is now at Schlettstadt, our 
common birthplace. And having no little need of the com- 
mentary, which seemed to mc a treasury full of the dogmas 
of pure theology, I ordered someone else to procure roe your 
works. Then, by chance, a certain messenger was starting 
out hence from our prince to yours. But your Peter,' sec- 
retary of Wolfgang Count Palatine, relieved him of this bur- 
den, and transferred it to Spalatin,* a man who deserves well 
on account of his learning and piety. 

Peter also urged rae to write.' although unknown to him 
and inexperienced in all polite literature. I had previously 
given myself ahogcther to him, nor could T return to 
my former state. Moreover I could not trifle with your 
dogmas, or rather with the pure doctrine of Christ. 1 ap- 

Brifhvrthtrl iu BtUtu 

>Tkc trortla tn rialin arc Ctcck. 

iWltfa ■ Iclict dMed Sviick Juuurj is. )SJa. 
lUmkanta, p. svj. 

•nil \ovt wai ptobtfaly not rulftlkd, WdnMr. II. 430- Sctaarat «u a pfinin 
of SikleiKudi. 

«Ptrbap« P«t*r Bcrnann. a client of Wolfiiartf, mHrknlatcd >t Widenbtn ijij. 

>Fniat wbun Buc«r rcteived ■ copj hf Msrdi 19. Ci, BrirfwfciutI dtt Btatui 
RAfna^mt, p. tti. 

«Bocer'i iMttr 1* S^alatin. I*DU(ry ij. prirtrA in Rold«: Anattcta tulhrran», 
A17, M"i Slli«l<n- Brirft ami Jfr ReftrmiUtetueil, p. 6. 



Let. tig 

prove all your teachings without exception, but I am m- 
pccially pleased at what you say about charity, rightly exe- 
crating that always present curse of a Christian, the sayings: 
Charity begins at home, and, Be your own neighbor. . . . 
jBucer tells of a debate on this point held under his presi- 
dency at Heidelberg.] . . . 

You have here not a few disciples, though on account of 
the Pharisees they have not yet dared to come out ofienl;. 
1 pray your charity, most learned Father, to foi^ivc what I 
have said amiss in expounding this charily, and please deign 
to write me to lead me back into the right path. For ntxl 
to the canonical Scriptures, I bold notliing more sacred than 
your opinion or that uf Erasmus. You know what others 
think of you, but your opponents need a physician no cleverer 
than themselves. I hope, or rather I know, that Christ, whose 
cause you are so strongly advancing, will never desert you. 

Tell all who love learning, and 6rst of all your Philip Met- 
anchthon, that Francis von Sickingen, a most noble knight. 
by declaring war on our order, at length compelled our pro- 
vincial vicar to make a treaty with that Phrenix, our Rcuch- 
lin. For, as he promised, the vicar sent to Rcuchlin at In- 
golstadt two professors,' who arc most hostile to Ilochstrat- 
ten as far as this quarrel is concerned, to make peace with 
him. If they do not succeed, the thirteenth of March is set 
to have the matter decided by arbitration at Wonns. Hoch- 
stratten's pen^erse zeal grieves almost everyone, but none of 
us dared to olTend the majesty of the inquisitor. Thanks be 
to God. who has at length forced better councils to prevail 
by arms. This Is the fifteenth day since the legates departed, 
uid wc hope they will soon return, and return with peace 
made. For wc offer to write even to the Pope, to ask that if 
he will do nothing else the provincial may at least end the 
quarrel by imposing perpetual silence and keep Hochstratten 
from reviling. I know that this will please Philip, and not 
him alone, but all gocxl students. 

tA falltr accoani of ibU busin»*, whicb tksppcncd in DM*nb«(. U iIt«« U 
Bucci'a Itllrr ta Rkcnuiiu of Jaiiu«; ij. Tht prirfiHOn wer« Ar ktad «I lb« 
thcotogical Khocil ai HiiilttlKrf and llic piior »f EMtlntcR. T\ej left Ml 
jBDuarr 8. arrivinjc ai Inroliiadt juM ten daj* Ut«r. M Rcaehlto wrou Plrth- 
B4iiB«r, Oftr* Fatthtimtri, p. ail. 



Farewell in Jesus our Lord, and may you always be superior 

your cnetnics. . . . 

Martin Bucer of Schlettstadt, 
Your Reverence's son I'li Christ. . . , 

anders, ii. 304. (WtTTEffDERc). January 26, ijao. 

Greeting. We have no news, reverend Faiher. For you 
liavc seen The Unlearned Canons. We shall print the Nurem- 
berg German Apology'^ if we have time. I send an cxplana- 
tioQ of my sermon on the eucharist against the men of Leip- 
sic, who have scattered the rumor that I am a born Bohemian 
with such confidence that they have persuaded even the courts 
of princes. They have captured Duke George and made him 
most hostile to me, for he warned* the Dresden brother* of 
my expulsion, as they call it- . . . 

Some people have in ihcir possession a nohlc epistle' of 
Erasmus to the Cardinal of Mayencc. Perhaps it will be 
printed sometime. Erasmus, who is very anxious about me. 
nobly defends me. and yet in such a manner that he seems to 
do nothing less than to defend me, so great is his habitual 

The Spanish ambassador* is witli our elector. Philip and 
I were invited to dinner with him and handsomt-ly enter- 
tained. You will soon see Melanchtlion's oration delivered 
yesterday printed. Farewell and pray for me. Greet from 
me the reverend Father Barlholumew Usingen, and Nathin 
and all. 


■IJuama Spmtler'* Sekuitrti*. tf. in/rd. no. 111 

Tkia lerirr ii quoicd by Enilcr». Tbc Dreadcn dawMr appftmitlT kepi 
fa*4M*yc lo Lmbei no(iri[h*ian4{njt. 

*TUi tciiir. «Hfra, 110. 191, It bid bee» coiruiicd fgi ddiriir to tTlricb *»ii 
Huncn, «bo *>■ doultiUn [c>(>on>iL1c tar opening it aiij thowiriK it atotmd, ind 
■Iwr (or kaviDs ■■ piitilti. a* wa* den« 41 an«. Biblifthrca Enumiana, I. 9]. 
EiMtntu nAtaiatly took Ihia very ill. blaming ilulte« far hu "cnoie Ihui punic 
perfiitjr" iErarmi tfiiieU*. I.andltil. 1^41, iKI. 41), ind MMriilly ih« liberiy 
tkk'n. u he avow*, with Ibe teil in chaniini *'Luttipr" to "our Luther." IHJ. 
xvii. I«. I( wu rerilnled al Wiilenbers in t;:o (according 10 Carpm Reffrma- 
tfirvm. t til"), u well •* al ■ nm-nbei nt other place*. Biblitlheca Etaimtana. 
til. Ci. tUo Smidi, cp. nt., v- 'ot. 

■Jerome BtoDJier, Sccicurr and Couaclllor of tbc Emperor elect. Cbulea V. 



Let. ui 


E. Heidrich: Albrttht Düren sthriftlUkr Nachhss. (Berlin. igc£), 
p. tSo. German. (NuneuBtHC, about Februar;, t}jo.) 

Dürer, the cekbiatcd arlisi of Nuremberg (I47i-isjfi) had tail 
Luther loirie of his engraving» early in 1518, from which Umc tÜl bl 
death he was an enthuMaslic Lutheran. Hii artistic works rcprodnod 
in KloAiikfr der Kumt, iv., Miinchen, 1908. Hi« hterary works ednri 
by Heidrich, op. cU. Life by Thausing with Englbti iransUuca 
by Eaion. Cf. also Heidrich: Albrechi Dürer und die Reformatitm. 

Honored and dear Sir: — I have already tlianked you in 
my note for what you sent mc, tut had then only read the 
little slip with the address. Your letter, being inside the 
book, was overlooked, and [ have ju?;t found it and icata 
tliat my gracious Lord Frederic is sending mc some of Luth- 
er's pamphlets. Wherefore 1 beg your Honor to express my 
highest llianks to his Grace, and humbly to commend to him 
the excellent Dr. Martin Luther, on account of Christian 
truth which concerns us more tlian riche» and power of tbii 
world, for temporal things pass away, hut truth lives forever. 
Jf God help mc I will go to Dr. Martin Luther and nute 
his likeness in copper' for a lasting memorial of the Chris- 
tian man who has helped me out of great anguish. I beg 
your Honor if Dr. Luther writes anything more in Gi 
please to send it lo me at my expense. 

You wrote about Luther's Defence.'' but there are no more 
copies to be had ; a second edition h being printed at Augs* 
burg, and when it is ready I will setid you one. This pam- 
phlet written here is called heretical in (he pulpits, and it is 
said they will bum it, and they vilify it for being published 
anonymously. They say Dr. Eck will bum it publicly at 
Ingolstadt, as happened to Dr. Reiichlin's books. 

I am sending my most gracious lord three copies of my 
engraving of the Cardinal of Mayence. I sent the plate with 
two hundred copies to the cardinal for which his grace 

'tJn(Drtu[iMcl]r Dünr nctcr uirrlcd out ibia plan. 

*LM>riM SptnsI«r*B S<>>uUrtdr utti CtirmiitKe Atinr^n. ncnlioncd br L^ikrr 
<o a letter (0 Spalmin, tufra, no. tiv. Tki* pioMilr e-iuinl SpiUtin to «rriic 16 
IKrcr aboat it, frora whicli we get At apprmimU« dai( of lllii teller. 




^Kindly gave me two hundred gulden in gold and twenty ells 

^pf damaslc for a coat. This I receive wiih pleasure, espectalty 

F »s I am needy at this time. For his Imperial Majesty of ex- 
cellent memor)', who departed Uiis life prematurely, Ivad given 

I me a pension of one hundred gulden^ which my masters will 
not pay me now. So 1 must want in ray old days and lose 

I the reward of my work done for his Imperial Majesty. For 
my eyesight and freedom of hand is going, and 1 cannot work 
much longer. This I cannot conceal from you, my trusted 

^_and kind friend. 

^f If my gracious lord wishes to have something handsome 
made out of the stag's antlers I can make a pair of candle- 
l^sticks out of them. . . . Recommend mc to my gracious lord, 
le elector. Your devoted, 

Albert Dürer. 


a, ii, J07. WiTTENO£sc, February 4, 1520. 

commend myself in the Lord with all subjection and rev- 
erence. Most reverend Father in Christ and most illustrious 
Prince, I, a man of the lowest condiiior, would never dare 
to address your Grandeur, even in a letter, to which more is 
allowed than modesty permits saying orally, were I not com- 
pelled to do so for a great cause, namely, the profession of 
Christian faith and truth, and our common care for tlic sal- 
vation of all in Qirist. If I brought danger on these I would 
be most impious to keep still. Moreover I have been credibly 
informed that men who perchance praise and defend me 
elsewhere, in your presence, most reverend Father in Christ, 
excite hatred and envy against me. . . . 

If the things with which I am accused are right and true, 

will the grace of my Lord allow me to utter a complaint? 

Why do the>' not teach mc better? Why do they not show 

iC my error? Why do they condemn mc tn the presence of 


■A prnrieui l«i(rr iptaVi of Iwo hnndrfd Eu]i]*n PrahiUf lb* liLindr«<l (ul<l*n tad 
t«« fisnl«! fcefate, toi ib^ wu rkitti (o two bitndrcd >1 Ibc Dlirt of Auf*- 
Vuif, 'SiS. boi th« intrfu« vm not rccHvtd b? tHrtr ovine t° Uuilinllikn'a 
^a»% In Jinnuy, tH9 



the great before they convict me, especially as 1 so oi'tca 
promise to listca to instruction, and aä I am prepared to 
yield on my opinion, or rather I greatly desire to be relieved 
of the burden of teaching and to hide in a comer? 

I am compelled to teach what I have learned and read ii 
Holy Scripture, and 1 am blamed for teaching wliat ihejr 
either will not or cannot blame. Would that my most gra- 
cious Lord had leisure to read or hear read my works; yoor 
Reverence would doubtless then learn how foreign to me 
arc the charges brought against me. 1 have not yet heard 
that my writings have been condemned by any except by 
those who had not read or heard them, except by a few who 
are moved by envy to pervert whatever they read, and pre- 
tend that I said what I never thought of. Such are thoM 
accusations about taking the eucharist in both kinds and 
about the power of the Pope, in which, if they confess the 
truth, they realty think as I do, though thcj' pretend other- 
wise, as anyone can easily see who reads my writings. 

Wherefore I Immbly pray your Reverence by your cele- 
brated loving kindness towards sound learning and men of 
letters, that your Lordship will deign to hear me more kindly 
than those spies demand, not so much for my sake as for 
that of your own salvation and the salvation of many others, 
and for tlie sake of Christian truth, which must needs be 
wounded if I am unjustly either condemned after hearing, or 
before I am inslrucicd and heard. 

Jesus Christ, the judge of all. is witness to my soul that 
1 am conscious of having taught nothing save Christ and 
the commandments of God, and, again, that I am not so ob- 
stinate, but that ] desire to be instructed, and when I see 
my error, to change my opinion. Would that I might owe 
that favor to your Re%'erence. For hitherto I have been at- 
tacked by many lies, and yet after the truth was revealed 
shoum to be innocent. Therefore I am obliged to suspect 
that those who attack me in other ways do not act sincerely, 
especially as they will not teach one ready to be taught, but 
only criminate him. . . . 

Your Reverence's most devoted son. 

Ma&tim Luthel 



Marino Sanulo: Diorü (Extracts on Luither, edited by G. M. Thotna» 

ua<ler the title: At. Lttlher ttn4 ait KfformaUontbfwrgung. . . . 

m .iu4sugfn aui Marino Saaulo'j Diarien. Anibacli, 1883). xxviiL 

136, JiaJian. R, Blown: CaUndar of Slate Papers . . . [n Vtnitt. 

LcodoD. 1869. iiL it. English, Roue^ February 4. 133a 

llinio was Venetian amba&sador at Rome IJIO-IQ. 

In Gcnaaay, an Austin friar, called Friar Matthew [ I] 

Luther, had written works against the Pope and the Church, 

and had preached publicly at Xurcmbcrg to that effect, which 

hcts having com« to the knowledge of the Pope, he had 

appointed a commission of learned Obscr\'ant friars, and 

had appointed two cardinals as their chiefs, namely, the 

ßishop of Ancona and Cajetan, who were very learned, that 

they nught suppress tliis opposition in the Church. 

Sanato, xxriil. 141. Italian. Brown, iiL 12. English. 

Home, February 4, isaa 

Three days ago a commission of all the Generals of the 
Mendicant orders was held, and such as were not present at 
Rome were rcprewnted by the Procurators of such orders, 
the chiefs of this commission being the Cardinals of Ancona 
.ind Cajetan. 

This Commission was appointed in order to condemn cer- 
tain propositions of Friar Martin Luther, who had preached 
in Germany against the authority and power of the Pope, 
and has a considerable party and is much favored by the 
Dector of Saxony. An attempt is thus being made to de- 
prive l.uther of the protection he enjoys, and of his adherents, 
and the bull is being drawn up ; but the course taken by the 
Commission was injudicious for the said friar's propositions 
were read and the voles on them demanded without any 

This friar Martin founds his arguments chieRy on the 
gospels: he acknowledges the doctors of the Oiurch. such 
as St Augustine, but not the other doctors, and he scoffs at 
St. Thomas Aquinas. Scolus and the like. It is a very 
scandalous affair. 




Eodcrs. ii. 315. (Wittenbüig), Fcbmary 5, 15» 

Greeting. At Icngtii I send my letters' to the bishops; jm 
find out whether il is best to send them, especially after, in 
[he manner of the Leipsic party, the Bishop of Meissoi has 
posted up an inhibition- against my semion on the sacrament, 
wich whom they hope many others will agre«. But 1 will 
publish a contradictory notice, and with God's help will diovr 
lip these silly carnival masks. 

Insane Eck foully attacks Carlstadt and me in a new 
pamphlet.* Carlsiadt is preparing to answer him. and in 
such heat that he has given his reply the title: Against the 
blockish ass and pretended doctor, etc. If possible, persuade 
him cither to abstain from cursing back, or not to answer at 
all ; for in his book that wretched sophist has made himself 
sufficiently contemptible and disgusting, so thai no one could 
make him more so by upbraiding him, and would only make 
a cover for his baseness, by which it would seem less base. 
For I have begun to despise the man as I never before (fc- 
spi&ed anyone. Carlstadt will not suffer my advice in this 
mailer, nor would it be safe for you to let him think I bid 
spoken to you about it. for the man is very suspicious. . . . 

I remember that I wished that Melanchthon had a wife 
suited to his character, nor am I sorry for this wish. For 1 
fear the fate which pursues great geniuses will overtake him, 
especially as he is very careless about domestic matters and 
his health. But I do not see that he is yet inclined to 
matrimony. . . . 

Sanmo, xxviii. 143. Icrgo. Italian. Brown, iii. 16. EneKsb. 

Roue, February tt, ijak 

The Commission of Franciscan Observants appointed by 

the Pope against that Friar Martin Luther in Germany, had 

' T^rtttr (o Aflxft oi Utyrnce, jvpra^ no. saj^ mt^d ^nc o' the tVBit At,tr HflJ 
»intiUi pun>«ri 10 Adolph, Biibop nf Merseburg. Eoden, H. 311. Tl« lenen 
nwrv ««Rl on hf Sr^lilAtm- 

1)alc(l Sto1p«r, Itniitry 14- Prirt«d, Kilkn(*n Edition, 0^*rt t-*nV arftcmtmä. 
It. 1}9, 

*C*iilr» Uariimi UtiMrri ebtututti prottifffiMtrtm AmirMm. Me. DMtiralloa 
dMcd InmlMlriT, Occrtnber ). 1119. 




itcndcd to draw up a bull against him. but tlic^' subsequently 
ide the Pope dctcnninc to discuss the matter more fully 
making another Commission of other eminent men. 

im, & 322. (Wittemberg), Fclruary 12, 1530, 

Greeting. Here is the letter' of Bucer. 3 young brother 
rho almost alone in his order gives some promise. At Hcidct- 

rg he received me eagerly and simply, and conversed with 
he showing himself worthy of love and trust, and also of 

Your admonitions came late. All that in one lost day, 
under the auspices of Mtlanchthon, I conceived, I am now 
bearing, with the presses as midwives.- Suppose there is to 
be a new and great conflagration, who can resist the plan of 
God? They are raging so without cause from God or fault 
from me; and unless God humbles mc I will despise tlietn, for 
you yourself see how easily I can bear their learning and 
noalice. Who knows whether they are predestined to be the 
cause of revealing- the truth, and whether they are not pre- 
paring for themselves the punishment of the hatred they have 
so long nourished against us, namely, the shame which the 
enemies of the truth ought to win. I have honored tlie 
bishop, but if they go on I won't let a bubhie like him stop 
my fighting for Christ's truth. 

When his Inhibition wa.s posted up at Oschatz, some 
brothers of Waldhcim who came hither yesterday, told me 
that someone had written on it: "Behold the bishops of this 
age post up their ignorance even on Church doors! Alas, 
Bishop, reread the gospel T" And more. Pray let the matter 
go its own way; God only is guiding it. We are carried along, 
as I think, and are passive rather than active. FarcwcU and 
pray for me. 

Mahtjn Luther, ^ugusiinian. 

'Smfra, m. ai«. 

■The R«plr ID thr Biibop of MtiMcn'» Flicatd. infra, no 31$. It vu lilcm 
>t Mice CO the Uiiliap It Slalpen l>r Ibe Kcccitrjr ol Marcncc. Idlebul RrrKb. 
ind read br klm <o Ihr bitior »nd the "OfTicitl" (Cbritiopbcr HccucbiciV Thcr 

re lUipleaMd, bul tbc more Ibc Official curitd the marc Rcrictt lausbcd. 




£nd«ri, li. 337. Witteksesc (between Febmary 13 and rS), IJA 

Eadcrs dates this "soon after February tS," but tolenial cvi<lcDn 
*e«ins to me 10 make it more probable that the letter was wriitts 
after tliat of i-'cbniar; 12, but before th«t of February 18. In thii 
dating I follow Hoppe in the St. Loai* Walcb edttioii. vol. xxL. n. 

Creeling, Good Heavens ! Spalatin, how excited you aiel 
More than I or anyone else. I wrote you before not to tt> 
sume that litis atfair was begun or is carried on by your 
judgment or mine or that of any man. It it is of God, it 
will be completed contirary to, outside of, above and below, 
your or my understanding. 

But let mc tell you again that 1 would not have the least 
part of this cause dcciilcd by your fate or by mine, and that 
my only fear has always been that I should be left to myself 
and tlius write what would please human wisdom. You must 
beware of being too wise and I of being too foolish. Too 
much folly, I confess, displeases men, but too much wisdom 
Btill more displeases God, who has chosen the foolish things 
of the world to confound the wise.' 

You do not sec that itiy long suffering in not answering 
five or six wagonloads of Eraser's and Eck's curses was the 
sole cause why those bloated makers of placards* dared to 
revile me with their ridiculous folly. 

Secondly, I know that I do not care that at Leipsic my 
sermon* was forbidden and suppressed in a public edict, for 
I despise their suspicion, reproaches, injuries and malice. 
Forsooth must we allow these bold men to add to their other 
furious acts the publication of libels, stuffed not only will» 
lies, but with blasphemy against the gospel trutli? Do yo 
forbid us even to bark against these wolves? 

The Lord is my witness, how much I have restrained my^ 
self for the sake of the bishop's name, not to treat th£j 

'1 CorifiAiant, i. >7 Luther i» aniwcrlne Spkliltn'» obJMtioiu lo Ac K 
|r««l Tiolcne« of kla aiuwet to Ibc Butu(> uf Mctucn. Cf. iMft», n». »tj. 

*"ScbcdulKii.'* rtftrritijc to the "Scbtilnli" ■>( tbt Blabop of Udueo. 

»Sfrm^u M tkr Sar*omtnt tf It/ Bi^y doi BI«m(. Wrinu, il. j^t. 




I des 

scd and impotent edict irreverently. I shall say elsewhere 
,t their brains ought to hear, when they acknowledge that 

y have published the edict and begin to defend themselves. 

consider them impeaceable and in a future tract shall not 

tain from treating them as vioIator.<i of law, gospel and 

ion sense, fo that thvy may know how much I have 

iherto spared their ignorance and mahce. 

1 see that you have not read the edict willi siifTiciciit care. 
If they were not more ignorant than any asses, ihcy would 
know that nothing was ever written against me, or rather 
against God's word, more venomous, pestilent, malignant and 
mendacious. On this account should we exult, or change 
our manner of writing, or suffer more? You know how I 
despise that inconvenience. 

If you think properly of the gospel, please do not imagine 
I its cause can be advanced witliuul tumult, offence and 
sedition. You will not make a pen from a sword, nor peace 
of war. The Word of God is a sword, it is war and ruin 
and oiTcncc and perdition and poison, and, as Amos says.' it 
met the sons of Ephraim as a bear in the way and as a lioness 
in the wood. I wrote much more vehemently against Emser, 
Eck and Tetzel, and you never complained. What if even 
the official' or the bishop himself docs not acknowledge pub- 
lishing the edict? 

They write in greater danger than 1 do, for ihcy have so 
forgotten all gospel, laws, reason and common sense, tliat 
they care for nothing but to condemn mc unheard, unwarned 
and untaught. They do to mc what I have never done to 
them, at least never to the bishop and the official. 

Let them go on as they please. 1 f they have forgotten the 
dignity of the episcopal office, or even that of his subordinate, 
doubt not that [ will soon remind them of it by citing texts 
of the Bible. God so carries me on that I cannot fear their 
rash and untaught hatred. Let God see to it, for he ads 
through mc, since I am certain that none of these things tia%e 
been sought by nie. but that they were drawn from me. one 
and all, by a fury not my own. 

ntatb^ HoM«, liii. jf. Cf. Anos, iii. B, 
*S«^ra. BO. ttj. Dole ■■ 


Ut M»l 

Be of good cheer, and do not brood over the appareol 
facts. Faith is the proof of things not seen;' why, t!i«i, do 
you judge according to what is seen? What is done, Spaialin, 
and what is seen in this affair are different. I sc«k nothing; j 
there is one that seekcth.* L«t it Stand or fall, I neither gain 
nor lose anything. You have my opinion. 

Our friends are not as much displeased as arc you and ts 
you wrote. The provost' thinks that I have treated these brawl- 
ers rightly. If everything which comes forth under the nam* 
of hishops is to be received, what tyranny will reign I I am 
sure that the Bisliop of Meissen is not the author of fliii 
edict, and I firmly hope that he will not recognize it. Evt» 
if he docs this I assume that my warning will make him act 
more prudently and wisely in future. 

Yet I cannot deny that I have beerj more vehement than 1 
should; but as they knew that I would be, they should not 
have irritated the dog. You know yourself how hard it is to 
moderate an angry pen. This is the reason why I am scwrf 
to be in the public eye; and the more I am involved in sodi 
business, contrary to my monastic vow, the more sorry I im. 
But tlicy act against me and God's Word so criminally and 
fiercely, that were I not moved to write warmly, even a mind 
of stone might be moved (o war by indignation. Far from 
having such a mind, however, I am naturally warm, and hare 
a pen which is not at all blunt. So I am carried beyond the 
bounds of moderation by these monsters. 

Moreover I wonder whence this new scrupulousness U 
born, which calls all thai is said against an opponent scurillily. 
What do you think of Clirisl? Was he scurrilous when he 
called the Jews a perverse and adulterous generation, off- 
spring of vipers, hypocrites and children of the devil? Paul 
speaks of dogs, vain habhlers. seducers, unlearned, and in 
Acts xiii. so rages against a false prophet lliat he might sccni 
insane, saying: "O full of all guile and all villainy, thou son 

tHrlH-evt. 11. I. 

*Jahn. viii 54. 

>Dr, Hrnninf CMe. prnfiMAr «I Frfurt till ija^. whrn ht wm\ 10 WiRM< 
b*ri !• pfoitaior of esnan la« «nil croi-ml of Ibe Cltf CIiutcIi. )■ rji< if 
iMornnl lo Erfnrt for two rrtn. vhtn he ttmt back t« Wiltpnbrrf, It» 4M 
JiDiury, isii. lie ww ■jBinti cbe Ktformaiioii. 


of the devil, thou enemy of alt truth."' Why did not Paul 
rather Hatter him to convert him than thus thunder? The 
consciousness of truth cannot be patient against Che obstinate 
and unconquerc<J enctnies of the truth. 

But aiough of this trifiing now. I see that all demand 
moderation froni me. even niy enetnies who least practice it. 
If I am immoderate, at least I am simple and open, in which 
I think I am iKttcr than they who invent »tories full of guile. 
^Farewell and fear not Brother Martin Lutiieb. 

,P. S. — You write among other things that your advice was 
led. and don't rrmcmbcr that I wrote you that your 
advice came late when the books were almost printed. 


Endcfs. ii 324. (WirreNsEsü), February 18, 15201 

Greeting. Dear George, by God's grace 1 have courage 
enough against the conflagration of Meissen,' and yoii will 
see me obeying your advice to answer as gently as possible. 
Indeed, I will let you and your friends see a copy of my 
Latin answer before it is printed, which I stiould also have 
done with the German answer, had it not hcen printed before 

»your letter came. But neither in this latter have I touched the 
ulcer of this edict on account of my reverence for the bishop, 
although tniiy the edict is btasphemou« and more furious 
against Christ's gospel than any heresy. I shall point this 
out in future, and unless they beware I shall treat them as 
lliey deserve in exposing their ignorance. I will not suffer 

■ a condemned error to be assumed in God's gospel even by 
all the angels of heaven, much less by the idols of one 
terrestrial church. 

If it seem good to you, let us do our enemies this favor. 
Write them, if there are any there who will listen to you, 
warning and begging them to act against Luther as prinJently 
and cautiously as they can, for he took great care to spare 
them in this pamphlet. Lf they bcpn to shun the frost, per- 
haps they will be buried in snow. For unless God has de~ 

'A«t>, xni. 10- 

*/. /-, <b« alTiiir o[ th« «JicI publitb«! hy Ihr Biikop of MtlKpn nl S'otpfTi, 





prived me of all 5Pn!;e (whkh h« may do in his exceUeol 
will), it will happen that the more they stir up this dung (» 
to speak), the more it will stink. I would not threaten so 
great and so many men. save that I grieve for and pity tbw 
shame, which they have irrevocably fixed on themselves bj 
this edict, and because I desire to offer them the same tenia 
in this matter that I desire for myself. I would not take all 
the wealth in the world to be found the author of such as 
edict. . . . 

Enden, ii. 331. (Withnbuic), Fcbniiry 24, ijn 

Greeting. ... I believe the men of Stolpen' will not keep 
quiet; perchance the Lord will do something through than 
which neither they nor I expect ; in the meantime, let them 
find an interpreter of their pamphlet how they may. I htw 
written the bishops' and am expecting an answer. 

1 do not remember al>out my Sermon an Good H^orks; as I 
have printed so much there is danger that I shall weary the 
buying public at length. I do not know the German Apologj 
which you say is a supplement to the one printed at Nurcro- 
berg. Send it along if you have it. so that I may see it. Ld 
the Anstver of the Unlearned Canon/ follow. . . . 

Yesterday Matthew Adrian' sent me word by Dr. Conrad 
König.' the son-in-law of Dr. Wolfgang Stehclin," requestjng 
an answer. I think I have answered him. but the letter has 
been lost. König also asked how much salary Adrian would 
require to teach Hebrew here. For he thought ninety or one 

'Sttfra. BO. »S7. ooie », 

■Of Marcnce and M«r>eburjt: Lulktt wt«le llicni. at tbi deetoT's micsc»»«». 
in kiuirci 19 lb<ir cbtriv* ■■■inil hi* Srmon «n iht LrrJ^t Suffr, Smfr», 

•A work ol OetoUttipailiuK ro aupport I.iiihRr Mitainit Rck. 

*A biplitcd Spaniib J««, a pbyiitian. He tait(lLl H'bfew al BbiIc, Ibca at 
JlriArVbtrg, ihtn (i;ir1 at tlic Celltgium Tnlinate at Louvain, then In Wiiit«' 
bcrr. wtcn be icmalned about a jtu (10 Fcbrnarr. tS'O- FuUet rcfcicwaa. 
Enden. U. iiy 

*0I SiiiUKan. dotior ai lair. Dean of tbe faculty of art« at WlKenWt ')a9> 
and RtctoT IS 10. 

>0( Rftlh«tiiU(. fame I« Wiltcaberr froot Tibia;« tn ijoi: iS»t-] ehanertlar 
nl Duke Hrar? of Saiony at FriRMri. Lalvr as*lD«t Ibe R«forBati»n. Endef^ 
L t«o. 



htinclred gulden would suffice, as I had already heard several 
times from Adrian himself. Please teil us what you think 
or hope in the matter. 

I have at hand, by the kindness of Schlcupncr,' Lorenzo 
Valla's proof (edited by Huttcii), that tlic Donation of Con- 
stantliie is a forgery. Good Heavens! what darkness and 
wickedness is at Rome I You wonder at the judgment of 
God, that such unauthentic, crass, impudent Hcs not only 
lived, but prevailed for so many centuries and were incor- 
porated into the Canon Law, and (that no degree of horror 
might be wanting), became as articles of faith. I am in such 
a passion that I hardly doubt that the Pope is the Antichrist, 
which the world at large expects, so closely do their lives, 
acts, sayings and laws agree. But more of this when I sec 
you. If you have Dot seen the book, I shall take care that 
you read it. 

I do not know what to say about the students and the 
painters. 1 Icar it is a little thing artificially blown up to 
look big. I spoke of it in a sermon, but did not satisfy all. 
Some said I favored the students too mucii, and some the 
contrary. This affair of the devil is so hard to manage that 
it would have been better to let it cool off of itself, rather 
than start putting it down with so much tumult and noise. 
There are only a few actors in tlie tragedy, and they poor 
ones, on account of whom the whole city and university are 
disturbed. Indeed, it is impossible (as .'Vntiochus said to 
Herod) that in a great sick body an ulcer or pus or some- 
thing like it should not occasionally break out, which, i£ you 
let it take its course, will die down of itself, but if you keep 
it in and stop it up will infect and rutn the whole body. [ 
shall do what I can. 

Farewell and pray for me. Our prior Helt went to Magde- 
burg as soon as your letters came. 

M.\HTiN Luther, ^rlugustinian. 

■Donnsic Scblrupncr «t Rtrilau, mairlcuUicil at WIttcnbrrs i;ii> anJ Itlrr 
bccuDc praacbcr at St. Scbatd iu Nurctnbcti. Spakto •>! by Lullicr last oo 
DcccBibci t. t$ja. En<)tt*, vlll. ji4. 

*Tb< brilUiDi Italian bunanlit Valla <i4«<-s;} bid pr«v«(] ibal iht »«.calkd 
Donation «f Cnitianiln« t« lb« Pope vu a foritrr. Hultan publiibid ihli, 1J19, 
Ou ibc inSueace of Üic walk on L.utl]tr, 1/, Smilh, 0^. cil., pp. jitl. 



Let. tji 


Endcrs, ii. 336. C.\lbe, February 26. 15a 

Greeting in the Lord. HonorabI« and beloved in Chrisi, 
we received your letter' in which you try to free us from 
the danger of crafty suggestion and yourself from the perü 
of being thought hatefully hypocritical and obstinate. We 
could not but be pleased that you promised to listen to 
better doctrine, and, if you arc taught, to give up your 
own opinion. Although, as beßtting our office, wc profcsi 
that all matters of Christian faith and piety are very close 
to our heart, yet we have not hitlierlo had leisure give» 
us to read or even to glance at your works which arc now in 
everybody's hands. Wherefore it is not oiir intention to pass 
Judgment on them, but to leave that to others wlio arc greater 
than we, whom wc reverence, and to whom we rightly yieW 
precedence, and who have already taken up the discussion of 
tliese matters.* 

But we do greatly wish that you as well as all others who 
have undertaken a spiritual life, should treat sacred thing) 
reverently, piously, modestly, without tumult, hatred and con- 
tumely, as becoming. For not without serious pain of mind 
and vehement displeasure we daily learn that distinguished 
men professing to be Christians fiercely fight, as though for 
a great, serious matter, for their own frivolous opinions and 
notions, as, for example, whether the power of tlie Roonn 
pontiflr is divine or human, and of free will, and many other 
similar trifles, which do not concern true Giristianity. 
Everything is treated as a. matter of vital importance, every- 
one defends liis own opinion liaughtily not without re- 
proaching and reviling his opponent. Thus, to the great peril 
of inciting disobedience and sedition, many strange opinioos 
are scattered among the fickle crowd and the unlearned peo- 
ple, and much is rashly suggested to the cars of the latty con- 
trary to the long established customs of the Church of Christ, 

'Liithcr rncniril (hit rrfiual a( Albert la diKUM bis twain, m fci wrote kla 
December i. iiu: "To mr Mcond tetlct 10 your CrtM. kumUT aikinc tm 
iniiiruciion, I lai a b&td. imptorei. uncpiKvpal, unchrbtUn aeiwcr, ntcrrin« mt 
10 bitb» pCFwcfi for lafuciDaiioti." Suitb, cf, rii., ^ 08. 

Lei. 233 



forsooth that the venerable sacrament of communion should 
be indiscriminately distributed in balh kinds to all assembled, 
as well laymen as clcrg)-. Moreover wc have heard that some 
men audaciously belittle the authority of general councils in 
order to uphold and defend their own opinions. 

We do not sec why it is expedient for you or others to 
treat such matters, nor how it can make for the majesty, 
purity and dignity of Christianity and for the peace and 
tranquiUiiy of the Church. Perhaps these things could be 
considered at a more convenient time and place by men skilled 
in letters and to whom the duty should be assigned. This 
method of discussion would yield more fruit and less danger, 
without envy and incitement to di^obctlicncc and scandal to 
tlie populace, and without insulting anyone. This would be 
better than to have such matters rashly bandic<l about by the 
unlearned and by the prating rabble. 

Finally, we cannot disapprove your assumption to teach what 
you read and have teamed in Holy Scripture, provided only 
that you do it piously, gently, without bitterness and without 
inciting to disobedience to the public authority of the Church. 
{ your work be of God, it will be praiseworthy and fruitful, 
and. as we say to you with Gamaliel. Acts v..* strong and 
invincible; but if your work be of haired, pride and ill will, 
it is of men and can easily be overthrown. For everyone is 
in danger of abusing the benefits of God, and of fighting 
against the Intlh and against God. May he grant that wc 
and you and all other Christians may do right. Farewell in 




Corpus Rtforfuatarvm. i. 147. SitcrELBESO, February 38 (ISH>). 

I enclose a letter^ I wrote long ago. wliich has been returned 
to me, having been badly cared for by those to whom i en- 
truste<[ it. Please tell l.uther at once and privately what I 
MfTOte about Sickingen, but so that no one shall know that I 
kve had anything to do with the affair. There is a rea<.on 

lAcu, V. jSf. 

V, f: Ami of Januirr w. n/ra, no. aiflL 


not mentioned in the letter. If Lutlier is in trouble, and can 
get help nowhere else, here is safety. Here he can mock 
his detractors in perfect security. Sickingen and I lure 
important reasons, which I woulil tell you if I saw you. I 
fear that some evil will happen to the barbarians and to all 
who support the Roman yoke. My dialogues, the Komon 
Triad and the !nsf>icientcs are being printed ; they are vcfy 
free against the Pope and the despoilers of Germaoy. I 
believe you will approve, or at least not disapprove of them. 
Above all things w;im Luther. If hh business is doubtful, 
bid him at once without delay betake himself to Sickingeiu 
Hc could see mc on the way, but I do not know if J wou!J 
then be here. . . . 


Enden, ii. ^3. WiirxNiiEfic, February 39, 15m 

Greeting. At length the Bishop of Merseburg has sect 
me back my messenger with a letter, after keeping him wail- 
ing three days. 1 am still waiting for the answer of the 
Cardinal Archbishop of Mayence. I have Mcrseburg's com- 
munication and it does not displease mc except that he con- 
fesses he was moved against my sermon by the letters and 
reports of others. Perhaps he never read it himself, but 
condemned it on vicarious testimony. Then he deprecates 
the strife about the Pope, and very properly, as though I 
delighted to be blown around by these whirlwinds and would 
not prefer to live in peace as he writes that he would. Truly 
while we are well we scorn the advice of the sick, as Terence 
says, and yet if you would remain well you must give heed 
to them. 

It was hardly to spite me that the Archbishop of Mayence 
forbade the monks Lo bef. Our Prior Held, just returned 
from Magdeburg, is full of complaints ;^ainst him. For the 
cardinal begins to tyrannize and dare all things, even offend- 
ing the dignitaries of his own church. Who knows for what 
purpose he lias been called to fill such a responsible position? 
Doubt not that the Lord will use him for some future miracle. 
As for me. I should much prefer to have tliis begging done 
away completely; this is one of the opinions for which Edt 



kcs me a heretic and boasts of so doing. For I hate that 

shameful way oi life and siiould prefer to Icam a trade 

to-day to support myself rather than live thus, and 1 shall 

ic in this opinion, Eck notwithstanding. 

I am surprised that my former letters have not reached 


I am glad to read of tlie conflicc of Emser and Schott.* 
Farewell and pray for me. 

MiUiTtN Luther, Augustinian, 


9«n, It. 346. (WiTTüNacBü). March z. 1520; 

Greeting. I send some things* just out against Eck, dear 
Spalatin. which please return after reading. You see how 
Lcipstc and Eck are going to be another Cologne and Hoch- 
strallen. In my judgment the Dialogve smells of Pirckhcimer, 
for he is offended with Scheurl, and there are other Jadica- 
tions. I am not pleased with this matter of raging against 
Eck, for it is a libel, and an open attack is better than a bite 
from under cover. Farewell and pray for me in the Lord. 

ass. of Ihe Shrewibury and Coventry CorfvraUoni, 1899^ p. 47. 

Enslbh. (Shbewsburv or Coventkv), Marcli 3, is». 

Thij frafnni^l i« interesting rs proving ific early spread of Lutheran 
opiniont in England. Thomas Cowp«r is mentioned i]uite frcqwcnlly 
in the State Papers &s a tax-collector and niiancial agrcnl of the 
English government. 

... As for newcs, therys none but of late ther was bery- 
lykes here which did lake Luters opinyons. . . . 


Endcrs, ii. 350 Paris, March 14 (1520). 

The author of this epijtie. identified as Hermann Hajo Fritius 

((. /., of Holland), ia occasionally mentioned in the letters of Erasmus 

and hia friends. Cf. Enihoven: Britft on Erasmus, p. 129. and De 

*J«lin Scbott of Obeclindi made ■ pllErlaianc to Piloilnc isi7; «u with 
Lnlber tt Worms isii; iR'cr an oStctt it CutiuiK. Emlnn. ir. 3JJ, I caa SniX 
n«iUns of bU quaricl wiib Eidmt. 

Tbi* reftt* 10 tbe Uctiut drilolatnt (* pun on Ech, wbidi in (krman mc«» 
"(«rati.** tbc irbolc phrMc nt«inins, "The i>l>Bcil«f! tamer"). ■ breatUlda 
pr«h«blT t>r Ptrckhein«r, IlKMRb be deaicJ tbe auiboithip of |b 



Vocht in Englische Studien, xl. 376. In 1532 lie was a jarist imi 
impemi councillor. AlleD, iii. 444. 

Inasmuch äs I could not explain to you, even at gmi 
length and with much art, how much I favor your dißkult 
as well as fair and pious undertaking, I shall certainly not try 
to do so in this short familiar epistle. How much should 1 
favor Luther, who, I »ee, is approved by all good men and 
rightly extolled by the greatest, and who also is hated and 
reviled by the wicked ! I obser\'« both these facts with the 
greatest, that is, with equal joy, for I con&ider them equal 
praise. Recently, when I was living with Erasmus (for al- 
though unworthy I did so about eight months) I learned well 
how high an opinion of Luther that man of most e:(quisite 
judgment held, and which he would testify to his tabic com- 
panions,^ among whom, as among faithful friends, he was ac- 
customed to lay bare his mind. William Nesen- was of the 
same opinion with him, for he all but adored Luther. But as 
much as the deliberate judgment of these two pleased m«, M 
much did that precipitous condemnation» of you by the soph- 
ists of Cologne and Louvain disturb me. But again, when 
I learned how unjust and unlearned their condemnation was, 
I greatly rejoiced, and finally exulted and applauded, for I 
saw that this would be as a branding -iron* by which both 
of those Kakadcmicä ' would stamp themselves with a mark of 
lasting infamy. And so a few days ago, when I was prepar- 
ing to leave Louvain for Taris at the urgent request of the 
theologians,' there came into my hands, I hardly tmow from 
where, some marginal notes on that most beautiful book.* 
By Hermes^ they were neither foolish nor unlearned; with 
the aid of the Muses I will see to it that they are printed 
at my own expense if necessary, and, if there !s anytliin{ 


■Suff*. DO. •!). 

•The Uniftrtily at Colainc coDilrnincd Luchcr'i dottrlnei nn AtiiuM jo. «fid 
tbU wM rutfitd br LouTiiQ on riarcmtKr 7. tji«. 

*An sntr*ntt(tiblc mi», cainblnlii( tb« CrMli wofAi for "^d** and f«T 
"Made my." 

OHcrmnnn w» eridrnlly oni! of th« youngfi tcliolar», «bo, Hke NcKO. «U 

Mpt-IIetl from Louvain >li«ul tbii lime 

*TIiii bouk wu pertii|)B ibc voJumt of Lulhcr'a Wofkt Iwurit 'by Frobea wbitfe 
mm the DU< coadciancd \ij CeloBiic and Louvain. 

Ut. aj7 



lacking to them, I will supply h with my own pen. If Wolf- 
gang Wilder, who is to carry these IcUtrs lo you, were not 
in such a hurry that he cannot conveniently wait three (lays, 
your Reverence should have a copy of them; hov/cvcr, you 
will shortly sec copies of them everywhere. Finally, please 
take my service for tlic best, and hereafter number this Dutch- 
man, hitherto unknown to you even by name, among your 
strongest supporters. Farewell, reverend Father in Christ, 
and continue strongly to assert our faith. I pray that the 
Holy Spirit may be your continual comforter and true para- 
clete.* Hail and farewell a thousand times. . . . 


nttchrift für K\r<htngtichichte, n. 4*8. March 15, ISSO. 

We were very anxious to sec and speak to you at the gen- 
eral chapter celebrated last year* at Venice. For wc had 
need ol speaking with you about many things concerning the 
bonor bf the Congregation, and particularly concerning Mar- 
tin Luther's affair, for at that time the volume' which he 
hiraself published on the virtue of indulgences began to ap- 
pear, the doctrines of which, though they were a scandal to 
small and great, would have been susceptible of easy treat- 
ment, had we all agreed on one course. He himself con- 
fesses in his writings that his respect' for you and his love 
for the monastic profession is so great, that wc doubt not 
that every old disagreement would have been settled and 
under God's leadership have been extinguished and prevented 
from growing worse. But as we were deprived of tlic ad- 
vantage of seeing you for reasons which, as we believe, were 
honorable, we thought it necessary to write you this letter, 
10 infonn you what enormous evils threaten your Congrega- 
tion and our whole Order unless Martin ceases from speaking 
and writing about those matters which are either disagreeable 
to the Holy Roman Church, or scandalous to her. As to the 


■In luDc, ijiv, 

>Thc Rtt9\»iitn*§ iitptit*h*niim, which firat appvartd in September, 1518. arc 


*In 111« Ictler 10 SUspiU cl Uij jo, ijiS, pdaied ki ■ prvfac« |« lb« werk 
«((iliotiid. Sttfrs. ao. 63- 



hurt of the Order, you know that our profession is made 
odious in the eyes of all, and the habit and name of the 
Augustinians is so hateful, that we are, as ii were, insulted as 
worthless by the apostolic see. We must appear to the pub- 
lic the more slack, in that having been the only mendicMt 
order never accused nor suspected of heresy, wc are now, 
like heretics, forced to flee tlic face of men. The thing ought 
to be the more intolerable to us as it secras to touch our tiu»t 
innocent Pope Leo X., to whom our profession owes as much 
as it could owe to any mortal. On account of the innuiner- 
able benefits he has conferred on us it is our interest not to 
cross him, but to please him and to be humble and, if neces- 
sary, pour out OUT blood and lay down our Uvcs a huadrvd 
times a day. . . . 

We Iiavc heard that great men are turning their attention 
to this affair, and that the ax is laid at the root. Wc hav« 
b«cn credibly Informed that a bull is being drawn up against 
a number of the writings of the said Martin, in which, bow- 
ever, our Supreme Lord, out of respect to our profession, 
has not decreed ttial either the name of the Order of St 
Augustine or that of Martin Luther should be wiped out, 
from which we can see how kind, gentle and benevolent to 
the Augustinian family Pope Leo shows himself, who, though 
he has been provoked for four years, can hardly be induced 
to defend himself, not to mention taking vengeance. He 
rather covers up the offence of the man, dreading our coni- 
mon confounding, and only expecting improvement. . . . 
Wherefore we conjure you by the bond of charity for these 
reasons to use all your power, care, industry and diligence to 
make Martin abstain from speaking against the Holy Roman 
Church and indulgences, tliat he may not, relying on his own 
genius, begin to move against her whom the Lord founded 
upon a firm, rock, but tliat he may cease from publishing 
books and keep silence when he sees that daily more danger- 
ous offences arise, and that he may remember those words of 
Christ: "Woe unto that man through whom the offcocc 
Cometh."* . . . 

Wherefore we write you praying hy your piety and pro- 
<U*ithi>«, .tIIL J. 


»ion and love to God, if the zeal, honor, advantage and 

1th of your profession and Congregation mean aught to 

~yoti, that you should give all your care, study and thought to 

this one thing, that Martin may hcip you and at length come 

to himself, that with him our Order may be saved from great 

infamy and calamity. Farewell in the Lord.' 


Sannto, xxvtiL 215. Italian. Brown, iiL zS. English. 

kRauF., March 16, isaa 
Bragadin was ainbatn;lor to France 1536, to Komu ijjs-?. 
Nothing has been done about Martin save that alt the 
theologians of Rome liave debated logcLiier three times, in 
presence of the Cardinals of Ancona and Cajetan, discussing 
I certain propositions of the said Matnin, part of which were 
considered heretical, part scandalous. 

AH the generals of the orders have in liice manner stated in 
«'riting their objections, and llic reasons which cause them 
to remonstrate. It is now said that a decretal will be drawn 
up. reproving his said false propositions without naming him, 
but I think he will be admonished by a private breve and in- 
vited to retract, and should he not retract, but persevere in 
his obstinacy, they will proceed against htm as a heretic. 


den, it 362. WtTTENSCito, March ii). 153a 

... I send you the work of the asses of Louvain and 
Cologne, which I am now answering in print.* 

Please read John Huss' and return him. lie not only 
plea&ea me. tut both his spirit and learning seem to me mi- 

■Thii Icitn' Bi*ir have dvcided Sttuplu to lay down bii office of Vicar. •* It* 
did la ADtmt. lita. Lutbei vritu on Uiy s tbal Suupiu ap^cti 10 da to. 

■nr Con lUni nation of Lulhcr'* diKirine bf Cologne (AtiRuit ji, t}(«). and 
Lourain <[<orEcntKT t). ni printed in Fcbtuarir, isio, with ■ dcdicaton* cpiillc 
\>f Adrian, Ciidinil ol Totlota. Ulrr fapc Adilan VI. Lulbcr'i aniwcr atiprarrd 
ta xsio, Wtimu, ri, 170. 

*I.ulhcr now read lluu'a Dt CdJfiia, acnl bini bf Roid'alonikr al tbe ttmc of 
ikt litip*K debate (mfre, oo, ■$■>. Tbc effect It made «n bin ia bett paintttl 
la a («Mr IraiubUd; Sraitb, ep, til., p- 7a. 


raculous. Two thousand copies are being printed by Tboau 

It is said that at Vienna you saw visions iu the sky,' namdj 
flames and conflagrations. I, too, wouid like to see Lhan; 
perhaps my tragedy is contained in them, as it was in ibe 
former ones. Farewell and pray for me. 

Maktin Lutues, Augustinian. 

Enders, ti. 364. Wittcnbcjic, Maich 21. 1530 

Greeting, I think, reverend Father, that you received nj 
letter from Brother Martin Benedict. We have no news. Mj 
answer to the damning theologs is in press. My friend Eck 
goes to Rome to arouse the forest of Lebanon.' But I be- 
lieve that even Rome is subject to Christ, the Lord of all 
who, if I am worthy, will act for mc there also, but if 1 am 
unworthy will not act for me even here. Pray the Lord for 
me that I may sometune become good and plead his cause 
worthily in this unworthy age. 

I commend to you the wife of Dr. Thomas Eschaus,* for 
I think the woman has either already died or will die xo^ay, 
as she has no hope of life. Farewell in Christ. 

Brothek Martin LtJTHEK, Aut/ustinian 


Endcrs, it. 367. WrrrEKSBHc, March as. tsn 

Greeting. Thanks for your gift,* dear Martin, The same 
monster was sent mc before, and I am now answering ii. 
expecting my pamphlet to be published to-morrow. There are 
many here, and even in the elector's court, who think 

tA puMiditr who eiirted it Stnitburr. 14SS. It«D retnoTCd to Ffonhtin tad 
Tübin^p«, and *t i1i><l ilme wm ai KBg««au. 

*TbcM «ere dcicriibed a> occurriog at Vlmna. J*nu«tT j-?, mi». In a kook 
kij Jubn Virdunn o( llau[uri. 

'Kcfcrcocc to Juilcrt. U. 15^ On Eck'* trip to Rome »itA Ut elfcct. Smlih. p vt. 

*£ictiaiii or Kicb, nijiiriculilcd at CoIOfDc I4g>> cim« 10 tlw Uni*e<*llj ol 
WilirabcTi in ijoi. where be Mied u nuiarT> *nd louk tcvecBl dcfreci. ladndlat 
bachelor af canan la* ijoa-Si »ii ä«ttoi ot racdkin« September ij, t)te. Be 
«tincinued pitiUtiiit and leatbinv prirutely until bit il«aih in 15J}. He Iroqucotlf 
atitndcd Luibcr, sb« «onsidared him tbe bed local phTildan. Smith, p. «4. 
A'tin- /■■' KtfefmalMr^lgtjtliit^lt, vit, i;6. 




t this was made up by one of the Obscure Men, whom 
als suborned to attack mc and seek an occasion. But 
lorp's' letter will show you that the work is genuine. You 
learn all from Melanchthon. Give my regards to your 
tor,' Jonas, John Reineckc' and William;' also to my flesh 
d blood. The men of Lcipsic and Meissen keep cawing 
,way without getting anywhere. I hear that my sister Bar- 
bara has died. May she rest in peace. Amen. Wc shall 
I all follow her. Farewell and pray the Lord for mc. 
^^ Maetin Lutheil 

^^^ 242. LUTHER TO 57ALAT1N. 

^Hnrt, iL 369. (WiTTENBDtb), March 36, 1530. 

Greeting. Dear George, I recently forgot to send you the 
letter of Dorp, which I received with others from Antwerp. 
Read it and sec whether you can think the thing a fiction* 
which was published there. For Dorp, as I think you know, 
is the most learned of all the Louvanians, not only by the 
witness of Erasmus, but by that of this, his letter, and the 
other which Erasmus has Inserted 10 his Farrago.' 

I thank the I^rd who has occupied my mind with other 
things so that I should not read the Cardinal of Tortosa' 
carefully, for he writes most impiously of all that divine and 
natural law is in the hand of the man possessed of divine 
authority. This is such a horrible portent that I could not 
pass over it, were my mind present. Farewell and pray the 
Lord for me. Martin Luther, Auffustinian. 

'Uarlin ttjribolonK« rM Dorp <i4&;H«t jr, isaj), studied »t Louraln. 
wk«(e be bcoTnt iiroffHor In 1504. IFe took bi* docioratc in ibcaloir t^<i- 
Ftoa iji« till bit dratb be wBi, in »pile «f i»miior«fr diiaBCccmenM wiih Erumiu. 
bb warn fiirnil and principal tuppoTirr ai (.ouvain. lie vit aitu tamrgblc lo 
Lntbcr, (haujb caulioiulr. Tbii intii ii lail. C7. Allen, ii, ii, witb tefticnc», 
moA d* Joncli. r<.j [De Jnngb wranglT tbinln iliii )«i)rr wu ibe Jaa Acadrmtar 
I.»vtiiun.m. whitb. u ii waa not coraitaitd unlil November, 15», ■■ iinp«i>(ib1t). 


)RFiB«eke mm IB «Id ■cboel ffimd of Litihcr, tIh mr af the Uaailcid BailiR, 
Pftrr Rrlnrcltr, Ixtr fron-inait«r at Manafeld. Died July ij, iSjB. Enden. lÜ 
4«*, «IL I, Snitb, i;of. 

■ Krlfendrln a( a bapilivd Jei*'lib tamllT, Iroiii 1 {o> till bit dtatb, iSjS, cot. 
iMtor of laxc* at Slolticrc. Endera. vi, j;8, 

*SMpT«, no. ,t4l. 

*I>i>rT to ErMcnni. Juir ■«• t)i3- i" tbe Farraoo nov9 *fi\stt\af%m Dtt. 
Fiubm. Ocwber. 1519. 

■ AdriiB, later A4rlae VI., no. ivi. 

»S, cot. ^H 



L<t m 


Endcn^ ii. 372. De Welle, i 434. Wnmar, vi 303. G«nii3n. 

WimNfiEK, Mardi 39. ijaoh 

This is the dedication 10 the ireaiiae On Good Works, Weimar, n 

Johit the Steadfast, born 1468, elector from the death of his brodxr. 
Frederic, May 5. 15^5. lill liis own deaih, AuguKt 16. 153^ He wii 
1 w&Tin supporter o£ the Kcfotmation from tfic lirst. Cf. RtaU»- 
tytlapädic, and J. Becker; Kvrfurtl Johann vcn Sachsen mnd ttm 
BtMtihungrn £m Luther. 

Serene, highborn Prince, gracious Lord! Pray accept mj 
humble service and poor prayers. Gracious I'riticc and Lord, 
I have long been desirous of showing my humble service aoi 
duty to your Grace with some spiritual goods which are at 
my command, but considering my ability I have always foimil 
it too small to undertake to otTcr sometliliig worthy of yoor 
Grace. But as my most gracious Lord. Lord Frederic Dultt 
of Saxony. Grand Marshal of the Holy Koman Empire. 
Elector and Vicegerent, etc., has not disdained, but has gra- 
ciously accepted my mediocre book' dedicated to his Grace, 
which has now, contrary to my expectations, been printed; 
1 have taken courage from this gracious example, and have 
presumed to hope that, as the same princely blood runs in 
your veins, you would have equal clemency and good will, and 
accordingly that your Grace would not disdain my poor, hiun- 
ble offering, which I think more important than any of my 
sermons or tracts, in that it treats of good works. For good 
works contain more poison and deceit than any other creature, 
and the simple man is easily led astray by them, so that our 
Lord Girist commande<l us to beware of the sheep's cloth- 
ing under which wolves were hidden. For neither gold, sil- 
ver, gems nor any precious thing has so much adulteration 
and dross as have good works, which must all have one sim- 
ple virtue without which they arc mere dissembling, hypocrisy 
and deceit. 1 know well and daily hear some who despise 
my lowliness say that 1 do nothing but make tracts and Ger- 
man htHnities for the unlearned laity ; but I do not care for 

*rJU TtunaitFU. 

that charge. Would to God ihit in my whole life with all 
my power I had helped one layman to improve ; I would be 
satisfied with that and thank God and willingly after that 
would let all ray boolcs die. I let others judge whether it is 
a great art, and profitable to Christianity, to make books 
wholesale. But I think, if I cared to make big txioks of their 
sort. I might, by divine help, do it more quickly than they 
could make a small sermon of my son. If success were as 
easy as failure Christ would long since have been cast again 
from heaven and God's throne itself turned upside down. If 
w« can*t all write poetr>', at least we all want to judge it. I 
am heartily willing to leave others the honor of doing great 
things, and will not be ashamed myself to preach and write 
German for the unlearned laity. And, though 1 have little 
power in this, yet it seems to me that if we had hitherto ap- 
plied ourselves to this and would apply ourselves to it hence- 
forth, it would be more profit and improvement to Christian- 
ity than all the big books and disputations of the learned in 
the schools. 

Moreover I have never compelled or asked anyone to hear 
me, or to read my sermons. I have freely served the public 
with that which God has given me and for which 1 am re- 
sponsible; let anyone who does not care for it read and hear 
Others. Also I do not care much whether they need me or 
not. it is enough and too much for mc that some taymen, and 
fine men. too, humble themselves to read my sermons. And 
il nothing else impelled me, yet it would be more than enough 
that I have learned that your Grace likes such German books, 
and is vcr)' anxious for instruction on good works and faith. 
It became me to do my best to serve such men. Wherefore 
I humbly pray your Grace kindly to receive this testimony of 
any good intentions until God gives me the time to write a 
German exposition of faith.^ Even in the present work I 
desired to show how we use and need faith in all good works. 
and consider it the principal work. If God permit, at another 

*Cla*t< U ihe nefnj»n for both "diili" >ad ■"cracil." Thr tt<Miat On G»oS 
Wt^ki (ollOKdl Ihr iiidcr of ilic Ten CaniRiindincni», It U Inrernlini la tec 
ko« ifce «Epaution oi thrw, vith iJic Ctccd irnl Ihr Lonl'i Prayer, «biEb laicf 
bK«DC the >ub*ian<:e of ibe CaHcKirm (tsi«, cf. SmJtb, (14^.) w«c tkM cwljr 
^ Wipi« cf Luciitr'k pickcbinit. 


time I will treat the creed by itself as we daily pray, or speak 
the same. I humbly commend myself to your Grace. 
Your Grace's humble chaplain, 

Dr Martin Ll'theh, 
Augustinian at W^ittenberg. 



Corpitt Rtjormaiofum, xciv. 293. Zutaca, April a, IS» 

Myconius (al»o Gcisshilskr and Müller), of Lucerne, matriculated 
Bt BaUc 1510. B. A. 151J, ihni Tiecamc public reader. In 1516 ht 
went tu Zurich, where ht wus instruniciital in gcttinK Zwtnglt. Ii 
tlie autumn of 1519 he returned to Lucerne to open a school, «hidi 
h« had to give itp when he joined Ilic Reformation in 1523. Afief 
a year at Etnsicdcln he came cnrly in 1524 to Zurich, where he taught 
school until after Zwingli'« death (1531), wh«n he went to Btsle u 
successor to Oecolampadius. He died here in 1552. 

... I would not have you ignorant, that, earnestly u 
Zasius commended himself to us lie recently wrote that he 
was so minded that he could do no other than write against 
Luther,' because the latter had dared to make light of tbe 
majesty of the sacred canons. Here you see the jurist dedi- 
cated to his own profession! I not only warned Zasius not 
to do this, but I even politely admoniihctl him to consider 
this only: namely, that though, as I must admit, Luther lacked 
moderation, ytrt by freely exposing and ccnsunng Ihc crimes 
of the prelates, if tliey continued to be bad, he would ^naJty 
frighten them and put some sense of shame into them. Zasius 
was pleased with this advice. . . . 


SitzvKQsberUitte der phii-hijl. Clane der kaiicrlükem Akademie der 

ii-'istfis^hafUM. Wein, i88d, xcv. 59S. L.01:vain, April 9, 1530. 

... I would not like the Dominicans to know what a 

friend' of Luther they have made. The university has con- 
ceived im-urablc madness; .\tcnsis' has perished, Init Eg- 

^Stfra. no lofi, and the \ttt*r oT Za^u* (o ZwintK, FcbrtuiT ifi. is»o. Ctrfm» 
Krf«rmalffTti'a, xcit. ;0s. 

•Tr»t. ■■uoieuin,'* which I Ihinit coTf«t, btlicvinj (hat Etmoiu» rcfei» la Wb)- 
•elf. Horiiriti, t«(. nl., tattttu "animuin," »hicli, in mit opüÜMi. would bt 
leu unalUc. 

■lob» BrUrd of Alhi ibnc« known H Aib«iiw» aad Hssa* {Arv brine 


mond and Latooius, the one blear-«yed, the other halt, act 
more odiously than he.* . . . Your Erasmus. 

Cer^ug Reformatorum, i. ijj. (Wirres bbiic, April 13, 15») 

As Luther has written you about the sentence in John,' 
there is no need for my writing anything. For why, as 
Gccro says, should 1 play the actor before Roscius? ... It 
was about this very scntcnc« iliai a dispute arose widi the 
French mailiematician. He said ilial he would give in some- 
thing to the desires of the people if he profes&ed Luther's 
doctrines, but that it was generally thought that even Luther 
did iiot beUeve all his own dogmas. He meant to jay that ail 
thai Luther said was not true' but thought that he could more 
easily entice people wilh this circumlocution. Then I said 
that I thought this was an evil purpose, and. what was t!ie 
last thing an honorable man would consent to, underhanded. 
A good man ought to say freely and boldly what he thought. 
Truth does not need to be adulterated with cither art or 
fraud. A suspicion of falsehood was a derogation to Luther's 
doctrine. He whose life was different from hia doctrine 
would t^' that very fact raise suspicion, and nothing ought to 
be so entirely avoided as all suspicion of falsehood. The 
authorijy of one teaching by fraud was impaired. For what 
would the people think of one who taught by lies when they 
found them out? I added much of the same sort Then he. 
to guard against being thought to Iiave made a false or 
captious criticism, took refuge, as it were, in these words: 
That by no means was fraud to be used, but that he would 
consent to be taken for a liar if all that Luther said, every* 
where, by chance, seriously or in joke, were true, for every 
man was said to be a liar. 

th« Crvek for nejm). brs*it IQ l*4ch st Louaiin no't v» made doctnr of 
iktolosT ijoo. Krlior 150s aod isio. ihc Icacllnc ibeoloKlan aftrt ibt tlrpariur« 
of AdrUfl of UiKctit. H« bu ibc mnti detarTninvd o|iponnit of Erainiii. and 
would luTC bwQ oi Luther, baij it not been lot his deaib on January 8, ijm. 
O« Joncb. P' 'nil- 
tOn tk> oaipaiKB of Ecmond and tdianitw acainat Lulher, taffa, aa. »ig, 
■ Enden. U. JTV- The acnicnce wajh "Yc tan do noihinK irULoiit me,'* John. 

Tke wvtda in inlju ate in Ceroian. 




I.«t aC 

Now you can see. dear Spalatin, how absurd and clumt; 
he was. For what on earth have Luther's jokes with hb 
friends to do with his doctrine? Even thus it is my opioimi 
that he never jokes, but that some serious meaning lies be- 
hind ihe jests. O truly ridiculous Parisian! Yet he would 
defend this opinion with his teeth! Farewell, Spalatin. 

Your Phil». 

Endfrs, ii. 382, (WiTTENBtRti). .April 16. 15» 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, we have agreed with Adrian' 
tJiat he should delay a little. He promised to wait eight days 
in Berlin for letters from us. Now we must try to get an 
answer from Werner of Bacharach as quickly as possible. He 
demands a salary of a hundred gulden. In this whole af- 
fair we must take great care not to fall between two stools 
(as they say), by losing one. while the other is called by 
Maycnce or goes of his own accord. Many of our professon 
strongly urge me to keep Adrian for one year at least. i( 
only, as they think, to prevent the shame of having him 
called by eclipsed Leipsic ;- for there is a rumor that they 
will take him to spite us. If you are not able to write briefly 
what we should do, at least write to him at Berlin not to 
mind this delay. I suspect that he will go as professor of 
Hebrew to Frankfort on the Oder or to Leipsic if we turn 
him down. Answer quickly. 

There is a nimor" that the direst bull against me is about 
to be issued. Thus the provost of Ncuwcrk* warns and 
advises mc, as the saying is. Moreover, certain even of my 
enemies who pitied mc have asked my friends in Halber- 
stadt to warn me that there is a certain doctor of medicine, 
who can m.\kc himself invisible by magic when he wants to 

'TLü £ni pancrapti Txitn 10 ttv clloria of Willcnbcnc to iwturr a HcWr« 
prufuior, the cuididiiu Uini Uiithcir Adilwa tnd Wcmw, of arbam itaikUiK 

■An untrandauble pun borrowed fr«m Ettiut JfJvIalH«, as iht Latin kcbuiitc 
Uifiitm (L^etpiic) «nd feUf-jiit, 

*I*rtplT»tioi» f«r driwinK up k bull ocainii Lut]i<r Lid bean ■«••( «a u 
Rixnc CTtt »ncr iht ^ng^nning t-l tbe year; \itj ovr« erollf ■Itaiulaled br ibc 
aniTit in that ciiy of K<\ iowi,rdi ib< end nl Uarch. Cf. Snllb. of. tH^ 91I. 

«Nicolai Dcmuili of Neuwrrlt, ntir Halle, In Ibc lervic« of Klhtrt of UaycBM- 
Emttra, iv. ia](. 



pl\ somebody, and who has a command to kill Luther, and 
he is coming hither next Sunday' when the relics are 
This is a persistent rumor. Farewell. 


Ztit^krifl ties hutaristken Vtrctns /tir Sclnifabrn und Nttiberg. 
i8a3. 3ix. MI. .i^uosHLw;, .April t6, 15»- 

Greeling in Christ. Some years ago, reverend Father, 
when I was wriiing to my intimate friend George Spalatin. 
r included a note to be given by him to your Reverence, in 
which among other things 1 humbly »ought to commend my- 
self to your Reverence, so that by his mediation I might de- 
serve to receive a little letter from your Reverence. But as 
hitherto most merciful God has willed to try your Reverence 
with various storms, that he might crown you victor with 
the crown of righteousness, so at present all have not a little 
hope that your Reverence wilt soon reach a port of quiet rest; 
wherefore, relying on your kindness, I was not able to omit 
pving a letter for your Reverence to our common friend 
Geoi^c Spalatin. For I am bound by such love to your Rev- 
erence that 1 do not believe any mortal could break the bond. 
For neither by chance nor lightly (Spalatin is witness) did I 
conceive great love for your Reverence, but it was in grati- 
tude for a ser\'ice. For your Reverence's writings so changed 
and renovated my mind oppressed as it was by the conscious- 
ness of llie stuff over which I had formerly sweated, that 
they instilled into my nostrils not only the sweet savor of 
doctrine, but the splendor of it. I thank God greatly that by 
you I desired to learn the words of Christ (which are the 
words of life) and that I began under your guidance to weigh 
and keep before my eyes the salvation of my soul. Your 
friends and supporters. Bernard .Xdelmann. John Occolam- 
padius and the Prior of the Carmelites, once your host,* know 
with how much love and praise [ follow you. May your Rev- 
erence accept the greeting of a poor little monk like me and 
if possible when you plan writing to our Bernard Adelmann. 

■April »1. Tbe dtctttr'i nlk» «ei« eibtbilcil eicry year on Ibl* Sundait. 
pnors of •(Irai^iit »tiinii I.utket'» life wrrr toninian it this tin». 
'While LuihM wu 11 AuiiborK in OtiotMr. i;ig, be \aift4 al the MnTcnl at 
■kf CAr»cL>tc>, becauM iLerc wta m Auiu'lidin chapter in thai citr. 


as you often do, or to Occolampadius, be mindful of me iM 
do not disdain to write me a consolatory sheet.* For it wtll 
be 3 perpetual memorial both of your friendship and of j'our 
kindness. Farewell and be commended to God Almigtilj. 
May he deign lo keep you long safe and sound for the coa* 
mon utility of his Church. Amen. 

Broth KK Guy Bild of Hachstadt. 

T. Kolde: Friedrich dtr Wtise (ErUngen, i88r), p. 41. 

WiTTcfBEKc Castu, April 22. ijja 
Bay» of LatiKbeiin rnairiculaicil ai VViueiilic-rs 1503. B. A. 150t 
M. A. 1505, then became professor at the university and burgomaimr 
About 1538 he became Clinnccllor ol Electoral Saxony, in wUdi 
capacily he atlciideil (he Diet yA Augsburg 1530, and there re»d tke 
famous Confession. He died October 21, 1535. Enders. vii. 135. 

Peace. Dear Colleague, yuu have always been so ready to 
please me Üiät I have cunceived the hope that nothing I ailt 
will ever he refused by you, and especially when it concerns 
my frirnd Dr. Luther. Wherefore please draw up and send 
to nic to-day a memorandum as to how you think we shoulii 
act in case Luther is crtcommunicated, either singly, or (which 
God forbid !) with most clement and Christian elector, or 
with this university and now illustrious city. You can do 
nothing worthier of yourself or more pleasing to good men. 
... G. Spalattn. 

Ender», it. 384. Wittcndcxc, April 27, tsja 

Greeting. Dear Hess, I will write more elsewhere; at 
present 1 am very busy and must write brieflj' so that you 
will at least not think that your letter to me was not delivered. 
Moibanus' will fell you more. I thank you for the Emperor 
Honorius* and more for the prayers you promise to offer up 
for me, which, as I greatly need them, I rely on not a little. 

'Lutbrr AiA «tilt lo Bild (irfra, no. 154), bul neither tbU letter bot tkow 1« 
wrote ID Atktmaiin bare been prcoerrcd. 

■I.«cer > cull'nitiic uf ll«u *i Hrfslau, where he ttuxbt Greek. Re bad ipcoi ■ 
ftbort lime ai VVIitcnbet«. 

*P(oUtblT >■■ ol<l Rvoian («Id. »vch m Hcm eallccted. 


May the Lord have respect for your bishop* and keep him 
long for us. Your colleagues will leach you what is necessary 
for your ordinatio« as priest,' as far as ceremonies go; my 
German homily* has someihing* to say about the spirit of the 
faith, to which will be adde<l another sermon by me on tlic 
use of the mass.' For in the mass no distinction ought to 
be made between priest and layman ; there is one bread, one 
faith, one communion, only the priest is the minister, the 
layman is not. More of this elsewhere. Now farewell and 
pray for me as you do. 


Mahtin l.tJTHEa. 


Corpus Reformatorum, i. 155. April 27,' 1320L 

. . . Luther is too busy at this time to write anything on 
the prophets, but I hope, when he has finished some of his 
work, unless God shall tear him from us, that he will be 
moved to write a commentary on Genesis or Isaiah. Genesis 
is more difficult tlian Isaiah, as I, who am now busy with 
it. know. . . . 

Endcrs, ii. 3861 ßnMBKirt;. April 28. 152a 

Having returned safe from Italy. I have been entertained 
here by the noble Fuchses,* who are great admirers of yours. 
A little later my friend Hulten came hither, although we had 
no plan to meet, but. I am firmly persuaded, at the summons 
of Christ, who, because he rejoices in no sacrifice as much 
as in mutual love between men, thus unexpectedly brought 
friends together. When then we celebrated Easter' together, 
and sang: "This is the day which the Lord hath made; we 
will rejoice and be glad in it,"* our services were interrupted 

IJoll« VI. Ton Tliufto. Biibap 1506 to Ausuil 1, ijio. 

'lieu avia abfrul 10 b* i>riUin.t4 prifM. ■• he wa*. on Junm t, 

*SrTiman ten harlivrvrdififn Sacramrnt. Weimir. ii. jji. 

iSirmou vtt dtm iwiMn Ttxlmunt. d. %. ve« dtr khltatn Mtu*. Wrimir, vi. 
J40. Auciut. liiD. 

iThii K d*tfd "Aiiiil 17." but ihc Kft b tbe more likely diie. C/. LiitJi#r/ 
Wtrkt. ed. O. Clnr«r. i, 399. 

•J«nM asd Andrew Fncb), cf. impta, no. tSt. 

'April B. 

•rwi« cavtll. M- 




Let. tji 

by the cursed pronouncement of Louvain and Cologne, sou 
to Hüllen by Erasmus of RoHcrdarn. It gave us great nu- 
terial Iwih for laughter and for wrath ; we mingled Ü!« 
laughter with our festive and ptous joy, and we moduhtol 
our indignation to the harp oF David, so that it should not 
become so great as to be sin, although wc do not read with- 
out sin, if everything is sin which f>rocceds from a mind movcil 
by indignation. For wc are not such Stoics that wc can fr« 
our minds from every malady, especially when wc see mtn 
audaciously rage to mack (!^ermany, to hurt religion, to de- 
stroy imiocence, men. too, who ought to be the ornament ot 
Germany, the honor of religion and the last to hurt innocence. 
In this opinion I always contained myself by a sort of happy 
assent. If any wish to show the innocence of their life, to 
hold burning lamps in their hands, to defend the cause of 
truth with the sword of tJie Holy Spirit, to lay down their 
lives for the salvation of their brethren, the>' ought to be th« 
theologians. But it is far otherwise; hardly any more mon- 
strous tyramiy rages among Christians than that of the the- 
ologians, especially those who are commonly called monks 
and inquisitors. Instead of light they show darkness and uo* 
happy envy, instead of the lamp of virtue they breathe frwn 
their nostrils fire, as the poet' says; the sword of the execu- 
tioner has taken the place of the sword of Scripture, sophistry 
the place of God's Word. For from caring for their brother's 
salvation their mind is not a sweet savor of Christ" redolent 
with the ointment of charity, but one which, clad in a deaUly 
garment of foul hatred, attacks tlie vitals of one's neighbor. 

I still remember how I heard at Cologne* a monstrotis and 
more than bloody deed done by Ilochstraltcn in l^wer Ger- 
many, which I shudder to think of. How much more, there- 
fore, should you beware of false brothers thirsting for blood, 
unless perchance you have decided to follow the example of 
Huss and increase the number of Christian mart)'rs. I would, 
if 1 could, dissuade you from this decision, for how can you 
be a saint unless the Pope, who alone has the power a$ was 

■Vlrfll. Atiutd. rIL all. 
•t CoriniUwa. ii. i). 

'CrMu* nulTicnliicd ■■ Coloenc Narcmbcr i;, ij«]. 

Let. 351 



recently decreed,' presents you with the freedom of the city 
of the saints? And wiU he, whose autliority you have weak- 
I encd and whose indulgences your disputation has made go 
^■bungiy, ^ve it to you? It will profit you nothing to wash 
^^your robe in the blood of the Lamb.' For eternal life what 
I need is there of a bull of the "representative Church"* and 
I the a^ecment of the professors, witliout which you will ccr- 
I tainly be non-suited before the celestial tribunal for deciding 
I the right to be called saint O wretched Christianity ! O 
primitive faith! Thus must all divine things depend on and 
' be contaminated with human ones? Let anyone who can, now 
I deny tliat the Church of God is smitten with a terrible per- 
^P secutor. ... 

^ In the judgment of all you have been condemned not ac- 
I cording to sound doctrine, but according to Louvain. Even 
^kso the Pope's thunder smites many not Christianly, but Ro- 
\^ manly — for new word? must be coined to describe new er- 
rors If, indeed, they have written anything, yet they sup- 
press it expecting the agreement of their allies, so that they 
can all rush upon you together and so crush you. They labor 
much to accomplisti thi« plan both in Italy and In Germany; 
and by delaying their refutation they win hatred for them- 
selves for daring publicly to condemn a Christian without 
giving their reasons for so doing. For it may come to pass 
that their allies will change their opinion and not wish to 
subscribe to the doctrinal condemnation, as it is now rumored 
of our friends at Erfurt.' Dorp, whose authority with the 
^■learned is greater than all the rest of the university, has re- 
fused to assent lo xbs condemnation of you by Louvain. 
Would that they would publish something less insane, so that 
in the strength of Scripture you might break their frivolous 
folly to shivers like the vessel of the potter,* and might slay 
their foolishness with the sword of the Holy Spirit. You 
■ would not have great ditHculty in doing this, but would add 

'ta ifc« C^lcran Council cf iii6, 
*Bcvttelioit. TÜ. 14- 
■a «luiAtlon tiom rricriai' D\»iavmt. 

*Tfcit probably rcfui tD tbc juismcai o( Eriurl in ilic Beucliliii cms; iL« 
detir« at ibo uninnit; Id «ithdi«w tbii it rpoltm of in the Efiflel«* Obtcararitm 

, a. «7 



reverence to the most reverend Cardinal of Tortosa' whan 
thos« old fools have found a worthy assistant, just like them- 
selves, o babbler, a coward and a good-for-nothing.- When he 
wislied to show the majesty of the "virtual Church,"* he 
spoke thus, with moderation, in something he did not under- 
stand: "I wonder much tliat a man entertaining such ob- 
vious and obstinate errors in matters of faith should be per- 
mitted to scatter his errors abroad with impunity and bring 
others into the same pernicious opinions."* With like mod- 
eration he said previously: "I saw Luther's errors; and they 
seemed to me such gross, palpable heresies, that not even a 
student in tlicology who had passed the first stage ought to 
make such slips."* Who will call this man most reverend io 
Christ, or who will respect his red embroidered hat and robe 
trailing on the ground' Who will apply spurs to those who 
run furiously of themselves? Since in his whole letter he ii 
sordid, dirty, impudent and light, let the professors gather 
from him flowers worthy of their nostrils, and let tlicm pluck 
this one from him, unless he took it from them: "In this 
Luther proves most of all that he is a heretic, in saying that 
he is ready to die at the stake for his opinions and to be a 
heretic against all wise men."* Martin, you have many com- 
panions in that heresy, and if alone you tread the true wine- 
press,' I think the number of those prepared to undergo the 
stake with you depends on the gift of Heaven. Let sharp 
men dispute and condemn as they please, they will never make 
me doubt that any mortal justified by faith has access to 
God.» . . . 

Martin, most upright of theologians, guard the divine It(^t 
now deserted by all, and show by the virtue which we cherish 
in you, what is the difference between a creature of the Pope 
and a creature of God. The King hath brought thee into bis 

'Adrian of Utrrcbf. Uttr Pope Adfitn VI. 
iCrcck, *fur tbe Iliad, i. sej. 

'Quolstion from Adtian'i 1«(lti of Dn«inb«r 4. 1119, prc&x*d C» tkc Catid*wt- 
natiuK ol Luihrr by Coiegnt omt Leitvtin. iti^ra, no. aat. 



K{. tuiih. Ixiii. ]. 
*Roniaa>, r. tf. 

I.M: 35' 



chamber* and hath given thcc the tongue of them that are 
taught' to know how to refuse the evil and choose the good* 
You are known to me, but you daily appear greater and 
greater. After the clouds of passion the sun is risen; \vc sec 
with what skill and diligence you confute the doctrinal con- 
demnation of tlie Luther-scourges; we admire your learning; 
we adore your genius; we are Iremendously pleased that you 
temper serious matters wiih jokes, bitter with sweet, so that 
when the wonnwood is drunk it is not tasted before it en- 
ters the stomach; you draw and paint everyone to the life. I 
do not well retain the image of my Martin on account of the 
years since I have conversed with him. You were formerly 
in our company a musician and a learned philosopher; but 
lately i saw the boxer Entellus fighting old Dares in the 
arena;* then you came forth as the swift hunter of the wild 
goat;* DOW you paint in hvely colors the judgment of the 
tbcologs ; what will you be next? In what line will you win 
the prize? I think that of the sculptor is left Come then. 
good Polyclctcs,* make us triumphal arches to commemorate 
your vanquished enemies, and show us in living marble that 
Jesus Christ. May he keep you from the moutli of the Lion' 
and the horns of the sophist unicorns forever I" 

Francis von Sickingcn, that great leader of the German 
nobility, requests, as Hultcn tells me. tliat you flee to him, and 
he will give you peace, a theological home, a servant, food 
and protection against enemies, with all the necessaries of 
life in abundance. Hutlen has written in full of this to Mel- 
anchthon." Such kindness is not to be despised. The holy 
fathers exercise their wits to no purpose more than to alienate 
from you the mind of the Elector Frederic, so that destitute 
of all protection you may finally be forced to flee to the Bo- 
hemians, which they think would be the end of your fame and 


IS «( &«IIK», L 4. 
*I**iah, I. 4. 
*lMUb, *>i. IS- 

•The de^ie wiili Prlcriu, lo deiignitcd by hJmMlf. nfta. «0. 6t. 
*Th« <ant«o»»f«)r iriili KmMr, tcramoniy e»Ilfd •■the wild foiL" 
*A D«i«ä ■ntienl i«u1piar. 
TPan: Lm X 
4V*alni KtM. 39- 
Vnfro, ■>•- aiS, aj>- 




doctrine. You know with what contempt these pet^e ait 
regarded, and how strong is an age-long opinion. Eck ixnr 
has his nail in your wound at Rome; wherefore we must be- 
ware, and you should let me know your opinion of my advice 
by letter. The favor of Sickingen should be kept, test he 
should think his great kindness to you scorned, he who with 
one letter for Reuchlin more terrified the Dominicans than 
did all the breves of Emperor and Pope.' John Huks hu 
come to life again at Uasle.* after having been so long dead 
through the tyranny of the Thoraists. What, pray, will be 
safe hereafter, when such holy writings dc5er\'c such a jodg- 
menti' But he is not dead; he will live as long as truth lives, 
bat he wasted away and blameworthy hatred passed to fail 
ashes. Your letter* found various fortune with me; when 
I return to Germany, that letter goes to Italy, but has a<X 
gone yeL Farewell. Crotus Rubeanus. 

P. S. — ^I send a letter to Hess,* but not to trouble you. If 
he is with you. as some say, give it to him: but if the rumor 
is false tear it up or keep it until he comes, for he will go 
thitlier where he may profit by Martin's doctrine. liutten 
is leaving, and asks to send his greeting, he is going to Fer- 
dinand,* the brother of King Charles, in whose court, wc hop«, 
he will fmd a place which will not be without advantage to 
you and to good studies. He showed us an epistle" of Eras- 
mus of Rollerdani commending you earnestly to the .arch- 
bishop of Mayence. A copy will he sent to you; take it 
and read the learned eulogy of this learned man. 

EtMlcn, ii. 395. WiTTTJtiEBC, May 1, 15» 

Greeting. 1 send the letters of your dean with those I 
received from Nuremberg. Mallliew Adrian lliinks we should 

Kf. mfr«, no. at«. 

■5wiwa, no. jjg. 

'Loii, Bnnwet to Clroiui'a kiitr at October }t. tvpra, no. i«a. 

*TbU teller la fobn Rcu, Afrtl tOi prlntol ta KfBlIi: Btitft mti DakamtmU, 
p. aa 

'Hiiim WM diuppaiitlt^ lo irylns 10 irln bin orer t« (be tide of CcnMa 

*Smtr», NoKubei I. tsifl, •>•• ■»'- Lalfcer i*i atftady M«a dK kner. 


rile to Dr. Pascha' at Magdeburg for Hebrew books. When 

}U have done it first I will do it and quickly; please see to 
I will look out for my own affairs. 

The number of students increases daily, so tliat the little 
city cannot receive them all, and many are forced to return. 
We are not able to provide Adrian wiili a lodging äuilable to 
him, nor are we pleased that others should be turned out 
for him, which, however, he has begun to do. If in this af- 
fair he has written anything or done anything (for he wished 
to see you about it personally) you know my opinion and 
Melanchthon's: we will not second him nor consent to his 
turning out anyone unwillingly from the house of the ballilT 
or anyone else; if they kindly wish to go. we shall be pleased 
and thankful. . . . 

I have received a letter from Staupitz at Nuremberg, prais- 
ing me at last and more hopeful in my cau&e than he was 
formerly wont to write. Wenzel Link writes that they have 
received the "doctrinal asses,"' and that he has good hope. 
Thus my ship is tossed; now hope, now fear is at the helm; 
but it is nothing to me. Martin Luther, Augustinian. 


Lmihtri opera van» argumtnU, ir. 236. RoHt, May 3, 1530, 

Thi« letter i> addretscd simply "To a Vicar": Professor G. Kawerau 
kiD<Jl>> idtniifics him for mc wilh John Hcigcrliii, callcii l-'abcr (1478- 
May 21. 1541). wtio studied at Tijbiniien. took grclcrs and matriculated 
at Frriburg by 1509. In 151Ö he was chancellor of the Bishop o( 
Basic, in 151S lie became Vicar of the Bishop uf Constance, nnd in 
1521 SufTragan Bishop: tS2j minister to rcrdinand, isaS-jS Coadjutor 
Bishop of Neustadt, Bishop of Vienna iS3a P. S. Allen, a. l8gi 

Greeting. Most worthy Vicar, your John Ulrich came to 
me on the journey, and we went to Rome happily together. 
I took our most holy Lord [the Fope] the book on the 
Primacy of Petfr. I would rather tell you face to face than 
write you on a dead paper, how kind the Supreme Pontiff 
and tlie very reverend cardinals were and arc to me. 

The first draft of a bull Kas been made against Luther, and 

'Tbe idcRlltr of tbii p«fMn li sat errtiin; prrhiM Alre«l«bcB, 
Tbv ('o0dcinn*Hon of L.tiihcr by Cologne isd LauvsIa 




will bc brought before the next consistory of cardinals, ii 
the most holy one follows the advice of Eck ; Üieii all tlic 
cardinals and bishops will subscribe to it. It has been t 
pood thing that 1 came to Rome at this time, because the 
others did not sufficienily know the errors of Luther. At in- 
olher time you shall hear what I have done in this cause. 
Recently the Pope, two cardinals,' Dr. Hispanus- and I de- 
liberated on this matter five hours; each was asked in loni 
to give his opinion. The form of ihc bull will please good 
men, for it is compounded according to the usage of Ac 
councils and popes ancient and modem, and forty-one cnvs 
are expressly condemned. . . . 

Yesterday I was in counsel with our most holy Lord 00 
the Lutheran business, telUng him what had been done hf 
the cardinals appointed to consider it; to-morrow, again, I 
am going to the Pope to ask on what day the consistory wäl 
meet. etc. . . . 

Farewell. Yours to command. Eck. 

P. S. — The cardinals favorable to me are the Cardinals of 
the Holy Cross,* of Ancona/ of Agcn,* of the Four Saints,' 
Jacobacci,^ of St. Sixtus.* and Campeggio.' etc. 

■Ciielin xnA Accolll. CJ. Smith. g<S. 

Tht Spaniih AucuitiDian Jobumn. wbou lut name la ueltnftwa. Ct. SwA. 
ibid., and Zeilichritl fiir KirchtHertcliichU. iit. oo. Prolowir Kiwmu nttn 
nr on ilie litter a» a «bok to UlLlbcirn: V'bon Rhtfiui, wbicb. howner, I ttan 
not bcca able lo obiBin. 

■Stinarilino Carvajal of Placeniia. in Spain. Bialiop of Carth«sCDi and OitfiL 
Mfdinal nnc« 1493- H< «as an <i[>p<inent of Julia» 11. al Üw Couatll of Ft«, 
■nJ •• tticb dEclarn] by ttc rope uiiwoitliT of ibt icd bat «htch waa mlwtd 
la him by he» X. He died I>c<E(i;bc[ i^, i^js. It bo* been conjcctartil ibal bt 
on>uKi] ibe dcaiinatlon «f Lulbrt'i apptal 10 ■ conntll ■■ h«r^ka], Oa bii^ 
in/ra, no, iti. and Smilb, Luihrr, p. «;. 

•Peter Aecolli of Amto, Bubop of Aneona, made cardinal by Jullua II. ia 
g|>i. U« iru one ef the eommliuaa to inTC>l!ji*le Lutbn'a berciy, and draJud 
(be bull Etimrfit D^fite, promulsalrd June 1 {, 1 jio. On Ihi* Smjlb** Luiker, fi. 

tLeonaid Gtoiio della Rbvere, Biihep of Agen. made eardJoal by Jullna H 
in rj«}. and taipr ttgate, liral at Vitcrbo and tben at P<TU(ia. 

•Lawrence Pucel. i> prefeuor of law at Pita, t>4oal diury aad«r Jatlna II.. 
fivfii lb* red bat by 1.«« X. In i^iij. He «u at lb« u<k of Rom« in ipy. 
and und» Clement VII.. CrantI Peniienliary. 

TDowinlc Jtcobaccl ol Komc, a leartied canonbi. BiUiop of Koccra dti Paiant. 
created cardinal July 1, 1517. 


>l.awr(nce Caatpcceio of Uilan <i474-<jjv). auditor miac at Rooir 151t, bUbof 
ift*. cardinal ijiy. He wu Iccaie 10 Ccmuny in tfiii »id acatn at tbe I>i*> 



Eoden, iL yyj. Whtesbehg, May 5, 15». 

Greeting. I send a letter to Guy DUd. dear Spalatin, to- 
gether with one of Peter Aquensis,' as he ordered. Both of 
tis have written to Hütten, Capito,' Pelican.* Erasmus and 
many others. 

At last brother Augustine Aiveld' has come out with his 
stuff; truly he is too stupid for me 10 lose time answering 
him. His mind, brain. no»c. mouili and hair, in short, his 
whole booic, reminds mc of that Leipsic ox,' for he uses fig- 
ures and devices here similar to those the other used in his 
vile lH>ok against the Bcghards.' Others* will answer him. 
and I will give it as an exercise to my famutus*^ to make 
verses and orations against this stolid ox. 

Please thank the elector for me. For you know it is not 
easy for mc to get his busy ear with my letters. Good Heav- 
ens ! bow much has come to us and how much more is prom- 
ised in the tetters of many men! Farewell and pray for me. 

Maktin Luther. 

»f Nurcmbcfc isi4. He ww 1<Rii« Id En(Und In tlic iffalr «f B«nry Vtll.** 

(ÜTonc horn Catbirin« of Aracv". >ii?^. 

■rntr Aq<KiMi* {t. r., ol Aiii-Ia-Chip4llc>, a Cknon of St. Martin*) ai Mvn^irf- 
*Sr **in" (u<tiM|ue noaliutn) Lulhcr probablj meant htin<el( and UcUTicblboo. 

X»n« «f th««c l*IUr( i* in print, but lliat to Capilo i> known Ut «lUl in US. 
*Cttbrid Pflicaa (1478-1516) of Buflaeb in AUau. bccane > FtaneiKan in 

t40j. Cmivt*! V'ltsr ttl Alu«( In 1*9.9. itudi«d H«brei» with R«u(ktin and Uittbf« 

Adii*B; 151» htftn to iHIur« on lUbrcv at Ilule; iji; wen! to Rome, reiurclnt 
to Batl« Ifio, 11 wbirb tim« b( bKime a follAw» of Lullxr. and i.U*r it>), > 
vana friead of Occalamtudini. In tjij he betan to lecture on Ute 0!d Teiu- 
mnl. In ij>7 he vai called bf Zwitifll to Zurich, wber« be rvmainot till hU 
d(aih. C/. fnitber Föniemann-Gäntbcr. p. 40*. lie WTOte Luttier, Uvch is. 
ISJO. Enden. II. jj«. 
■Aufutrinc of Alrcld. a FraiKlxan, firat app«ar( In biiiorr u rtadcr of ibe 

Dibit In tbc <laUlcr at Lcirrtlc in ijio. Al (hit timir b« was aakt'l by Bithof 

A4olpk uf UcTttbuti 10 dffenil ihc primae)) of ibc Pop«, nlikb be did in lb? 

h*T« mfDlMmtd br Lulber. Tbc Rcfnrmcf'a frltniU, Lonlcrr and Bernhardi 

rti kilD. be rejoined and l.ulbcr ■uirtjotncd. The cotilrorcrsT canliaucd far' 

yeati oa ibc »(ramenii. In ijiq AlvcM wa* elected FivrlncUI Vicar. Ite 

died Mwa after, Ot1»t>Tr. ijjj. Lif« by L. Lcmmtna 18«. 


In 1514 OcluenfafI wrolc Iwo bcrafc* agünal tba B«fbitda {tMrtme HwalMi), 
for ttilei of «hick ef. Enden ii. t6sf. 

If« «ai aniwcrtd bjr Brmbardi of rtldlcireben. 

•Til« famuhti wa» a «tudent who walled »n a profcMor In relarn (sf tDIMlnf. 
Lslket'a fatuntmt ■( ibli tine *aa John L«nic«r, a younf Aufuatinian, wb« 
•todied in Wilienbefi till Derember. ttfi. iben w«n( a> teacher a( Htbm>. firat 
M Sttaatburg iboa to Freibutf Ut. Easentinui 10 T. Blaurcr. I>eceniber 1}. 1511). 


P. S. — Please return the letter of Aqucosis for me lo at- 


Caitndar of tellers, Despalchtt and Slate Pa^ert, relating I« tk 
Nrifatiations bettveen England and Spain, ed. G. A. Rergmrotli, 
London, 1866, ii-, p. J05. RoUE, May li, ipD. 

(English tran»lation of Spanish origin,-»!.) 

Manuel wai a Spanish grandee who had fkllcn into ditfkvor aod 
bun imprisoned in 1513 for rendering bad servieca lo FcrdiBiDi 
Later he became Imperial Ambassador at Rome, an office which bt 
held [rem is^o-'J. when, apparently on account of the hostility ol 
Pope Adrian, he >*fls removed. 

If your Majesty go to Germany you ought to show some 
favor' to a certain friar who calls liiinsclf Friar Martin, who 
\% staying witli the Elector of Saxony. Tlie Pope is exceed- 
ingly afraid of liim as he preaches openly against the an- 
lliority of Rome, and in said to be a great scholar. 1 think 
he would be a good means of forcing the I'ope to conclwlt 
an alliance. I am, however, of the opinion that these meus 
ought to be employed only if the Pope refuses 10 make an 
alliance, or if he afterwards breaks it. 

VadianitcMe Brief Sammlung, hg, von £. Arbcne aad H. Warlmann, SL 
Gallen, alioofl. ii. 377. Constakce, May 12. Ija 

Joachim von Watt, known as Vadtanus Ct494-)SSO. ol St Gal 
matricul.iled a1 Vienna 1502. After graduation he taught Latin ai 
Greek tliere. He then look ihc (legrcc of M, D., and was rector of 
the University. He was crowned Poet Lai]r*ate- In 1518 he rt> 
turned to St Gall. He wrote history and |[cof{Taphical studies. In 
wwrm tymiJiiihy with the Protestant inoverncnt. he cirri«! ihrough 
the Reform of his native town. On his loil correspondence wilb 
Luther, €f. Appendix IT. to this book. Ilis life by bis friend. J. 
Kessler, pubtithed in the Inst edition of the hiter's Sabbala, tpt», pp- 

vliich h* «la oiklleed 10 1e«ft in ^^ti either for Eulingen or StnMfanrr, «khl 
be lefi in isj;. In lOO be wrote ■ «ork x(xin>i Alrcld. Knderi, ii. 394, iv. iit 
'Str»IH« 10 •«J, Dr. PhIot: Hiilary of ikt Fafrt, riii 17I., bM cucttf 
rrrctxil ibe mcuitnit of thia dcipaich, mtcrptciinK 11 "Yodt Halnry owckt la 
refrain Iron »bDwinv f&vui." A marc Illeril liamlilitin at llw 5t«niA. kindlj 
fuinisbcd mc by bit frimd, Prof. S. L. Calpin. of Ajnli«rM CoUcit, it: 
"Aad your Maj'ctir iDay co-me to Otraanr, *< wLiib ttter «HI «siiD b« greulr 
«Iraid, and a litltc favor mar »Mietl]- (be done) to a tflu «l>« t«lla knotclf 
Friar Martin." Knib tht linjuag« and Ab ca nt« »! iiha« that Btrgvorolfa'* 

tiAoaitiion li correct. 




Jiff. Modern life by E. Ggtiingcr in Seknfttn 6eM Vereins fir 
XtfortnatiomgeickicHlf, no, 5a 

Creeting.^ Dear Joachinij your commendation is to me the 

5t possible commeniUtton. For you always recommend that 
irhich approves itself without any recommendation. But were 
the object in llie greatest jiossible need uf praise, yet would 
your recommendation have so much weight with me, 
that it could and ou^ht to illumine dark matters, and give 
grace to things worn out. 

You ask for Eck's works. I have none to send you .save 
those of which you already have seen too much. Either noth- 
ing of that kind is brought to Constance, or else the author, 
out of respect to pontifical ears, lets his tndcfaligahle pen 
rest a while. Me brought The Primacy of Peter to the feet of 
Leo X., expecting not a roar, but applause. May God grant 
that this learned man may spend his time better and turn his 
by no means effete mind to belter studies. 

I thank your kindness for sending me the report of Luther's 
debate.* I also will send you anything new that ctjmcs to me. 
That man's writings wonderfully please mc, but 1 regret that 
he so rashly propagates ideas which are indeed true, but yet 
too strong for the crude stomach of the populace to digest. 
Take for example his tract on Confession,' which every old 
woman on the street knows. Paul Iiad not a few things which 
be hid away on account of the times, giving milk to babes 
until they grew up in Christ, that he might speak wisdom 
among the perfect. What Luther writes is surely most true, 
tnit it is not expedient to lay such hard matters before the 
whole world. For if Paul passed over part of the doctrine 
of the gospel, in order to win the frail and fickle multitude, 
how much more fitting is it nowadays either to connive at 
that which cannot be changed without a revolution, or else 
to heal the sick world by some entirely different meanst, for, 
as you know, the medicine is strong for the times. It is by 
no means sufBcient tu know what drugs to apply to a sick- 


*Stitfäani dufitaiienü Lulhftianai, probtblr tthn lo th« minulu of lb« 
Leipsk dcbHc vubliilicJ looa sttcr it Icok plac«, and rcprlnicd, WeinUi IL sf«. 
It nay, fcownef, rrlir lo lit Ftifflu1i,«m (or dtbai?. Wrirs». ji, ifj, 
,.9Eimt harat U-tmurimnf tri* man bt't^Un i^U, We'imtt, U. 57. 


ncss, unless you also know -whtn and how to administer thoa 
An ancient error eaanot be thus impetuously rooted out, tfli 
must be treated patiently. The axioms which you sent about 
penitence,' may please learned men, but they are a plague to 
unlearned ears, for they almost extinguish a good part ol 
piety among common people, who have neither the genius nor 
the judgment to receive at once the rare paradoxes of our 
most learned Luther. Indeed, they arc often a puzzle cvca 
to men who are lolcrahly well educated. Nor are you ig- 
norant that even if the good man wrote in Latin for the sake 
of eliciting the truth, and not in the language of the Rhine 
and the Danube, yet the printers, mindful of their own gain, 
would immediately translate evcrj-thing into the vcmacuUr 
and publish thousands of copies, so that no one, no matter 
how illiterate, should be ignorant of the Lutheran tumult 
Such men are like spider-webs, who catch whatever is pemi' 
clous in Luther's doctrine. For how many people are ihert. 
Vadian, who with true judgment can weigh antecedent and 
consequent, which, I think, is of special importance in thii 
matter? I write this not with disafifection. for I greatly Ktät 
that all men were truly Lutheran, tliat iä, learnedly pious ioi 
piously learned. . . . 

Enders, IL 40t. (WineMmatc), May ij. i;» 

Greeting, I am very glad that 1 determined to answer 
Alveld in the name of my brother.' For the man is so txi 
beyond my capacity that I should not be able to answer his 
folly worthily. I have never seen, heard of, nor read a book 
so silly and stupid in everj- syllabic; in fact, I lack language 
with which 1(1 describe It. Ti>-day I finished the notes to 
give my brother for him to put into shape. The work wIH 
soon be done. Likewise I hope my sermon on good works 
will soon be done. 

\Vc will pray for the elector; only do not begin to trust in 
our prayers, but rather in the goodness of God who promises 

'Probably the Sfrma it Frniifnit». Weini«r. L jt;. FoMibly baw«*t(, haA 

ibl* itai tbe reference id ibc Sthtda 4i(^t«fi(iau ue I« tbe Kintiy-ftf TkrMi. 

>L«aicciu>. tupra. no. *|4. 




hear those who pray. I hope the Lord will prcserv« him 

us, or rather for himself in these matters. 

1 am not worr>*in(i about Millilz, the Elector of Mayen«« 

and the rest. I should like to see all the tyrants at Rome 

Ul al ease that they might know that they are men who 

have a God. 

I know that Lucas Cranach has a cloth, but that he does 
not know to whom he owes it, nor did 1 ask. I saw also 
chamois-hair cloths, nor does he knnw lo whom he owes 
these, nor were they inquired for, lest perchance there should 
be some error, if the same thing should be sold to different 
people- Perhaps they all have come to you to-day. 

Day before yesterday I had a message from Sylvester von 
Schaumburg,* a Francontan noble, who has a son* here com- 
mended to Melanchthon. He promises me sure protection if 
the elector should be endangered by my cause. While not 
despising this offer I prefer to rely only on Christ as my pro- 
tector, who perhaps has given Schaumburg this idea. Fare- 
^rell in the Lord. Martin Luther, Augujlinian. 


Brtuim epiitotat (Load.), xxxiti. 3l. Erasmi Qfiera (i/Oj). iii. ^$$. 

Lauvaik, May 14, 15»,' 

. , . The kings of England and France are preparing for 

a conference at Calais about June i.* The Archbishop of 

Canterbur/ invites me lo be present. They almost burnt 

Luther's books in England, but a humble, though seasonably 

'A bni(hl of UänneHtiJl in Fmnconi», born b«!»«?« ibc jtim mSO (nd S4T'- 
He ltd ■ wild life of (cud willi bi> nti^bbiit, lot •rbirh h« wu Ihriie out- 
lav<d by ih< Vjppirt- lie «nt<r«d ifcv tervtc« of Ifac Caunt ol Hcnncbtfrji i^^'i 
of ih« Bidiüp of ilimhrrg ijil, Utrr of tbr Ttvlanic Ordrr uiH of tbc Bithoi» 
»f WOn-bnT« in i%i!- Tb« f*II of Sidcinfrn pndantetvt bim In ij'ji tboutb be 
»M onlr tnilirrtllr concctnM with clir rMng- H« diid i()«. hilt hf 
F, Ktvp. TO It. 

■AabfOM ton Scbannburt. (hr aldiiit »nn of Sytinirr. at ihii timr fhrobsblr 
betvccn it and iH yean old. la 15JO be wem on ■ cimpaijia aBÜnil <be Tuiki 
In (oatpanr wilb bit (atbcr. He dlrd «bout itjj. KipD. of. ti>. 
iWronflr diiFil in the Ofrra of croj. ti June 14. 
*Od thu [/. rrtscrrcd Smiib, In iTniiluft Hitteritnl ffrvinv, «. <j7. 
'WUton WaibtiQ (>4SO?-A(iiiisl it, t^ji}, iran ■dvanccmcnt bf bis les*l 
•n4lnn«fil>. lU wu Uutct «f ibc Rolli 1491 m»i, BUhnp at Lotidun t^oi, 
Arcbbbbep of ranterburr 'Joj, I.otd CbancelloT of Cnilan'] 1504-15; Chancelbj 
of Okford VancraVljr i^ (ill bü dratb. Hi* atllludv t« tbc Rcfornutiaa ii 
•bowo by oa« «f kia Utler« publiibcd belo«. 




vigilant friend prcvcni«! it. Not that I can judge Lutitri 
works, but this tyranny by no means pleased me. . . . 

Corfut Rtformalomm, i. 204. Louvain (May, 15»).' 

. . . There is a variety of 'news about Luther. I favor the 
aun as much a I can, even though they [my enemies] il 
ways join my cause with his. It was decided tliat his booki 
should be humed in England, but I stopped this by wiitiog 
letters to Cardinal Wolsey. At my suggestion also, he im- 
posed silence by a public proclamation on those who clamor 
foolisiily before the people, mentioning Standish'by naiDt 
He favors sound learning, and is offended by nothing in 
Lulher except by the denial that the primacy of the Pope ii 
of divine right. Those who favor Luther (and almost all 
good men favor him) wish that he had written more dviSij 
and moderately. liut it is too late to warn him now. 1 see 
that there is going to be trouble, but I pray that it may be 
for tlic glory of Christ. Perhaps it is necessary that scandaU 
should come, but I should not like to be the cause of the 
Ccandal. The plan of those fellows is truly diabolic, for 
they desire nothing else than to suppress Christ and to reipi 
in his name. Commend mc to Luther and to all your friends. 
I have written tliis hastily, while ill and while the messenger 
was waiting. Your Erasmus. 

P. S. — Luther's Answer^ to the Condrmnation of Cologne 
and Louvain wonderfully pleased me. At length they have 
begun to be ashamed of their premature pronouncement. I 
should have preferred that my name had not been mentioned, 
for it simply compromises me and does not help Lulher. Hut- 
ten i& here, soon to go to the court of Charles, which is now 

'Tbii kricr wcmf lo be «bant Ihr tUB,t tjaie ai 10 0«calanp*diiu d 
Mfty 14. 1^0. na. >iT. 

■It<fii7 Siandith. D, D., died iSJJ. > FraneiKAii. ftadi<4 >l Osf«td mi 
Caralifidge. preathtd al eoatt TnHom liaitt between ijii «ad is», m%ta ht 
bMani* (he cbi>f »pirilual idiiirr of Hrnrjr VIII, Ht k** nsde But«* ^ 
Si. AuLpb. May iS. t]iR. Ht ti« b tiout r<HiiefTah*«, bi(t«ttr oyvoMd n C«M. 
Erumui and th« Refomcf*. Di(. Sat, Btoiimphy, 

TOircb, 15». Weimar, vi. iSj. Cf. Smilk, ef. tit., loi.i. 





copied by the beggar tyrants* 

Farewell again, dearest 


^BCrausc, 619. (Gotba.), May 15, 1520. 

^H . . . Zasius extotls otir Luther to the skies. The illustrious 
jHrirckhcimer has written of him, what I have just read to my 
I dear friend Adam Craflft,' as follows: "All ages will remem- 
I ber that the Wittenbergers were the first to see the truth, the 
first to open their eyes after so many centuries, and to begin 
to separate the degenerate from the Christian philosophy. 
And who among those wise men is so eminent a preacher 
^of Christ as Luther?" . . . 

V^uiDto, xxxviiL jis. tCTKO. Italian. Brown, iii. 51. Eoglisli. 

Howe, May 22, 1520. 
^H Gndea'tgo was Venetian Ambasfador at Rome 1520-3, 

A consistory has been held on the affair of Martin Luther 
in Germany and nothing dclcrraincd. The matter was post- 
poned in order not to render the scandal greater by showing 
that importance was attached to his errors. 


^^^Iters and Papers of Henry t'lll., ed. J. S. Brewer. London. 186?, 
^^K iii, na £47. (Eii|[]i&h condensed translation of Latin origin^].) 

^^ Rome, May sä. 1530. 

Gigli (t46>ApTil 18. 1321). of Luc», succeeded liii uncle as Uitliop 
of WofMSter and English agent at Rome in 149& From 1504-13 he 
was on a mission to England, when he relumed as Ambassador to 
the Pope, Dictionary of S'aiiotial tUoijraphy. 

^M Some months ago the works of Friar Martin arrived. 
Much of their contents is disapproved of by great theologians, 
by reason of the scandals to which they might give rise, and 

Text itV)*iTi>pavvct lot mu^ttripawot. Erumni* fiToiiic name for the racodl- 
CMii ordtt». 

'Kr*(l or Cr«w ot Fuld» <i4»jts5i), »n »dmiicr o( Etmibus, Ultr a ilronj 
Lu(kcT*n, afltr ij:; pmtciMr M U*ibu(|. Eotkfi, tL tt, Tku Iclttr cf Pink- 
bciaier ia boi Co C«ld«n. 






part is condemned as heretical. After long debates it hu 
been decreed by the cardiiuls lo declare Martin a heretic, 
and a bull is in preparation on that subject, of which I will 
send a copy. 


Enders, ii. 404. WimKBEiKi, May ja. 15» 

Bünau later became pastor ai Camitz, where we find hint marmd 
in I5J5- In this $Amc year lic was obliged to leave on this Becovnl, 
went lo Silesia and became pastor at Hayn. where he died in isj6. 

Greeting. Dear Sir, I also lenew that Thomas MfinztH 
could not be moved from his purpose; yet I am glad tliat a!! 
have become attentive to the work of grace. J will take 
counsel with my friends and endeavor to procure cbaptains 
for your Excellency. In the meantime let constancy be like 
itself, that is, con&tant in the Lord. It is nothing new if the 
world is now perturbed on account of the Word of Cod. 
Herod and the whole of Jerusalem were disturbed only to 
hear of Christ's birth;' why shall the earth not be moved 
and the sun darkened when they hear of Christ's death?' 
Truly to me it is a sign that our doctrine is sound, that many 
and great and wise men are offended at iL For thus says 
Psalm Ixxvii.* "It slew the fattest of them, and smote 
down the chosen men of Israel." And, again: "He is set for 
the falling and rising up of many*" not among the Gentitts, 
but "in Israel," and among the elect. God always chooses 
tlie foolish and wealc things of the world, and those things 
which are naught", and it is written that the conversation oi 

'Ufinur (i^go-Uar tf, is*f). natHeulMH 150S at L«ip«k, 15t« U Pr»BU«1 
in 4tr OAtT. In ijij w*nt to Hill«, Lattr lie became prolnur &i L«jpM, 
whirf bt probahl7 me\ Luibrr m ibe time of ihe d^bur. tjig. Earl; la (|>e 
hf w«ni to Zwickau to take lb« iiUe« of Effranui, and here befi» in «RerffMk 
[cfonn, fir more radkal tban Lutfaer'i, wblcb be lielltv»il ilioiiM ht (uti«d 
Ihroush hf force. Kxpellcd hr tt>T «ulliurilit« in April, ts*i. )ie *mt U 
Bohemia, «nd in 1513 to Alstcdt, wbere b« ajtaln prciched Inaumetioii. After ■ 
•hani C4imroTCTi7 witb Luiberhc wu acaln ciptlkd. igi4. and <rcn( to MQliIliaiUM. 
He b«wnc a leader in tbt Peuanis' War, wai captund at Krankcnbauwn, Mar it. 
ts^!. and afitr being forced 10 (ctini. cictuted. RtaSttnyclcpMu. 

Ilattbear, Ii. y 

■Uaitbfw, smii, i»; Lain, wtilL 45. 

•PmI» luviii. )l. 

■iLoke. 11. jf. 

*l Connlbiani, ii. mf. 





wisdom is with those that walk simply.' 
keep your Excellency. Amen, 


The Lord Jesus 

Mastik Luthbe. 

^^^^^^ 363. LUTHER TO SPALATIN. 

^'tnder«. iL 405. WlTTENuLm;, May 31, tS^O. 

Greeting. I am sending leltcrs, Spalatin, to llutien, Sick- 
ingen and our Taubenheim;' please let it be your care to 
forward Ihcm. Let Taubenheim. in particular, have his at 
once, for 1 have put off ajiswcring him longer than I hoped. 
LoDtcenis will be done to-morrow. The Leipsic professors, 
anxious 10 retain (heir scholars, boast that Erasmus is com- 
ing to them. How busy and yet unliappy is hatred! When 
^n year ago they insulted us as vanquished they did not see 
that this cross was waiting for ihem. The Lord rules, as 
we can feel. Och-senfart is said to be arming against Feld- 
^Bdrchen by whom he is traduced. I have finished something in 
'German against that ass Alveld; il will soon be printed. 

Advise me whether I should write to the elector in be- 
ilf of our state. Hver^thing is very dear, and enough is 
>t brought in ; nor is anything lawfully regulated in tliis most 
>nfused and neglected administration. Something could be 
sne at Wittenberg, if there were any order in the govem- 
rflunt. There is need here of the counsel and authority of the 
Answer and farewell. 

Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

Enden, Ü. 163. (Wittehb£iic> Jane. 1520.) 

II Thi» lelter, placed by Endert in September. 1519, >« in answer to 
•«nc of May, t^jo. placed by Endcre, ii. J41, in September, 1519. 
Dungersheim aniwercd it at once with a sliorl letter %nd a long 

*Pr(»*fb*, nU J I. 'Cocn •implicibus Hmoeinatia rju>." Votgatc. 

t»n T*ubcnhelni, fn«nüoii«l la 1*90 is a page o-t rrcilerie ite Wb«, 

at«d at L^ifiMc is^^, B' A. ijoj. At latul in ijii be CDtemJ the 

[•criicf, bccaminx trraiutcr and cotlrctor of taaci. In ISIJ'G it (cHeclcd 

Uta pitd itluln (Intludlnj iltDM of ihe prttftntaf} »t Wiltinlxfc. In 

ke wu «nc «t tbr Churfh vititn-ri On bia «arm rtUtionii wiih t.utkrr 

S«ilfc. ef. ell.. sSo. He died i<4[ or iS4J. /irchiv. fit RrformaiioHrgt' 

kielUf. v3i. j^T. 




Dialognf, both printed by Enders. iL t66ff. Tbis closed the mm- 
spondcncc For tiatcs, cf. sttfra, no. aoi. 

Greeting. Truly, my man. you lia%-« excelleni major pre- 
mises, but very poor minors. You keep saying only "The 
Church, the Church, heretics, heretics!" and will not alio« 
tliat the Icxl "Prove all thioKs"' was said to one man. But 
when we ask for the Church, you show us one man, the Pope 
to whom you attribute everything, though you do not offer the 
least proof that his faith cannot fail. But we find more 
heresies in his Decretals than in any heretical book. Thus, 
in what alone is to be proved by you, you perpetually li^ 
the question, as though you were ignorant that the worst 
fault of argument was petitio priKcipi't. This, I say, you must 
prove, that you have the Church of God, and that it is do- 
whcrc else in the world. We wish to be judged by Scripture, 
you wish to judge tt Please stop wearying me with suck 
words, or, as you threaten, publish what you wish. If the 
Fathers are to be read without selection and judgment, Ih« 
Scripture is taken away. Of the form of God* and of the 
papacy I think as I thought; nor do I doubt that I will easily 
answer whatever you publish on these subjects. Don't be 
impertinent, my man : for a whole year you have tried to do 
much and have not greatly succeeded. Many words do not 
move me, hut solid arguments; nor do I therefore accuse the 
saints of falsehood, as you are wont to deduce from my 
words, if I say that Scripture is sometimes twisted by ihcm. 
Pray beware, i( you do write anything, not to deduce such 
consequences and corollaries from my words and put youf 
own construction on them. You will need sharp eyes. For 
a good doctor should not say that one has lied who has barely 
erred, since Augustine himself confesses that many obscuft 
texts bear a manifold sense, although we must believe thai the 
sense is simple. . . . 

If you use such methods against me, you will succeed finely; 
there will never be an end of writing and disputing. For 
always when I say one thing you understand another, just 

*t TbCHklonluu, V. at. 

ThU tttm tv < dcteic oa Ifcc texi, PhilippUo*. n. ft. 




as that ass* of yours does. I know not whether the nature 
of Lcipsic men is such as to allow you to be such careless 
readers, such audacious judges, and so slow in understand- 
ing others. Believe me. I will have something to say to you. 
Formerly you wrote against the Bcghards;^ you know with 
what success I Take a friend's advice and write not so much. 
but more to the point. I know that victory docs not depend 
on the numbers exposed to slaughter, but on military art. 
Vainly do you complain that you are betrayed by me. I con- 
fess that I let some others read your letters, so as not to be 
the sole judge in my own cause, which you are always com- 
plaining of. If you are aggrieved herein, I allow you to re- 
taliate, and I will not fight with you nor attack you on this 
ground. If in matter of faitli concord were easy belwcen us. 
no syllable would be written. Do you also consider how 
much we have suffered and do daily suflfer from your friends, 
which could not be done without your assent? Take care lest 
God will repay it. This affair is none of your business, and 
hitherto you have always declined to lake part. Now at last 
you are coming in; take care lest you become involved. I am 
perfectly well aware, my dear Jerome, how much you tried 
to do me behind my back, as I wrote you at Leipsic,* which 
I have always ignored and do still. But take care lest my 
exhausted patience shall burst out. I am a man like you, ex- 
cept that you secretly bite in leisure and quietly ; I, very busy, 
am attacked by the teeth of all, and I am asked to be mod- 
erate who alone am surrounded with so many ravenous 
wolves. The world presses me down and gnaws me piece- 
meal. Good God, how I am accused, and yet, if we are but 
Z little moved thereby, you cannot bear it. I write this that 
you may know that I prefer peace and concord; but if that ii 
impossible the Lord's will be done! 

You need not write me about the other matters, for I un- 
derstand you. Take care to understand my propositions, for. 

Ancwttnc AlTcld- 
'Smfta, Rv. lit. 

■Tkb 1(1H> b Icut and \i U difficutl to Mccnaia wticn ii could btvc brcn 
ittca. Litlbcr ia «pvstciilly «lertinc lu the ■landen »baLit hitn, «hiclk fan 
'vmbvied to Dungciibcini, cf. nfto, no. 117. Bui it U not knovn that he wa> at 
l<dp*ic W tLU time or aaywhtr« ocar It. Tht time uf tht debate would ba 



Ul M 

as they cannot be overthrown by you, with Christ's aid I will 
not suffer you to do it. Farewell and pray, not only that vt 
may have the right opinions, but that we may live and U 

Ender», ü. 411- (WtiTKKBrw:), June 7. ij» 

Greeting. Although you salute me alone, dear Hess, I vlH 
return more than you send, but briefly as my business ^^ 
quires. Crotus wrote from Bamberg both to you and to mt' 
I wonder why his letter to you did not come. I think I wouhl 
have kept it fairly and faithfully, although he wrote me to 
tear it up if you were not here. My letters went to Italy just 
as he was leaving it, and he did not know I had written him. 

Eck is enjoying his wished-for glory in Rome. Presented 
to the Pope by the Cardinal of the Four Crowns* he kissed 
the blessed feet. Then, to the astonishment of all. the Pope 
sitting in public view on the throne of his majesty, kissed 
him. Let them lick, lap, spit on and bite each other thus!' 
My correspondent writes: "Luther has propitious gods at 
Rome, but no propitious men." What do you think will coine 
of this? Perhaps the sky will £all and many pots will cd* 
lide. Sylvester Pricrias has vomited up something more,' and 
that so blasphemous that it almost kills me just to read it 
We will publish the infernal pamphlet with notes by Luther 
Meantime, do what you do, and greet Michael' and Craut- 
wald" and all my friends. I wish the most reverend bishop' 
the grace of Christ. Farewell in Christ. 

Maktijj Lutheh, Aug«stinion. 

EndcT«, ii. 413. WirrcvHsair. (before June 8). is» 

Greeting. I send letters from Nuremberg, dear Spalalin, 

'C/. ttfr», no. 151. 

*Lorciuv Pueti. 

*1 bare lUtbtlr ch»n,ced Iht punctuation ci( ihii lu milt« bilter Hnw. 

*Bt<t9m* rttfemtenu »d Ltttknitn, publikbcd bji I.ulhtr in Jon«, Ijao^ Wtiatr, 
W. ,.f. 

*Wlltit*r. a unen at BniUa. 

(Valentine Crantwild, an aid friend of Hni mxA kIcliDtlilhoa, ■ Hike« nil 
Creek acliol>r, liitr a ScbwinkdlilUii. and u (Uch. frequcnily ■••tiMMd mk 
fcMlilttj bj Liitbirr ill tfis-fi. Cndeca, 1. i^, 3», ju. 

>Jcbn «on Thiuu). 


with Prierias' Epitome.'' which that barbarous Greek and 
cooker of Latin" himself calls "Epithoma." Send it right 
back; it will be printed" soon to tlie praise and glory of all 
enemies of the truth, with my notes. / think that at Rome 
they hope all become mod, silly, raging, iHsanf fools, stocks, 
stones and devils of hell.* See now what we have to hope 
from Rome who allows this infernal writing lo go out against 
^the Qiurch. These portents overwhelm mc with the greal- 
:ss of the folly. 

While inveighing against the ass Alveld I am not forgetful 
of the Roman PontiflF. though I will please neither of them. 
1 am forced to write tlsus, for at kngth the secrets of Anti- 
christ must be revealed. For they press on and will not lie 
hidden any more. 

] have the intention of publishing a broadside" to Charles 
and the whole German nobility against the tyranny and wick- 
edness of the Roman court. 

My postilla to the Epistles and Gospels are being prepared 
for the press.' 

I am writing to the most illustrious elector in behalf of 
the commonweal. Pray do what you can to help us. Otlier- 

rris* we shall soon go hungry, or buy food at too high a 
rice. Farewell and pray for me. 
Brother Martin LuxnER. 
orfus RefffrmalQrumi i. 201. (Witte-sbebc), June 8, 1520, 

. . Wittenberg is not yet under the interdict, and things 
id to be peaceful at Rome, except that Sylvester Prierias 
publishing an Index of bis dialogue against Luther,' his 


'So Ckllcd bccaiuc o[ bU title, u iriittcn on the beidliig ot bU Bfiltme, 
"nMin (>nau«d ot maaulrH M<ri PoJoci/.'' "U*(irut" meant "<ook." TbU 
b not • mUpiint. ■* Enden ibinln, tnit a rtfalar, tbvusb peculUr, fvnn, aia- 
Bad«nlof>cl bf Lulbcr. 

T/. ttifri, na. >6S' 


*TIiit bccan»« tht tanoti« AJJren I0 lA/ .Votilii>, at wbich th« pr«f»c( «u 
ll*d Juo« »J. IS»». Il »Ppeifed tit\j in Auitoil. Smilb. ep. til.. T»ff. 
•TbcM Snt aptmred in Uircb, 1^1. Wrimnr. ?li. 4{B. 

TTbe Etilem^ tttp^nttants ad Lmlknm», *iih tbe niblitlc: t»ttt 9*i4m Imgi»- 
limmt M*4 brnittimum Epuema, Cf. tvpra, »^6. 


purpose being, if I mistake not, to terrify the man by falw 
watch-fires. You will see the book when it is prinied here, 
Francis von Sickingen, the rare glory of German knightiuxid, 
of his own accord invites Luther to himself. Hutlen is go- 
ing to Ferdinand, the brother of Qiarles, to make way, wilk 
the help of the greatest princes of the ^npire, for Gennu 
liberty. What may we not hope? . . . 

[ am $etiding Luther's tract on failh and Good Work», 
which, like all his books, you will read with pleasure. 

Crolus has written to you here, and also to Luther. OttT 
letters are on the way to Italy, although he is coming to Ger- 

Lulher is answering your question on Paul, and what is 
more apt than his answer? No one known to me of all the 
Greek and Latin writers has gotten nearer Paul's spirit. . . . 

Sinuto, xxxviii. 360. Italian. Brown, iü. 7^. Roux, June 9. i$Xl 

Friar Martin Luther in Germany is very much followed 
by the Elector of Saxony and other lords, who have written 
in his defence to the Pope, telling him to send anyone be 
pleases to dispute with Luther, who will show that what he 
preaches and says is perfectly true and based on the word) 
of Christ. 

Endcrs. ii. 415. German. MuMN&Ksr.VDT. June 11, 15X1 

My unknown service and friendship to you, learned, ex- 
cellent, dear Sir and Friend t Many learned persons have 
told me that your doctrine and opinions arc grounded on the 
holy, divine Scriptures, and that you are opposed by unfavor- 
able, envious persons, given up to greed, which is serviceaWt 
to idolatry. And though you allow your opinion to be passed 
upon by an cccttmenical Christian council, or by other im- 
partial, wise and learned men. yet you suffer for it danger to 
your life, and are compelled to betake yourself to a foreign 
nation, probably to the Bohemians, who do not highly esteem 
spiritual, arlntrary punislunent 

l*t. 370 



1 1 beg and admonisli you in God the Lord, m case the clec- 
>r or any other government should expel you rather than dis- 
obediently endure arbitrary spiritual punishment for you, 
that you should not let such desertion trouble you, nor be- 
take yourself to the Bohemians, from whom in former times 
certain learned men obtained much contradiction and offence, 
and thus increased ihe disfavor in which thcj' were held. For 
1, and, I helicve. a hundred gentlemen whom I can bring to- 
gether, will keep you safe and protect you against your op- 
ponents, until your opinions have been canvassed and ex- 
amined by a common Christian council or by impartial learned 
judges, and you yourself better instructed; for you yourself 
have agreed to submit in such a case. As you are one to 
whom, though unknown, I am minded to show service and 
friendship, I did not wish to conceal the above from you, for 
you to comfort yourself witli. 

Sylvester von Schaum beho. 



EadcTS, iL 418. WmENBFJio, June 15, tsao. 

NolfainK it known of Kunzelt, except that a little Utcr {December 
10, 1530, Endcr», tii. ig), he r«qucMed permission I0 go away to study 
for eight years, on the ^roand that he had been so much ordered 

ant by bis superiors that he deserved a little leisure. 

Greeting. You inquire, venerable Father, as to ray practice 
in beginning and ending a sermon; ray usage is not the com- 
mon one. Omitting wordy prologues I briefäy say : "invoke 
the divine grace, and say an invjard Are Maria or Paternos- 
ter, that the word of Cod *nay be fruitful to us and Cod ac- 
cept us''* Then I read the text, without announcing the 
topic. Then* I explain or propound doctrines from It. At 
the end I say: "Enough of this," or, "Mart another time," 
or, "Having said this, we will pray God for his grace to en- 
able us to do it," or thus: "God help us do it," Then most 
briefly: "Let us commend to God the spiritual and temporal 
estates, particularly so and so, for whom and for all, as we 
ought, we will recite the Lord's prayer in camtnon." After 

,*n« trvids in lialki art CtiDi«ii. 
ntck^lnf "Deinüe" far "Dariilea." 


Lm. tri 

tliil at all rise: "The blessing of God the Father, etc. .-Vmea" 
This is my manner of preaching. Farewell in the Lord. 

Dkoih^ Maktin Luth£r, Augustinian. 

Enders, ii. 433. (Wittenbej«;), June 25. IS» 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin. I and many others think Mdanch- 
thon should not be burdened wiih lecturing on Pliny on ac- 
count of his lectures on the Apostle Paul, which arc so fniil- 
fui. The hearers ought not to be deprived of this good, since 
what they would get from Pliny would not be enough to com- 
pensate them. It is to be feared thai some spirit who is not 
rashly to be resisted impels him to do this, lest it should tan 
out a device of Satan to prevent, on this excuse, the cultiva- 
tion of good fruit. They think that if Pliny is to be pven at 
all it shoLiW be by Professor John Hess.' I know not what 
Melanchtlion will do about marrying, especially the girl you 
suggest' I want him to take a wife, but wish neither to 
dictate nor to advise whom he shall marry, nor do I sec that 
he is particularly anxious to marry. 

Although I hope Melanchthon will not go to Bavaria,' yet 
I have always wished that he might have a larger sa!ar%'. so 
thai they might lose the hope they have conceived of getting 
him, since they sec that he is paid less here than he would 
he there.* If there is any chance, be vigilant. For when op- 
portunity calls, it is not to he neglected, for it is God callii^. 

I will speak of the Strassburg tragedy* in a proper place. 
To-morrow my Pricrias and German Romanist will be fin- 
ished." Farewell. Martin Luthks, Auguslinian. 

Krause. 654. <GoriiA), July 1, isax 

. . . Who is that Martin Luder who together with John 

'ThU wu nnt Jflbo Ilrta o( llrtilkiL, but the Wiiicnbrrttr. 

'MclMicbtbun inuiicil Catbaiine Rnpp on KovcmtxT ij, ijio. 

■InioIiiaJi >□(! RTU«btin w«« tiill ttylnj I» git McUncbthgo. Cf. nf^ 
no. ii4. 

'Uthnchlkon gat ibc tncr««sc on lit* loantase. 

■Tltu relet« (o tn tncicteal detuibcd In (he AAirwu (<• lA« Gtrma* K»Wit- 
Iliibo^ WilliiiD of Sinubuig irM prtvoilcd frcs> refntminc kw dkcdrt] br 
the Pope. 

■Luilirr fDfxni ibe Fpitoie of PritrJM «n<t f«« Pafilllium rm A#m n*i*r 4M 
RpmanUttK tu Lfi^na. Wdsw, vi. tnfS. 



Fug and Wcnzcl Link follows John Lang and precedes John 
Staupitz the head of your order? It is signal carelessness 
and remarkable ignorance to put him who Iiad tlic first place 
in chapter xlii. down among the following numbers. I will 
Dot call it malice, for Luder and Luther might be different 
persons.' . . . 

Zasius does not think ill of Martin. Ife knows thai he is 
quite learned in our theology both modem and ancient, he 
knows that he is a luraiiiar)- of the Auguslinian order, he 
knows that he sustains the attacks of many, in short, he knows 
that the innocent man is wrongly bound by the curses of the 
Pope. He is not ignorant liow mucli hatred is brought by tlie 
Hussite name, and how much odium by blessed Bohemia. 
Perhaps he thinks that it would be more for the peace and 
concord of the people if Luther would keep within the fold 
of bis gentle and taciturn monasticism. and leave to secular 
priests the interpretation of the divine law. There arc some 
men ndlher bad nor unlearned, whose names I refrain from 
jiving, who think that it is wicked and impious for a doubly 
consecrated priest thus to tear to pieces Leo. the head of 
the apostolic sec. I agree with no authors of dissension, con- 
tumely and strife. Let us Iiave fair play. If Ihey stir up 
sleeping dogs, and revive the dormant folly of the Bohemians, 
or for the sake of vengeance violate the majesty of the Ro- 
man see. rubbing the scar from the old wound, their audacity 
is nothing to me. 1 am peaceful, not for fear of oniward 
foes, but for myself; my moderation is due to gentleness 
rather than to prudence. Finally you ask my opinion of the 
papa! decrees. 1 esteem the decrees of philosophers more 
than those of priests. . . . 


En$jmi optra, \\\. 559. Louvain. July 6, iSM 

... I wrote recently to Mclanchthon in such a way that 

the letter* was as much for Luther as for him, I pray that 

Christ Almighty may temper the pen and mind of Luther so 

Tkt* Mtct* 10 llie Ffftfrfif Ctrtnant&t by trcnicus. «tUb refer* to (ii. Ai'i 
"Uanln l-albcr. prioi of Witttnbciit. * 1carn«il ihcoloitiaii and »plain of ib« 
Germaiu.' mA iMcr eiin«eralu I«hn Lang, Jolin pus. Link, Lfitr *nd Suu^lu. 



tliat he may bring forth the greatest fruit to evangelic [nety. 
and Uiat Christ majr give a better mind to some who sedi 
their own glory at his expense and their own profit with bis 
loss. In the camp of Luther's opponents 1 see many wbo 
savor more of the world than oi Christ, and yet both sides 
have sinned. Would that Hütten, whose genius I singulariy 
love, had tempered his pen. I should prefer lliat Luther left 
these tumults alone for a while, and devoted himself to the 
gospel aluiie; perhaps dispassionate action would succeed z 
little better. Haired of good learning is fatal to us and bar- 
ren to him. There is danger lest the public corruption of 
morals, which evcrj'one admits needs a public remedy, nuj" 
gradually increase like the plague and become firmly estab- 
lished. Truth is not always to be advanced, and it makes 
much difference how it is championed. Farewell, exceUeat 
man, and commend me to your prince. 

l.utkrri opera varii artfumenli, v. ta Romr, July S, IJXI 

Beloved Son, greeting and the apostolic blessing ! Grave 
men have testified to us that your Lordship, according to your 
surpassing wisdom and piety towards God and his orthodtioc 
faith, and according to the nobility of your soul and of your 
ancestors, who were always ready to ser\*e the Christian »tite 
and the holy see, has alw.iys been hostile to the attempts oi 
that son of iniquity Martin Luther, and has never either aided 
or favored him. This ptca.«es us (he more in that it greatly 
increases the opinion which we have of your splendid virtue 
and our paternal goodwill towards you. 

We cannot My whether we think you have acted more 
■wisely or more piously in this affair. For it is singular wis- 
dom to recognize that a furious man, by no means obedient to 
his vow of humility, moved hy ambition to resuscitate the old 
heresies of the Wyclifites, Hussites and Bohemians, already 
condemned by the universal Church, one who manifestly 
seeks the money of the people, one who by his interprciaticm 
of Scripture gives occasion of sinning to tlie simple, one who 
breaks the bonds of chastity and innocence, and by his pro- 
fane words also confession and contrition of heart, one who 

' Let. »74 




favors the Turks and deplores the punisliment of heretics, 
one, in short, who tries to mix the highest things with the 
lowest ; it is singular wisdom, I say, to recognize that such a 
one has not been sent by Christ, but by Satan, for the man 
has been carried to such a height of pride and madness that 
he has dared openly to say and write that he will have faith 
neither in the writings of (he holy doctors, nor in the decrees 
of the Roman PonlifF«, but only in himself and his own 
Opinions, which is more than any heretic has hitherto pre- 
sumed to do. 

Therefore your Lordship has wisely spumed the company 
of this pestilent and venomous man, who, as you can judge, 
brings some stain oo your noble house and much on the Ger- 
man nation. It is also to the credit of your piety that you 
never consented to any of his great errors, but rather with- 
stood them. By you, at least, no occasion has been given for 
turning from the old and eternal order of the orthodox faith, 
preserved for so many ages by the Holy Spirit . . . 
1 \Vherefore. having convoked a council of our venerable 
brothers, and of others, including all who are expert in the 
Canon Law and the Holy Scripture, after thorough ventila- 
tion and discussion of the affair, at last, under tlie inspiration 
of the Holy Ghost, who in such matters is never absent from 
the holy see, we issued a decree,' written in apostolic let- 
ters and scaled with the leaden bull, in which, among the 

Imost countless errors of this man, we commanded to be 
'■written down in order thosie which are partly simply heretical 
and subversive of the right faith, and partly scandalous and 
impious through their undoing for simple men of the bonds 
of obedience, continence and humility. For the other nu- 
merous errors, which in the gall of unjust hatred he vomited 
forth against this holy se«, are to be judged rather by God 
than by us. 

We send your Lordship a copy of this bull, printed in our 
fostering city, that when by it you have learned the errors of 
this minister of Satan, you may. as is prescribed in the bull 

ccording to the apostolic mercy, first exhort and warn him 

Tbc MUt Ejtntrf§ D«mimr, Jbb« tj. ism. Reprinted br K. J. Kidd: i>#ni- 



to put away his contumacious and haughty spirit and re- 
turn to sanity and thus experience God's clemency and oun 
by publicly revoking and reprobating his opinions. But see* 
ondly, if he persists in his insanity, and at the end of the 
term prescribed in the bull should be a declared heretic, tha 
you should take care and zealously try to capture him and 
send lum bound into our custody. . . . 


Enders, li. ^ttS. (WtTTENBEac). July 9, ij« 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, with great and silent grief, I reid 
the letter' from Rome, seeing such great dullness and impiely 
in the heads of the Church. I fear that they are so con- 
founded by the light of conscience and truth that they can 
have no judgment or sense left. They condemn my books, 
though they confess that they show genius and learning, and 
yet they have neither read them, nor asked for them. Th« 
Lord have mercy 00 all of usi 

What can I advise the excellent elector to write? There- 
fore I rather write to you. In the first place you know thai 
I could complain in this matter much more justly than they. 
My published books bear witness how often 1 confess and 
lament tliat T have been drawn into this affair by no desire, 
but Iiave been driven by force. Then I often offered peace 
and silence. Where do I not ask and try to extort instruction? 
Hitherto I have l»een of such a mind that I would keep 
silence if I were allowed, that is, if they also would hold 
their peace. 

Everyone knows thai Tick's sole reason for forcing me w 
debate on the power of the Pope was to make a mock of and 
trample on me, my name, all my works and our university. 
Now. when they sec that the man was divinely thwarted, they 
accuse me of insane boasting. Why should a wretch like me 
seek glory, who only ask to be allowed to live privately and 
hidden from the public' 

Anyone who wishes may have my position; anyone who 

wishes may bum my hooks. What more do they want me to 

do? At the swime time 1 say this: If I am not allowed to lay 

■Tic lnt€t of Catdinal RJ«rI» to lb« ■lMt»r, Smltb, »/. eil^ 

I«. 275 



aside my office of teaching and preaching the Word, at any 
rate 1 shall he free in the way I teach it. Loaded witli enou|;h 
(.ins I will not add this unpardonable one, that, when I am 
made a minister of the Word, I should fail in my ministry 
and be found guilty of impious silence, of neglecting tlie 
(ruth, and of thousands of lost souls. Let that cardinal boast 
that his Church does not need defence; why then, does he 
defend it? 

I am entirely salisßed that the most illustrious elector 
should keep himself apart from my cause as he has hitherto 
done, and tliat he should thrust mc out to be taught or coll- 
ected. But as he cannot be my instructor, let him not be 
my judge or executioner until I have been duly sentenced. 
He sees that he cannot punish anyone, Jew or Turk, without 
a cause being known, which, in this cas«, they have not even 
touched upon. Do the Romans wish that he should obey God 
rather than man. and oppress one of whose guilt or innocence 
he is not sure.' He could not do so with a safe conscience, 
nor can his conscience be prompted to such an act by any 
divine command. 

Let them punish Pricrias. Eck, Cajctan and otiters, wlto for 
their own glon* causelessly started this' tragedy for the Ro- 
man Church. I am innocent. What [ have done and do, I 
am obliged to do, always ready to keep silence provided only 
they do not bid tlie gospel trulh to keep silence. They will 
obtain cvcrj-thing from rac, and I will oflfcr everything of my 
own accord, if they will allow the way of salvation to be free 
to Christians. This is all I ask from them in return; noth- 
ing els«. What could be more honest? I do not seek a ca.r- 
dinal's hat, nor gold, nor whatever else Rome now prizes. 

If I do not obtain this request, let them deprive me of my 
cure of souls, and let me live and die in some desert comer. 
Miserable man that I am, I am forced to teach against my 
will, and at the same time sufTcr for doing so, when others 
teach of their own free will and are honored for it. My mind 
is simply not able to fear threats nor to prize promises. Do 
they want me really to be affected by fear and hope, or only 
to pretend to be? 

You have my opinion. I hope the most illustrious elector 



will write so that those Roman heads may understand thii 
Germany, by an inscrutable judgment of God, lia& hitherto 
been oppressed not by her own stupidity, but by that of 
Italians. Farevsell. I send this tetter sealed, as you did 
yours. Martin Luthei. 



Lutkeri Opera lalina varit argitnunli (Ertuigen. 1865), Ü. 351. 

LocHAU. July ta 15» 

In the reprint here dtcd the dat« is eiych u "Aagsburg. August i, 
iSaa" On the true date rf. Enders. ii, 43i- 

Rafael Riario (1^61-JuEy 9, 1521), of Savona, cac of the most power- 
ful men in Ronie, He had \tcea created cardinal 1477. Cf. Past«, 
vol«, vii-, viii. He had written the elector urging him to make iMbtt 
recant (</. su^n, no, 275) ; this it Ficderic's answer. 

Most reverend Father in Christ, and dear Lord, your kinf 
letter dated Rome, April 3, was delivered to nie on July 7. . . . 

I already knew, my dear Sir, what you write about Dr. Mar- 
tin Luther. Please understand that with God's help I will 
never do nor he other, and that I never had the purpose or 
wish of being ether than an obedient son of the Holy Catholic 

I have never hitherto undertaken to defend either the writ- 
ings or the sermons of Dr. Martin Luther, twr do I do « 
to-day, as I showed to his Holincss's legate Cardinal Cajetan. 
and to the papal nuncio Qiarles Miltiti, both t^ my letten 
and orally. 

Moreover I hear that Dr. Luther has never shown himself 
unready obediently to appear, armed with a safe-conduct, be- 
fore just, convenient, disinterested and prudent judges to de- 
fend his doctrine in person, and. when he has learned better 
and more holy doctrine from Scripture, submissively to obey. 

To this duty I hear the Archbishop Elector of Trier bas 
been api)ointed commissioner, a friend of mine, at whose sum- 
mons I doubt not that Luther, provided with safe-conduö. 
will appear. .So no one can rightly blame me on this account 

II is a heartfelt sorrow lo me that in my time errors in the 
Catholic faith should arise, and this would annoy me ttul 
more, that such errors should be promoted by me. , . . 

Let. 378 




«idCTS, ii. 435. (WimwKDtt), July 14. 153a 

Greeting. Dear Spalalin, if you have any influence witli 
e elector, please gel him to write a severe and caustic let- 
ter to our rector.' The man's signal (oily yesterday almost 
involved us in murder and blood. Insanely he stirred up a riot* 
on the part of the students against the town-councU and in- 
ooccnt people, he who ought to have quieted ihcm. I was 
present at the meeting, where they were all mad with drink; 
nothing was said except what might inflame the fierceness of 
the youths. This confusion in our university shames mc, for 
it will at length bring us opprobrium. Peter Lupinus spoke 
well against the tumult, but he was so received by Dr. Thomas 
Escliaus that I at once arose and left, seeing that Satan was 
presiding over the meeting. It is said tliat the youths arc al- 
lowed to carry arms against the order of the elector. 

It is better that a smaller number should study her« tlian 
that we should have these riots. All the good condemn this 
madness. To-morrow, with God's help, I shall try to do what 
1 can to qui« this. Nothtiig was done according to the elec- 
tor's recent decree. The old men were wilder than the young. I 
know it is the doing of Satan, for as he cannot hurt the Word 
of Cod which is now returning to us. he seeks this way to dis- 
parage it. Truly we must strive against him with what power 
we can lest be should prevail with these men of blood. 

I think you have received my letter and this of Schaum- 
burg* Please send them back to our friends when you have 
read them. Farewell and pray for me. 

Martix LuTH£it, Augustiniau. 

Ender», ii. 441. (Wittenbehc), July 17. ijax 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, we think that Lira's dream* meant 

'PMcr Barkbud. 

*Cf. npfa, no. 130- Tbc *iud«o[i w«ic fat tom« reaaos exuperaiH] ic«ln>t 
Lao* CriDub. who. boiitc* bring a painter, drove varinu» Kadri. Stuitcnt Ti«i* 
nrr not siuainnian ihrn, and. indeed, ire nol ui>ki)Q«n now on tbe conti netil 
cf Europe. I bair irj»r[f Men tiolt >t ibc Sorbonne, »bleb, b'Ul for ibe Inlcr- 
««ntfod of the police, miibt bkre led lo bioodibed, 

•No. »69. 

•SoMciblnr of wbicb Bpp«rcDÜj SpaUlis bi4 written, of wbicb notbini cIn 




Dothtng else than our riot. In almost all prophecies and 

vjaions a big man signiücs ihc gross commonalty. Yesierda/ 
from the pulpit I preached against the tumult as thou^ I 
were partial to neither Mdc ; I simply described the evil ol 
sedition in the abstract whether it was supported by the dii 
rens or by the students, and I commended the power of magis- 
trates as one instituted by God, so that sedition? slrould not 
lay everything waste. Good Heavens! How much haired I 
won for myself!' They shouted that I was taking the pan 
of the town council. At length they thus betrayed ilw 
thoughts of their hearts, so that we learned who had truly 
imbibed our thcolog>' and who had only pretended to do so. 
Such a sieve is needed to separate the wheat from the chaS. 
I see Satan in this affair, who, when he saw that he could do 
nothing at Rome and abroad against us. found this cril ta 
hurt us badly from within. 

This thing was small at first, but behold, tlic more it is 
treated, the more bitterly does it seize and corrupt hearts, a 
strictly diabolic quality, for Satan augments the diseas« hj 
what you would think would cure it. I do not fear him, but I 
am afraid that we oifend the Lord with our ingratitude and 
vainglory, who in his anger iwrmits Satan thus to burst forth 
in the midst of the sons of CjoJ. Nor docs this so much roovt 
me, as fear of what may happen in the future, forsooth thit 
wc should become hard and filled with Satan and thus incor- 
rigible. Thus we should fill up the measure of our wiclte<i- 
ness, and the wrath of God should come and smite tis widi 
some great plague to our confusion, because we did not 
receive the Word of God when it was offered to us, or did 
not receive it worthily. 

On this account I am much alarmed. Every one of the pa« 
three years I have suffered some signal danger, first at Aup- 
burg. then at Leipsic, now at Wittenberg. We need not wis- 
dom and weapons, but humble prayer and strong faith to win 
Christ for us; otherwise it is up with us, if we confide in our 
own strength. Wherefore betake yourself with me to prayer, 

■Btlber ]u\f <}. 

>A ttuileni who 1>»4 c«nc from L^lpMC wm ktti m M7 that U At ■»*> 
■»okc liln thai Aty oiieht la hit kin on Ibc tocunr« «itk ■ atonw, add aooibtt 
tbM iliFy oueM la tnilc* in end of kiu. 

ct. 379 



St from this spark an evil spirit of tlic Lord should make a 
jnflagration. Small thing» are not lo be despised, es]>edatly 
»hen Satan is their author. 
1 said news from Rome. I learned more from him' than I 
ftd in this broadside. Agricola* noted this down as he 
akc and gave it to Melchior Lotther. When he gives it 
you please return it to us. Farewell and remember that 
ft must suffer for the Word. Since Sylvester voa Schaum- 
"bui^ and Francis von Sickingen made mc secure from the 
^_iear of men, the furj- of the devils must needs take its place. 
^■(t will be the last, for I shall be severe with myself. Thus is 
^HSie will of God. Martin Luther, Augusiittian. 


Enden, ü. 443. WitTENBeiic, July ao, 1^70. 

Greeting. I am sending my little essay,' a stumbling-block 
10 hypocrites. I think Der abgehobelte Eck has reached you. 
They say the wild ass of Leipsic is braying against me again, 
but we shall see. 

Recently we almost experienced a schism and rebellion 
here.' but with Christ's aid Satan has been beaten down. 

Sylvester von Schaumhurg, a Franconian noble, has written 
to ask mc not to flee to Bohemia or elsewhere, but to him, 
should the Roman furies wax hot. He promises the splendid 
protection of a hundred Franconian knights. So the rage of 
Rome is at length despised even by the Germans. Francis von 
Sickingcn has also written to the same purpose. 

My enemies wrote the elector against nie from Rome,' as 
did a ceruin court in Germany. T have in press 2 book in 
the vernacular against the Pope : To the Nobility of Germany 

■f*bn VMi Wlcli of MSnilcT. wbD hiO b«ea kn altemt? in Reucblln'i affair 

Roac la i}iS be bccaoic Syndic at Orfintn, and looli part In tbe intto* 

a<ll«B of lb* RcfntniiiiDii in Münxtr. In i;jj kc ira* taplurid bf itic BUhop 

Hüiulcr and t>ul to drilb. Tbc intornii.tion hr braucht Luibci at Ibi* time 

bis mr lack do« Rome wu a chid lonxe for Ib-r Aiirtri lo tkt Crrmen 

»Join AfHeoli. 

»Of llif Fttacy at Kt'tnt aa^n-tt the Rcmenüt of Leipiir. Tht Ronasiai waa 
IbR wilit au," Aufuiiinr Alfeld. 
•Tb« tliKlvnl tiot* irokcn of abovr. no. Iff. 
^SMprt, no*. 175, 376. Tbc German coorl waa rmbabty Ibal of Dulce Gcortc. 


on Reforming the Christian Estate.' Jt will mightily offeod 
Rome by exposing her impious arts and usurped powers. 
Farewell and pray for me. 

Brothek Martin Luthek. 



Enden, ü. 449- Wittensoc, July 30, 15» 

Greeting. I was unwilling to write to you, excellent ^, 
since our common friend Schlcupncr could tell you every- 
thing better by word of mouth. He knows everything about 
us, hut he desired me to put down nt least a line. So I do 
as he wishes. Various books are written against me in Ger- 
many and Italy, but it is well. None write but moat asiniae 
asses who betray themselves by their stupidity. I am quite 
well in body and mind, except that I should prefer to sin Ies;> 
I sin more evcr>' day, for which I complain lo you and yoor 
prayers. The Dominicans have quieted down, an edict* having 
been published forbidding them to write against me. In llxir 
place have succeeded the people of Samaria, the priests of 
Bethaven,' the Franciscan Observants. Tf they conquer, ther 
will do it by their excessive stupidity. I never remember M 
have read stupider men, who never know whether they con- 
quer or are conquered. Poor people, to be exposed to thre 
wolves! But the Lord will see to it. Farewell Jn him. 


Erami epistolae (Loodon, 11^42). xIL 23- Erasmi opera ((TOJ). S. 
53+ LoOTAW, July ji (ipo). 

In bolH reprints of this letter jusi citeil the name of the recur 
is omitted and the date is given "1518." The name of the addreUK 
«imI the date of the letter are siven by the Akttn der Erfurter V^ 
vtrsilät. ed. J. C H. Weinsenborn (Halle. 1884). ii. J14. which ihtm 
that Platz was rector at this time, and speak of Erasmus' lelief M 
him in the tollowini terms: "The humanities ousht not ro bom* 
on a university like ravaging enemies, but (o come as guests lo chcniii 
culture. . . . Therefore we have elected I.ewij Platz, of MdsuBj"'. 

iLulLcr** tr«ate*i «Qib. Weimar, ti, 497. Enilitb br Wkc ud t aM'< ^' 
Liti'trr'i Primary Warkt. C/. Smitli, ep. cil., chip. rtll. 
*.Vuthln( U known of cW; pcrbftpi ■ »aiitc U mcMtt. 
■Tb* hcwc of ruiitr," •, t.. "at id»t»." Jcihua, iH. a. 




Etoc . . . boUi because h« ts devoted to this cause uid because 
has been exhorted thereto by a letter of the great Erasmus 
oE RottcfdJini, written in the midst of his labors, in which letter he 
shows hi« extreme «ood will to the university of this city." Platz 
matriculated at Erfurt in 1497 (i'öiJ, 202) and devoted himself to 
thcoloEy. He bcc^utic a wcU-kiiown humanist and the master of Eoban 
less (Krause: liobrn Hess. i. 26). 

Dear Sr, I am not able to withhold my love for you. since 
I have learned from Draco.' that serious youth, that you are 
most learned and eagerly favor sound learning, and that you 
take care that it shall flourish at Erfurt, now under your au- 
spicious presidency. It is the special honor of your prudence 
that you bring this about without tumult, which we see is ex- 
cited elsewhere by the imprudence of some men. The classics 
ought to come to a university not like enemies to spoil it. but 
like guests to live In peace. I never liked the tumult, and either I 
am much mistaken or more will be accomplished by modera- 
tion than by impotent force. 1 think it is the part of good 
mco to desire to carry through their reforms with injury to 
few. or, if possible, to none. \'ain. controversial theology has 
arrived at tliat [wint of inanity that she must be recalled to 
her sources. But I should prefer to have even her corrected 
rather than hissed off, and that she should be borne until a 
more potent theological method be developed. Luther has 
given some splendid warnings, but would that he had done it 
more civilly, f^e would then have had more favorers and 
allies, and would have reaped a richer harvest for Christ. 
And yet it would hi impious to leave him entirely undefended 
in what he has rightly said, lest hereafter none should dare 
to tell the truth. This is not the place, nor is mine tlie ability 
to pronounce on his doctrine. Hitherto he has certainly 
profited the world. Some men liave been forced by hiiu to 

IJoka Dracb <Dtko, Draconim), burn i<g4 tt CarUtadl un <bc Mnin. matrtca- 
lutil al Efton In Ar inionier ol 1S09. following ibe tiampl« of lieu and ianu 
kc m«lc * riail 10 Erumua in ijto. (Eruniua had bee» io cunniiondcacc wilh 
hi» Wfoici r. f; ibcrc i> a letter fram Ecaainu« to Drico. October 17. istS. 
ta tbc HeJftt'"*'"* il'^i'T. <5<9) of Eobin lies*.) Later I>iaco went la 
Whwnbcri. irbcrr bt wu Inxiilird in thf «itainKr of 'i'), and ibortlf after' 
>«i4> l««k bii du<t<'>'* desree. In th« mine year he becdne evanitclte pceacber 
at Uiltecbrirf. KibI waa drivea out b-^ Albert of UajYitcr- ICisilf n, iu. 134.7- 
FrDm I$J4'47 ^ "■* profeiaor »I Marburg, iS5i-6i> at RoiimIi: be ibea bccuoc 
Ike PrMMUAt Blihop ol Pomettanft- He died 156«. AUeft, iil. 4U. 


turn to the writings o( the ancient Fathers, either to defend 
themselves or to attack Luther. . . . 

Carpus Reformalorum. i. 208. Witikkbexc. Auga&l 1 (1520). 

Hail, sweetest Hess! You will leam from the letters ol 
Luther and Schleuprier how others bear your perpetual silence. 
... 1 believe you must have received Luther's answer and 
mine to your last letters which you sent by the priest. . . . 

I know no news. Thank God Martin is yet alive; and do 
you pray that he rnay live long, for he is the one champioa 
of divinity. A few days ago Cardinal Riario' wrote oar 
illustrious Elector Frederic urging hira with prayers and 
threats to bind Luther. The elector answered craftily; yon 
know llic Ulysses of persuasion. . . . 

Etidcrt, ii. 456. (WrrTENBEiiä), August 5, ipa 

Greeting. I have not written for some time, waiting f« 
the agitation which friends have put you in to dtc dowa I 
am not pleased with .Amsdorf's excessive affection for llie 
otiier side. The students never suffered what the citiiefo 
did, but they don't care for that, tlilnlcing only of their own 
inconveniences. But enough of iheni. All speak of my abuse, 
but none of them is right. It is nothing to mc if my authority 
declines. If every scolding is abui^c, none has sinned moK 
than the prophet?. But in our time we arc unaccustomed to 
hear truth distasteful to us. 

Hatred is vexing Leipsic, which in the person of Alveld ii 
acting a tragedy. Even if my tnuiipet-blast' will meet the 
approval of none, yet it must meet my approval, as a neces- 
sary .attack on the tyranny of the Roman Antichrist who 
destroys the souls of the whole world. It is very sharp and 
vehement, so that I hope it will make even those languid little 
cvil-spcakcrs gasp. I will not answer Alveld,* but he will be 

Kf. Sniib. t*l. 

m'a name ww *ppli«d by Lam la Lmhci'* A44t*u to tht Crrm^n jr^hOU^ 
Smith, p. it. 
■M'bg bad tncnlly publiafaii] • rrat$ «a Conmumitn: tf. t^mateta. (i. 




the occasion of publishing something by which the viper» 
will be more irritated than ever. 

U you are not successful, I will write nothing to the elector 
about M elan cht lion's salarj'. What I wrote formerly I did 
so that the man might have no reason for leaving us; but if 
nothing can come of it, the Lord's will be done. Finally I 
tried to get hiin to marry for the profit of the gospel, for I 
thought he would live longer in this state ; but if notliing 
comes of this, let it pass. I fear he will not long survive his 
present manner of life. 1 try tu do what 1 cim for the Word; 
perhaps I am unworthy to accomplish anything. I also should 
prefer, if God willed, to be freed from teaching and preach- 
ing; I am almost ilisgusied to see how little fruit and grati- 
tude lo God comes from it. Perhaps it is alt my fault. Fare- 
ell and pray for mc. Martin Lutker, Augustinian. 

^Boders, il 459. 


Wittenberg, Augiist 14, 153O. 



Greeting. Wc by no means believe that Eck is at Meissen;' 
either the>' arc again trying us with their fictions, or else the 
words sent to you were written at Rome. This can be inferred 
from the fact that he writer ihat he hopes the bull will be 
moderated, which could not be dune at Meissen. 

You formerly wrote several times for mc to recall the parish 
riest of l.ochau, and recommend him 10 the elector for 
another position. Now here is Francis Güntlier of Nord- 
hausen.' well fitted for the place, although he once seemed 
harsher to you than you ought easily to forget. If there 
is still doubt about the affair you can let me know. He is 
eloquent and powerful to speak the Word before the court, 

id altogether such a one as I would wish to have at I-ochau 

T^ buO Etnirft Dt-'tine ir>i «igncd t>r L*e on Jun« ij >nd *ntriMltd lo Eck 
I» p<Mt in Ccrnutnjr. Th» •rti done (irit ■( MeisKn on Seplt(nb«T Ji. 

'S^frt, no, 39, On jBiiu»rji ji, ijjn CF.aAer*, ii. J»?), Luliff 'had «nt > 
cntain James Cropp lo Oil £be pl»M Ht U not <h* line U lb« Crdpp («bo« 
Itfil nat>i«f wrrr Frsnrii Cotlichilk) mtntfanfd later In thr Irtlrra of ijsj. 
ibcuffc thry tit confounded br Scidemann in bii ind» I>« Wetlr Stidnnann. 
«i. CSf. Giinthrr matrtculilrd it Wlttenberit ipü. later became pirlab priett at 
lOMtbOfk. in vfafcb iilace the FranciKim iiroieculed him for Luthrtuiiini, Hi 
•fcliiiMd lb» living of Locbao on Luthn'i fecanuDeDdalimt and died Ihtrt tsiH. 
I. IL 36. ifli. 



and near us. Steps are being taken to provide a cure for him 
out of Saxony, Answer as soon as you can, and farewell. 

Marti.v Luther, j^ugustinian. 

Bocking, i. 367. Stickklbiuk;, August 13, 15» 

... 1 advise you to be perfectly still and to moderate your 
pen so as to keep yourself safe for U5. And listen to what f 
have to tell you, relying on our friendship. When Reuchlin's 
atTair was all of a glow you seemed to fear those felloirs 
more than was worthy of you. And now in the affair of 
Luther you are trying as hard as possible to persuade out 
adversaries that you are as far as may be from defending the 
cause of Christian truth, although they well know that your 
sympathies are all the other way. This is not noble. I know 
the friend to whoni 1 am writing and that you will not takt 
umbrage at my warnings. 1 heard with sorrow what men said 
and then I defended the fame of my friend, although son« 
of his acU displeased me. Now that 1 am in danger, I conceal 
nothing from you. Therefore I pray you as a friend who 
loves you and wishes to deserve well of you, not to do matt 
for me than you did for Luther and Rcuchlin. You know 
with what triumph your letters are carried about by those 
whose hatred you seek to deprecate, though in doing so tou 
win the hatred of others. Thus you have been abusing the 
Ef>istolae Obscurorum I'irorttm, which at first you greatlj 
approved, and thus you now damn Luther for stirring up 
things which ought to be left alone, although you l\avc alwayi 
treated tlie same subjects in your books. You will never go 
them to believe that your sympathies are not with us. Yon 
Vwill ofFend as and not placate them; if, indeed, you do txK 
irritate them further by such open dissimulation.' . . . 


Cvrfui Rrformalorum, i. 21a (AugtHt l87. 151a)* 

Gr«ting, excellent and learned Father. At first I rather 

'Tliii Iclicr ni«rk*J th.c bccin-niiiE ot (h< bmcb bvKmB Ritiim «iiil EraaaM^ 
*Tbe date U li)l«(r<J iram the letter at Latltcr to Vong, Cndcra, il, «f». 

Let. 38S 



did not disapprove than approved the plan for writing an epi»- 
Ue to the German nobiUty.' For our friend was urged to do so 
by some whose opinion we must lioth respect. Moreover the 
thing itself, being of God, I would not try to ohstruct. I 
would not rashly hinder Martin's spirit in this cause, to which 
he seems to have been called by Providence. Besides, the 
book is now printed and distributed and cannot be recalled. 

Endcrt, ii. 464. Wittenbehc, August 23, 15». 

Greeting. ... I forwarded your lelters to Nuremberg. 
The additions to the book' will be put in the second edition, 
which i.otthcr is bringing out. Tlic book will also be corrected. 
I send my statement and letter to be corrected.» 

The tenor of my letter to Cardinal Carvajal is as follows: 
As his fame is great in the world, 1 desire to ask that, with all 
possible zeal, he should make himself the agent for compos- 
ing the present affair. I offer all conditions of peace, except 
that I will not recant, ssiffcr the stigma of heresy or be de- 
prived of the freedom cf teaching the Word. I do not fear 
censures and force, for [ can be safe in the midst of Gcr^ 
many. Rather let them beware lest if tliey crush me they 
should arouse many. In talent and learning I am, with God's 
aid. equal to my enemies. 

Farewell and pray for me, 

Martin Luther, Augustinian. 

P. S. — I commend Günther lo you, Please give these letters 
to the elector. 


C E. Förstcniano: Keues Vrkuitdrnbuch sur Geschiekle der twm- 
gelitchm Kirchcn-Reformaiion. Hamburg. 1Ä42. i. 2. 

LocHAU. August as, I5aa 
High-bom Prince, kind, dear Brother and Kinsman. Hcrc- 

■l.uthrr'* rmp^)^ of ihU liilr li ni»nt. 

*SenraI imponinl cbiii^* nnd »Idictona were nid« In ibe KCond impivMion 
of fbe Aiittit to ih* Gtrmon Hability. 

■Luther hm mcani bii O/rr ond Pt^ltHUitm uul bb lelter 10 ibe Emperor 
CkulM V. Smitta, «p. niv «SS. 


with I send you a book* written by Dr. Martin Luther, in 
which you will find nuny wonderful tilings. God Alnogblj 
grant that it turn out well, for truly things arc coming 
to light which many people conceal ; may God Almighty vODcb- 
safe to us poor sinners that wc be improved and not made 
worse thereby. I would not keep this from you as you asked 
me to send you whatever Dr. Luther wrote, and I am alwaji 
willing to serve you. In haste. . . . 

PueuRKlC, zvith his own hand 

Enders, ii. 466. Eisleben, Aufnist ig. ISA 

Hail, most learned Martin! I attended the chapter of your 
Order celebrated at Eisleben. chiefly that I might see you a 
a much lovctt friend. As I did not have this pleasure. I dfr 
cided to write you. In the chapter, with the aulbority of oar 
Most Holy Lord the Pope, 1 &aid something to the brothcis 
which will not hurt you, but prove greatly to your advantage 
Wherefore 1 exhort you not to gainsay the brothers who will 
visit you,* but that you should follow and obey their counsel 
and that of the whole chapter, which I hope you will never 
repent. I myself would come to you, save that pcrliaps your 
friends who think that I am your enemy would lay snares 
for me. Yet 1 IkUcvc that I shall not leave these parts before 
conversing with you as with my special friend. Farewell. 

Charlcs von MiLTiTZj vAth hü own kä 

Endcr». ii. 471. (Witte-xbeik:), .^ngust 31, isaa 

Greeting. Wc will write again about the changes in the 
lectures, when the bridegroom* gets used to having the bride. 
I hope the new parish priest. Francis Günther, will turn o»rt 
well, only try to initiate the man gently into the manners of 
the court. We did not know the bad reputation of his sister. 
but she will be separated. 





I send my Offer and ProUsi' printed, and letters lo Francis 
yn Sicking«ii and the Emperor Clurles. Very little of my 
(work On the Captivity of the Church* is printed, but wc shall 
Farewell in the Loid. 

Martin Luther, Augvslinian. 

Agricola's wedding day is set for the Tuesday after the 
tNativity of Mary.' Do what you promised. 

L 43a (Ebebnbukc, August ?, 152a)* 

Behold, men of Germany, the bull of Leo X. by which he 
tries to suppress the rising truth of Christianity, which he 
opposes to our liberty. lest, after her long bondage she should 
again grow strong and revive. Shall we not resist him in tliis 
kttcmpt, and take public counsel lest he should go farther and 
before we know it accomplish something for bis insatiable 
cupidity and impudence? . . . Luther is not touched in this, 
but all of us; nor is the sword drawn against one only, but 
are all threatened. They will never complain of hi-s 
tj-ranny, never uncover liis fraud, never lay bare his guile nor 
resist his fury nor imp*de his robbery. . . , Remember to act 
Bke Germans. ... I have published this bull that when you 
read it you may Icam all from this one.' Farewell. 


Luther opera varii argvmenti, v. 7., (Sepitraljer I ?), 1520, 

This letter is dated toe. cU., "K^ciid, A|)ril," but this must be wrong 

as the reference to Luihcr'» Obiatio tive F'rolrTiaiio shows. Weimar, 

»i. 474- 
You write, perhaps correctly, that this and other business 

ySmPn, no, tjy. 

*rAr Babylaiun Cafttvity of ihe Church. Weimar, vl. 497. Soilli, |i. SSff. 

^ScTitaslKT R: ibc wnldini diT. Scincmbcr to. 

•TkU b tlulwn'B preface 10 bU cditioii of tbc bull Etturer Deminr. wbitb lie 
prialnl tbiofciiii it itnulJ >li> niprc lurtn |g ifac Cbiircb tbaa to Luibcr. Tbr 
hut) WH aipied t)T tbc r«pc, June 15. ts'(>. and «-fficiaHr ptiblUbeiJ in G«rinanT 
br Etk »bA AlnnJer tawai'i« tlir end of Septembcer. Smilb. of. til., p. 08, 
Kalltn'i edition u plMcd by Bncking in Niavrmber or Drcrinlwr, but I believe it 
t« be csilier. Tbc neit letter ol Eruniua shawm tbul (be bull baJ b<*» pabli«b«4 
beior« September 9. and the (ollowinf «pittic hj Hulltn tbow« (bat he kMfr 
h before Svfilenber 11. 

•Vlrfil; At^tii, 11. Cs«. 




Lit. av 

of ours is going veiy badly with his Holiness the Pope, all of 
which, in your opinion, is tu be attributed to the excesses and 
rashness of Dr. Martin Luther, who has scattered, as y« 
express it, "I know not what" new dogmas against tlie Pope'l 
Holiness and the holy see and thu Roman Church, and hu 
not submitted himself with due reverence and moderatioa ID 
the very reverend lord cardinals; and you further write 
that general rumor affirms that he is supported, favored and 
shown mercy by us alone. 

To this we answer briefly and in good faith: We haw 
never undertaken and do not now uiiiJertakc to protect and 
defend by our patronage the doctrine and writings of Dr. 
Martin Luther, for we do not presume to give jud^Tncnl ti 
to what he has written rightly and lawfully and what contrari- 
wise, and what he has taught piously and Qtristianly, and wM 

Yet we ilo not think we ought to conceal that we have heafd 
that this man's doctrine is considered and approved as pioni 
and Christian by many learned and intelligent men. On thÖK 
however, wc give no opinion, nor do wc prejudge his doctriae. 
for wc leave to him, the author of these dogmas, their whole 
defence, especially as the whole cause has been referred to 
the legitimate tribunal, to which he submits, He will ofier 
himself to the examination of the commissioner chosen by the 
Pope's Holiness on just conditions, that is, with safe-conduct 
To him Luther will give the justification of what he has writ- 
ten or taught, offering all submission and obedience, so thai, 
if he is convinced of error by the Word of Cod and the true 
testimony of Holy Scripture, he will of his own accord offer 
to change his opinion and recant, as appears from the form of 
this Offer and Prcteslalion' drawn up by himself. . . . 

Now that Germany is flourishing in geniuses and in men 
of learning and wisdom, expert in the tongues and in all sorts 
of learning, and since even the laity have b^un to be edu- 
cated, and are moved by the zeal of knowing the Holy Script- 
ure; many think that it is greatly to be feared, if the fair 
terms offered by Luther are neglected and he himself with- 
out due process of law simply smitten by ecclesiastical cen- 
■W^BW. vt. 494. Cf. Smitb. »Bf. 

-t^. a« 



sures. that this controversy and strife sliould only be exas- 
perated, so that it could liardly ever afterwards be quictcd 
and composed. For Luther's doctrine has now for sonic years 
past taken deep root everywhere in Germany, so that, if lie 
is not refuted by reason and Scripture, but is only proceeded 
against by the terror of the ecclesiastical power, it looks as 
if much trouble and a horrible and fatal rebellion would take 
place in Germany, which would be of no advantage either to 
his Holiness the Pope nor to others. . . . 


Enders, ü. 472. (Witiinbekc), September t, 1520. 

Greeting. First of all, Spalatin, thank the most illustrious 
elector in my name for fattening me with game, although I 
am 3 monk. 

The reverend Father Staupitz will come to-day and with 
him his new successor. Wenzel Link.* Yesterday our brolhcri 
returned. Charles von Miltitz wrote me a letter, saying that 
in the public assembly of the fathers he delivered an oration 
in his Italian Latin seeking some plan to keep me quiet For 
he sees that he brought the golden rose in vain, as he obscurely 
hinted. Tlie fathers say they answered tliat they had nothing 
in common with me, and did not know my plans. Of which 
we shatl hear more to-day. The Counts* treated him magnifi- 

I send a letter from Antwerp written by the prior" of that 
place, so tliat you may see what 13 being done about me. Our 
friend Lang, I am surprised to say, is made prior of Dresden ;* 
Melchior Mirisch of Ghent. I know not whether they are 
animated by the spirit of power, so much are all things dis- 
turbed for the new reign of the new vicar. I think that you 
have received the letter of Failier James Vogt. Farewell. 
H Brother ^tARTIN Luther, Augustinian. 

*Al lb( Eidrtwn cfaapitr, Aii(iMt. iSJo, Slauplti ruigncd u vicar »nd Link 
tru ciMicd in hit >te>il. 

■Of Mktitfcld. 

■Juea frobii (Piopii) of Vpcrn, ijio ■ludird ii Witlrobeta, ind again i5»i. 
RcCurning In iSKt to Antwerp bt ww tciT Ktivc in the cringcllc r''0pic>n<1>, 
for «liicJi be wu srrtitcd inJ fiincil to ncsnl Fcbniarr 9. ijJi. Escipiaf from 
iIm NcdKTtand* be iRaln profcucd Lutheran Iim. and In ija« became paitor U 
Brencfl, a poticion bt bcld until bia dtktb. Tttoc j«, 136a. KraltncjK^^dir. 

"tu» tit* a niiiakcD lumor. 




ErojHti opera (iroj). iii. 577. hovtM«, Srplembcr g, isn 

Gerard Gcldcniiaufr, of Nymcscn (Noviomacus). (c. 14&2-1542). aa 
author and the secretary of Philij^ and Maximiliaa of BurguD(lr. 
Ill is^S he visit»! Wiltciibcrg aitd went over tu the Reformers, abaiA 
which time his friendship uith Erasmus cooled. Manicd IS:!;: liut 
1533 profcsjor at Marburg. Allen, op. eil., ii. 379. 

... I fear the worst for poor Luther, so hot is the coih 
spiracy against him, so deeply arc the princes and cspcciallj 
Pope Leo offended in him. Would that 1-üthcr had followrei 
my advice and had abstained from that of hateful and sedi- 
tious men. He would have had more fruit and less envy. It 
would not satisfy his encniic$ to put one man to death; if 
they succeed no one could bear their insolence. They won^ 
stop until they have subverted all study of the classics. They 
are already attacking Reuchlin again only from hatred of 
Luther, who, against my advice, tried to join his name to tlut 
of Reuchlin. and thus hurt him while not helping himself. 
Eck debated; Hochitralen published I know not wliat axioms 
to which all had to subscribe. The professors of Louvain 
disputed and even published. The judj^ent of the Univcni^ 
of Paris was expected, when to! the whole thing suddenly 
seems to turn into a bull and into smoke. The terrible buH 
is published, although the Pope forbaile its publication. I 
fear it will lead to a terrible riot, I do not judge the piety 
of those who have advised the Pope in this matter, but cer- 
tainly their counsel is most dangerous. The afTair arose from 
the worst sources and has hitherto been carried on in the 
worst manner. The whole tragedy began in the hatred of 
sound learning and the stupidity of the monks. Then it wu 
nourished to madness by reviling and malicious conspiracy-. 
There is no doubt whither the thing is tending; namely, to th« 
extinction of sound learning and to the reign of barbarism. 1 
have nothing to do with this tragedy. I might have a 
bishopric if I wrote against Luther. I regret tliat the gospel 
is thus oppressed, and that we are driven rather than tatight. 
and taught those things which arc repugnant to the Dible and 
common sense. Farewell, dear Gerard, and write when you 



ten. It. 477- 


Wettcnuuu;, September ii. 1520. 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, I received your letter from AUen- 

burg yesterday, but the one you wrote later from Butlstädt' I 

received earlier. Noiliing was done about me at Eisleben,' 

except that Charles von Miltiiz took counsel with the fathers 

And finally induced them to send the reverend Father Stau- 

pitz and the new Vicar Link to mc, to hcg mc to write a 

p»rivatc letter" to the Roman I'onlifF witncs.sing that I had 

never tried to do anything against him personally. Miltits 

^Ktpcs that this plan will turn out well. 

Although (his pbn docs not appeal to me, nor to the fathers, 
3ret we will oblige Miltitz. who perhaps in asking it is grinding 
his own ax. 1 shall, therefore, write llie exact fact that I 
never had the slightest cause to attack the person of the Pope. 
What could be easier to write or truer? I must take care in 
writing not to treat the apostolic see too ferociously, but I 
will be a bit caustic. 

Hütten sent me a letter* Ixiiling over with great indignation 
at the Pope, writing that now he is rushing on the priestly 
tyranny with pen and sword, because the Pope planned to 
assassinate him and commanded the Archbishop of Mayence 
to send him bound to Rome." "Madness." he exclaims, 
"worthy of a blind* Pope." You will see a copy when I get it 
from Henr)' Stromer who asked to see it. 

The worst of it is that the .'\rchbishop of Mayence had a 
mandate issued from the pulpit, mentioning Hütten by name 
and forbidding his books to be read or bought under pain of 
excommunication, and adding that the same held good of simi* 
lar books, by which be meant a covert attack on mine. If he 
only mentions me by name, [ will join with Hütten and excuse 
myself in such a way as will not please the Archbishop of 

'Tlu elector «u ttut'tnt OM (0 mttt Ihc ntw Emrcror in ibe Nctberluik. 
Smith, p. ft, 

'Swfra, »o, 1B4, 

Thii Ittltr iMcanit ibc iotroduttien le Loibct'i iracl On Ikt LArrty #/ • 
fhrwlMit U*n. (}. Smith, p. 9t. 


Tke p>r>l WfT« of July ■« I« Alberl «( MB)r««e •■ji nolbin« of lU*, but 
(bert ■• othtr evidmce lo ibov Ihat ttuHcn'* norjr «■ >t wont «n miic|«riltan 

*L*o X ma» <rtrf Aoti *igbttA. 



Mayence. Perhaps they arc hastening the end o£ their on 
tyranny by this plan. . . . 

Take this in good pan and farewell in the Lord. Be canftä 
not to let everyone have access to our elector, lest somra« 
should try to poison him. The Romanists will stop at nothing 
Hütten cannot warn me enough against poison. 

Maktin LuTua. 


Backing, i. 383. S. Siamaiökki : Ulrichs vcn Hütten dnttcii 
Schriftr», 1891, p. 137. German, EautHBtiHC, Scpreinber ti, iS» 

Now, at last, Prince I*rcderic, I see that wc must rap 
against the Roman tyranny; now, at last, our Ronanbl 
brothers, after so many fraternal warnings and so many con- 
vincing arguments, not only do not act more mildly in thoR 
things which offend us, but they even act more fcrociooily 
than ever before. Have you not heard that they liave ordend 
me sent bound to Rome? You will see hov? worthy tha 
deed was of them. .And now, good Heavens! what a violeai 
and cruel bull they have drawn up against Kuihcr! You wcwIJ 
call it the roar of the Lion (Leo), hearing which the miserable 
sheep of Christ do not recognize the pious voice of a shepberd, 
but the bloody cry of a wild robber. Is there any vestige of 
Christian gentleness, or any indication of apostolic moderation 
therein? He roars, he rages. But his ferocity is all the planer 
because often in that butl he pretends that he is other than 
be is; he craftily simulates benevolence when he smoothly 
invites Lutlier to Rome, as though we were ignorant that ii 
made no difference to him how he got us, whether Luther wis 
inveigled by a promise or I haled b>- force. If Luther listois 
to mc he will never go thither to certain death, and I mnch 
wonder who persuaded Leo X. that I should so easily be 
captured in the midst of Germany and taken tlirough t^f 
Steep passes of the Alps to Rome. . . . 

(The r«st of (his long letter i> a prophecy of the downfiS of 
"Babylon," an account of the ancient libcilics ot th« Geroi&tu "^ 
the modem iniqnily of Rome.] . . . 

I see that the Pope thinks you are obedient to him in all b»' 


>rofccting helpless Luther. . . . That you do this bravely I 

lort you again and again, partly iKcausc you arc his natural 

;trotcctor and partly because he has Utile hopes of any other, 

at least any better. For the Saxons were always free, 

Jways uitconquered. . . . 

ifmi opera (itolJ), iii. 578. LoinAiH, September 13, isao. 

Although I did not fear, most blessed Father, that your 
goodness could be induced to hurt an innocent man, or that 
your prudence would rashly believe the calumnies of the 
wicked, yet when I see that your Holiness is flooded with so 
much business irom the whole world, and when I consider 
the unexampled wickedness of some who conspire against 
sound learning — never teasing, daring all things and leaving 

' 00 stone unturned — I have thought it concerned me to fortify 
your Holiness, remote and busy, with this antidote. I see 
there are some, who, to strengthen their own faction, seek to 
confound tlie cause of sound learning, of Reuchlin and of 
myself with the cause of Luther, although there is really 
nothing common to them. I have always said this, both orally 
and in my published writings. I do not know Luther nor have 
I read his books except ten or twelve pages, and those hastily. 
From Iliese, which I glanced at. it seemed to me that he wrote 
well on tlie Scriptures, explaining them according to the man- 
ner of the ancients, while our age is excessively addicted to 
clever rather than to necessary questions. I therefore favored 
what was good in him, not what was bad ; or rather I favored 
Christ's glory in him. 

I was almost the first to discover any dang'cr, fearing that 
a tumult, which I have always abominated more than any- 
one, would arise. I therefore plead with John Proben, the 

^^ printer, even using threats, that he should print none of Lu- 

pHther's works. Then I wrote diligently to his friends that they 
should admonish him to remember Christian gentleness in his 
writings and to respect the tranquillity of the Church. And 
when he wrote mc himself two years ago. I warned him lov- 
ingly to avoid trouble, and I only wish he had taken my advice. I 

^^ear that this letter has been reported to your Holiness and 



1*1. "W 

used against mc, though it really deserves the favor of j-our 
Holiness. For what needful advice does it not give? True, I 
did it civilly, by which 1 thought tu accomplish more than bj 
severity, and I was writing to a stranger. After I had almost 
taken him to task, lest my freedom offend him, I added: "1 
write this, not to tell you what to do. but to encourage you in 
doing as you have always done," thus assuming that lie would 
do of his own accord what I wanted him to. For if his previ- 
ous manner of writings had pleased me why should I need to 
advise him to adopt another? I know that tliis passage ha 
been twisted against me by some, hut that the words I adrffti 
"that he had many adherents," have been interpreted mil 
worse. But what I wrote was true. Many men favored what 
was good in him just as I did. I wished him to know thi», 
not so that lie might be encouraged by their support to wrilt 
seditiously, but that he might make their support perpetual by 
following my advice to moderate his pen.^ 1 am surprised tlul 
the name of the Bishop of Liege was put in by the men of 
Leipsic,' who by some means or other published a secret letter 
which had not been edited at B.islc. It is absolutely true that 
he never had anything to do with Lutlier any more than I did 
Even if I had mentioned his name it would only have been in 
this sense. 1 wrote that letter almost two years ago, before 
the affair had gotten to its present slate of bitterness, or ev«n 
to be disputed. 

iff anyone has ever heard me, even in my cups, defendirg 
uthcr's dogmas, 1 shall not refuse to be called a Lutheras. 
But they say I have not attacked him. But in the first place. I 
could not refute him unless I read his books attentively on« 
and again, for which my assiduous studies did not give tn« 
leisure. Secondly, I saw that it was above the mediocrity of 
my learning and talents, .^gain T did not wish to depri« 
the universities which had undertaken the task of their glory 
in it. Rnally. I feared to excite the hatred of powerful men. 
especially as no one had commanded me to engage on this labor. 
Wherefore, if the enemies of good letters revile mc on thi^ 
account, 1 have a certain protection in your vrisdom aod mj' 

'/. r.t wbtn the lel)C( vti prfnlcd »t Ltlpaic. C/. tutrt, tio. iss- 
of LWro via Enrd df U Uacck. 

nt BU«r 





own innocence.^ I am not so insan« as to dare to do aught 
against the chief vicar of Christ, since 1 am unwilling lo cross 
even a bishop. I aiii nut so ungrateful tiiat I should not en- 
deavor to respond to your more than [>aiemal indulgence 
towards me. Thus l shall save whatever tittle talent I may 
have for the glorj- of Christ and the peace of his fold. Who- 
ever is the enemy of this fold will also be my enemy. I did 
not patronize Lutlier even when it was free for anyone to do 
so. Only I disapproved their mode of attack, not for Luther's 
sake, but for the dignity of the iheotogians. • • • J 

I had decided to winter at Rome to consult the library of 
your Holiness, but the congress of kings' has kept me here. 
I hope to go to Rome next vwinter. May Christ Almighty 
guard your Holiness. 



JSrAtmi ofera (IJOJ), ■». 579. Louvaim, September 13, 1530. 

CfaireKatto (tDccrmber 6, 15^9). cmplDycd by Leo and Adrian in 
.various ways, was made Bishop oi Tcramo in the Abruud on September 
1533. Allen, iii. 61. 

If I did not embrace your candid, officious and affable 
friendship, I .ihould be more inhumane than any Thraclan. 

t Perhaps there are few men who regret this Lutheran tumult 
as much as I do. Would that I could have kept it off in the 
beginning, or could compose it now. . . . When the bull came 
out. commanding them to preach against Luther, two or three 
of the beggar tyrants' agreed over their potations to traduce 
me along with Luther before the people. . . . There i.s a man 
^^ with a white pall, but a black heart, both stupid and furious 
^Hsnd so morose that the whole university dislikes him. When 
^^ he published the bull here he spoke more against me tlian 
against Luther. In his public lectures he always joined my 
name with those of Luther and Lefivre d'Elaplcs. and when 
it was pointed out to him that we all differed, he replied that 
heretics never agreed. ... At Bruges there was a certain 
Franciscan, a suffragan of the Bishop of Toumay, who. full 


*f. r, aictlinc of llearr VIII. ind Pruicli I. U Ca1»Ia In Jnir- 

•irtxurwrf 1(10 I'll«, i. *.. ticE|in< Bonlu. 


of win«, bellowed whole hours before the people against Luther 
and Erasm\is, calling us beasts, asses, geese and stocks, bul 
not refuting a single word. When he said that there was 
heresy in my books and was asked by someone, who had been 
instructed by itie magistrate, what it was. this buffoon of a 
bishop replied: "I have not read Erasmus's books: I tried to 
read the Paraphrases, but the Latin was too deep." . . . 

I have no fear for myself. I have never been the teacher of 
error nor tlic leader of tumult. And yet you would hardly 
believe how strongly [ am urged to mix in the Lutheran affair, 
and had I wished to do so it would have been far differeitt 
from what it is. But hitherto I have preached peace and quiet, 
hitherto I have labored for Christ. . . . 

R. Slähclin: Briefe iiwx iter Reformationsseil. Basle, 1887, p. 9 

HunnxEsa. Scptanber ig, ts» 

... I have read the pamphlet of the most Chrislian^ Rev- 
erend Father Marlin to our nobility. Good Heavens! what 
wise liberty is in it! There is no jot of it to which I can 
oppose anything from Scripture. But rather, as I prevlousiy 
learned to expect from his other works, I seem to myself to 
have found a man undoubtedly acting out the spirit of Christ, 
Capito, that finished theologian, my special patron, was at 
first horrified by what rumor said of the book, but when he 
read it, he acted, as he always does, as becomes a sincere 
theologian, as an interpreter and champion of the truth neither 
blinded nor timid. When you meet him you will learn his 
virtues most clearly. May our breasts not hesitate to accept 
the gifts which, a.^ it were, the Holy Spirit shows the Church 
in most sacred Luther and other men not 3 few, whose erudi- 
tion and piety are both alwve suspicion. I pray Christ for 
that. If you can steal time from your other occupations, 
please write briefly what result I may expect from the present 
hazard, and if most pious Luther comes to you, commend lac 
warmly to him. . . . 


L«. 300 





Süden, ii 481. WiTTENUEkc. September »8. IS». 

A Günther von Bünau, of Elsterbcrg. was in 15^3 Church visitor in 
Uducn and Voigtland. He seems to have written Luther about ft 
niinor which circulattd about a debate held at Wittenberg. 

Greeting. Excellent Sir, I read with joy and wonder the 
letter testifying your great failh in me. What lies wilt that 
poisonous old serpent not vent?' The debate was as fol- 
lows: Carlstadt presided; I argued with others in (he usual 
way. The question was whether Christ in the passion opposed 
the will of the Father? For he prayed that the cup might be 
taken from him, which was tantamount tn not wanting it and 
refusing it. Then the argument showed that not wishing was 
equivalent to hating and rebelling. This was denied and not 
proved. Xothing was asserted, but only talked over famiharly. 
What, pray, do we not say in argument, even against orthodox 
belief? Are we not accustomed to impugn even articles of 
faith? Why then do those men rave and lie about my asser- 
tions, when I only argued for the sake of argument, asserting 
nothing, and rather openly confe^5ing that I did not under- 
stand the mysteries of Christ? I know not whether we treated 
that saying of the apostle, "he that knew no sin was made 
to be sin,"^ and other sayings which attribute to Christ sin, a 
eune and despair; as do Paul and the prophets. As we do 
not grasp these things, it is right that we should assert nothing 
about them. T never debated publicly on this matter of Christ's 
sorrows, and I know nothing about it except what I said above. 
If anyone says otherwise you can convict him of falsehood 
on the testimony of our whole audience. Let these virulent 
men cease to criminate one who argues, or else let them first 
condemn their own Aquinas, who upsets all Christian doc- 
trines, arguing pro and contra. Do they wish to forbid us 
to question articles of faith simply in argument and for the 
sake of learning? I am ashamed that even you should be 
moved by these nonsensical fictions. Here you have the facts 
and my opinion. 

iRrrclUlaB, sll. ». 

■t C»rlBtbisiu, V. ai. 


I know nothing of Eck.' except that he has come with his 
beard, his bull and his money. The Lord grant that one of 
the condemned articles be that the bag of tlie Mendicant is 
nothing. J also will laugh at this bull or bubble. I send 
Marforius.* The Lord keep you always. Amen. Farewell, Günther. Martin Luther, Augusti$tian. 

Enders, li. 4S3. Wittsniibic. Ociobcr i, 15A 

Conrad Saum (Sam, Som). (1483-Junc 20, 1533), at this time pricft 
ai Brackcnhrim in Wiirtcnibetg, tuJ already embraced the Rcforrni' 
tion, on 8«ount of which he was driven out, going to Ulm in 1534, 
where he introduced a Zwinglian reform. Realtn<yeiopadU. 

Greeting. Dr. Heilingen* has commended you, Conrad, to 
me, praising your piety and learning. He pleased me not a 
little in bearing witness that your heart is possessed by thit 
pure and sincere dcictrine of Christ, which in all possible 
ways the sophists strenuously resist by force and guile. Satan 
aids them, for who cannot see that he is the author of these 
storms in them? For our wrestling is not against flesh and 
blood, but against spiritual wickedness, against the authors of 
this darkness in heavenly places.' Let us therefore be coi>- 
stant. and in our turn let us hear the trumpet of our leader 
who calls to us: "Be strong in war, fight with the old serpent* 
and receive the eternal kingdom." For this fellow Satan 
does not fight with us, but with Christ who fights in us. and 
who is greater than he that is in the world.* The Lord has 
chosen new wars, &ays Deborah, Judges vü.' and we also fig^l 
not our own battles, but those of the Lord. Be strong there- 
fore and mighty; if God be for us who can be against us?' 

\NTiy this? you say. Recause you will hear that the Popt 

*Eck arfivcd ■< MrUMn. ScptciflVn >t, wher« be poftcd ibc bull. 

iTbc nant of ibc aUluc of ■ rivcfgod <l Etoinc, va whicb uitrc« «en pwwd' 
Tbe Mlir« Luther wnC in*)r bare bf*a PajquUlin JiarrAww «r») . . . O m M I 
Bgitrage rur Rffffftnaiiontgriehttfitf, i- '. 

«pTob&blr ]»>>n Ctrltnf, laicr a wdl-kaairft Rsfeimir la Soatb GtuwBj, » 

«Eptircianii. ii. 0. 
m^vcUiioo. lii, Q. 
■■ Jobn, JT. 4. 
^Rather, ludRa, v. 8. 
•Rofliaii^ *iii. ji. 

l.eL 303 




through hü l^ate Eck has attacked Luther ami his books 
and all who adhere to and follow him, with a harsh bull. 
This wretched instrument of Satan is now at Leipsic, trumpet- 
ing forth his bull with great pomp and glory. I know not 
what will Iiappen, nor am I anxious to know, for I am sure 
that he who sittetli in heaven takes care for all things and 
has foreseen the rise, progress and end (which I wait for) of 
this affair from eternity. Whichever way the lot falls it will 
not move mc, for it only falls where it falls by God's excellent 
will, who cannot err and is thus bound to please someone. 
Be not therefore anxious, for your Father knows what things 
you need before you ask him;* a leaf of a tree does not fall 
to the ground without his will;' how much more must we fall 

Monly there where he wishes us to fall. 


I thought best to encourage you thus myself, so that if 
a powerful spirit come up against you, you wtll not abandon 
your post, but hold fast what you have, lest another should 
receive your crown ■ It is a small thing for us to die for 
the Word which was incarnate* and died first for us. We 
who perish with him and who have gone with him where he 
has gone, will rise with him and attain to tlie same place tliat 
he has attained to and will remain with him forever. See then 
that you do not hold your holy calling cheap, hut that you 
gratefully persevere in it through all evil. He will come and 

ill not larr)' who shall deliver us from all evil.' Farewell in 
the Lord Jesus Christ. May he strengthen and preserve our 

cart and mind. Amen. Martin Lxn^HER. 


Waleb, XV. 938L GcrmBn. (.sipsic. Oclobcr 3. 1520. 

I Most serene, high-bom Prince, most gracious Lordt My 
humble service to your Grace. -As at my departure from 
Gotha your Grace gave me a letter to Fabian von Feililzsch,« 

\ •MMtU«, Ti. a. 
*Cf. Hath», s. «9- 
■ICftlMlaa, Ul. It. 
•Tot». L 14. 

*Hebrrw*. x. 97. • Ttmatbr, W. iS. , * 

•A CiMnciDof of Frvdrric. «ho dieil tirljr in Dfr*nb«r, 1 510. H» «u s vans 



at the very hour of my arrival at Erfurt I sent it to him bj 
my own messenger. At Erfurt, however, I was ill, and hut 
to wait there seven days. At that time the new vicar. Dr. 
Link, came and visited me and asked Hrhether I bad received 
Dr. Staupitz's letter about Dr. Martin. I said no, wbidi 
horrified his reverence, for he would liave been glad to have 
had me receive said letter while I was with your Grace, thai 
your Grace might thereby have understood Dr. Luther's attt- 
tudc and the diligence of the fathers who were sent to him; 
for Link did not neglect to inform me what they bad done and 
decreed, and told me that Luther was perfectly willing to 
-write humbly to bis Holiness, and show himself an obedieol 
son, which I heard with great joy, and thereupon arose and 
rode to Altenburg. There I found Dr. Staupitz's letter and 
Luther's to Spalatin, of the former of which I send yoar 
Grace a copy. Then I rode back to Ei&leben to the father 
vicar to find out whether he were minded to journe>' with 
me to a convenient place to meet Luther and come to a fina! 
decision in this affair. 1 found him at home, and tltereupoo 
went to Lcipsic, where I found Dr. Eck making a great out- 
cry and noise. I did not hesitate to ask him to visit me. to 
find out what his purpose and will was. He acted hastiiy 
and frivolously, and began to speak of his commands and 
how he would teach Dr. Luther, and with sharp words h« 
said that he had posted up the papal bull at Meissen on Sep- 
tember 21, at Merseburg on the 25th and at Brandenburg m 
the 2gth. He gave me an accredited copy of the said bull. 
which I send your Grace. I-Ie carries his bull around in 
procession with great pomp. His Grace Duke George wro« 
one of his councillors to give Eck a gold-plated cup full <tl 

But not minding his commission and bull, good pious chil- 
dren' on September 29 posted up a notice in ten places, of 
which I send your Grace a copy, threatening Eck so hard that 
he had to flee into the cloister of St. Paul, and dared not 
show himself. 

•itpp«rt«r of t^uthM- (ef. Smitb. vp. tit., pp. SJ. M). ■"<! too*' ■ MiuidenUc ^ 

in 1T1C ncfotiatifroji with MUtilc- 

Lkx. 303 



Caesar PRug complained of this notice, and commanded 
the rtctor of the university to issue a mandate against those 
who thus plagued Eck, which was done. 1 send your Grace 
a copy of it; it did no good. They have made a song about 
him which they sing in the streets. He is much troubled; his 
self-confidence and boasting are chnrged against him; people 
daily write him hostile letters in the cloister and refuse him 
personal or 6nanc)al aid. There are more than fifty students 
from Wittenberg here, who make it their business to annoy 
him. To-day he published a pamphlet against Luther, of 
which I send your Grace four copies. The grey monk lias 
also printed something against Luther. Only one quaternioti 
is finished as yet, which I also send to your Grace. 

To-day I intend going to Fabian von Feililzsch to ask him 
to write Luther to come to Lichtenberg or Eilenberg, where 
I hope to negotiate with him to get him to ful51l his promise. 
I will bring him security from this bull, for it has no power 
for twenly-one days, during which period I shall have ample 
time to go to him and to write of it. I told Eck that he did 
wrong to publish the bull while things were being negotiated 
in a friendly way, and that he should properly have written 
first to ask me what I had done. He kept silence thereupon 

td sighed, as if he were sorry. I cannot write your Grace 
w bitter people are against him. I fear the safe-conduct 
will not help him, but that he will be smitten. . . . 


Endcrs, iL 486. 

( Witten BE«c), Oclober 3, 15201 

Greeting. 1 have received many letters from you, dear 
Spalatin, and am surprised that the one 1 wrote in answer to 
yours dated at Ruttstädt has not yet reached you. That which 
I wrote later contained the same request about sending me 
the writings of the fathers from Eislcben. but I hope my let- 
ters have reached you in the meantime. Miltitz has begged 
me to write privately to the Roman Pontiff saying tliat I 
never meant to twit him personally. I have not yet written.' 

■Lnihvr taur dcdütd to da »o. howtYrr. «nd tbii rciultcd In IlU thErd gnu 
ptttpbiM at ijao, lb« Littriy of a Chriicia* Uon. Cf. Smilb. 9f. eil.. SK 




and shall nol do so nuw that Eck' lias dared turn those bulls 
— and such fierce ones I — loose against me. What he is aiia- 
ing at is not yet known. 

Many tliink that I should ask the elector to obtain an im- 
perial edict in my favor, declaring that 1 should not be «kh 
dcmned nor my books prohibited except by warrant of Script- 
ure. Please find out what is intended; I care little either wajr, 
because I rather dislike having my books so widely spread, 
and should prefer to have them all fall into oblivion together, 
for they are desultory and unpolished, and yet 1 do want ibc 
matters they treat known to all. But not all can sepantc 
the gold from the dross in my works, nor is it neccsttiT 
since better books and Bibles arc easily obtainable. I vroukl 
much rather increase the number of living books, that it, d 
preachers, and protect them so that they could explain die 
slate of afFairs to the public. I am sending what was sent 
me on this subject from Italy. If the elector acts as this 
suggests I think it would be most worthy of him. Tlie Italian 
public could then grasp the condition of affairs and on 
cause would be stronger. Perhaps God has raised them op 
and will preserve our elector to us to advance the Word by 
him. Sec what you can do for the cause of Christ. The mm' 
who wrote nie from \>nice i.i a brother of I^zarus Spenglei' 
who sent the letter to me from Nuremberg. 

My book on the Captivity of (he Church* is coming aai 
next -Saturday and will be sent to you. 

Carlstadt has cast his die and takes courage against llu 

I have just heard lliat Eck is not safe at Leipsic, but is <l^ 
tested and is caricatured by posters stuck up everywhere ud 
that he has fnund a far different reception and opinion there 
tban he hoped ; for he is not now what he was a year ago- 

'E«k publbticd the Ettttrt* Dtmint al Maieor«, Ucncburg and BrM^^at 
ID Ü1C lut iny» oi ScplcRi1>rr, Srailb. p 9H- 

■Geoiic Sptnglfr. otigintUf at Normbfig, xl up m ■ acRbtuit [■ Vfkt, 
£•1 UkKh 31, 1519- 

■UMtni« Spmilrr (t4;9-5«ptriDb«r ;. lii*)- •mdit<l it Leir*k 14^. bM>OT 
WKv cl«tk at KuTcmbeTR iS"?- Hp warmly cmbracid Luilivt't caw*. fablMiil 
a Df/enfr of it, tsi9. for which he «rai ncbnimunic-aifd bjr the boll EwHf 
Datünt. He vitited Wittmbcrf In i{>S> «ad Luiber dtdloied le Um til «»A 
OB Sth«oU, ifjo. Weimar, xsx^ p4Tl ii,, goS. Realncyclafidi*. 

<riv Bahyi^tnaH Capttotty «f Mf Ckwrt*, Wdmar, «i. 484. C/. Snilk. Ut 




ed, he has changed bis lodging and has gone into a Do- 

::an monastery, openly giving out that he can neither es- 

their snares nor return to Ingolstadt. 1 should not wish 

murdered, although I sec his plans wtll be frustrated. The 

do what is good in hts eyes. 
ic have no news excepi the rumor of war with Prussia. 
Archhishop of Mayence cummanils the books of Huttea 
be publicly prohibited, calling down a curse on his head, 
lutten girds himself with great courage to trj- his arms and 

lius against the Pope. 

[Our Adrian ' rages against me, carried away by I know not 

It fur>', perhaps seeking an occasion of withdrawing. 

3ugh I have done notliing to hini he rails at my sermons, 

»dy to teach me the Gospel, though he does not understand 

us own Old Testament- There are various possible cxplana- 

is of his madness, but let it pass, time will show what 

Mabtin Luther, Augujtinian, 

ers. iL 4go. WrrxKNBFJic, October (ii), 15Ä). 

Greeting. At last that Roman bull brought by Eck has 
ived.' Our friends are writing to the elector about it. 
lespise it, and am now attacking it as impious and fraudu- 
it, Eckian to the core. You see that Christ himself is 
.dcnmed in it. It says nolliing to the purpose, but sum- 
nons me not to be heard, but to recant, so that you may know 
bat they arc full of fury, blindness and insanity, seeing and 
onsidering nothing. I shall still act without mentioning the 
'öpc's name, as though it were a fictitious and forged bull,* 
Ithough I believe it is their true work. Would that Charles* 
re a nun to grapple with these devils for Christ! 

fear nothing for myself- God's will be done. Nor do I 
low what the elector ought to do, except that I think it 

Tk* [ffofruor of Hcbiew. 

tEck «rni tb« bull wtib a nute lo Burckhin. the Smiot of Wittenben. on 
ibrr ]. Uurtkhan rcfui«) on IMbnl-»! itcnundii to poti li, but fncwirded li 
Ihikc Jobn Scbubctt Lulkeri Brrmfuny auf ll-'armi, p. 18II. 
ic/. Lallier's I'vn dm Htum Ecliutlirn Bvlirn and Lügen. Wcimw. vL fji. 
ItDUS alio preundcd 10 doutii tbt Kf'iU'otocu iif ilie bull, bopinit Ibiu 10 müat 

iblc for tb< Fope 1« witbdra«; ii. 
Fbe EtDpcTvrdcci, now lotot? yens old. 


best for him to dissimulate. For both the bull and Eck an 
held in utter contempt at Leipsic and cvcrj-where else; whaice 
I su^MCt tbat it may acquire authority by excessive care and 
solicitude on our part, whereas, if left to itself, it will easily 
quiet down. I send a copy of it, for you to sec the Roman 
monsters. If they rule, it is over with the faith and the 

Yet I rejoice with my whole heart tliat for this best of 
causes I suiTer evil, wlio am not worthy of being so trinL 
Now ! am much freer; for [ am certain at length that the 
Pope is Antichrist and that the scat of Satan has been openly 
found. God will keep his ovi-n lest they be seduced with his 
specious impiety. Erasmus writes that the court of the Em- 
peror is po&sessed by the "beggar-tyrants"' so that there can 
be no hope in Charles. This is no surprise ; put not your 
trust in princes nor in the sons of men in whom there is do 

This hour I am going to Lichtenberg to ofifer myself agaia 
to Qiarles von Miltitz as the elector cominanded. The prc- 
ceptor" is unwilling that I should go, for he fears something. 
Farewell and pray for me. I will renew my appeal* and will 
do what our friends think ought to be done. Although I 
Uiould prefer that the excommunication threatened in tlie bnll 
should be carried out against me, yet I must consider others. 

Martin Luther. Augustinion. 

EodcM, ii. 494. LicBTKNnn«: (Ortobtr w), 15« 

Greeting. Dear .Spalatin, Miltitz and I have met at Lich- 
tenberg, and. as 1 hear from him, have with much hope made 
the following agreement: that I am to write a letter to Ac 
Pope and publisli it iu Latin and German as a preface to sook 
little work tn which I shall narrate my history', sliowing thU 

*f. *.. ih* mffDiUcuii friin. Sufra, an. jjS. Infra. F«brvwy »f, isai> **■ 

•P«alm c«lvl. J. 

■Wolfflsns Rciii>nitiuti.-h. mXticulilcd al Wiiicnlicre i;n>, tiachHor of Ibctke 
itoj. Reeior o( ite Unirmliir i(n, Tken be brcimc icKlitt »f » boft' •cb»J 
at Uchlnibcif. nittit be marririL April »6. iii]. He U Dcnilonwd kjr I^ukcfi* 
)Ur. Cf. Enden, r. («6. Smith. \J2S, nj. 

'He did ft OD November tf- Wtitau, tu. 74- 

I^. 307 



I would never have attacked the Pope's person, but throwing 
the whole blame on Eck. 

As this is all true, I will easily do it, and offer silence as 
humbly as I may, provided only the others keep silence, so 
that I may seem to omit nothing in my power to make peace. 
1 have always been ready to do this, as you know. I shall, 
therefore, do this as »ton as I can; if it turns out as we 
hope, it is weit done, if otherwise, it will also be good, because 
it will please the Lord. Farewell. Martin Luther. 


Walch, XV. 947. Cennan. (Lichtenbebi:), October 13, ijaa 

Kind Sir and Patron ! Last night ai ten o'clock my curate 
of Lichtenberg wrote me that Dr. Lulhcr came on Thursday 
[October 11) at four in the afternoon, bringini^ with him 
Philip Melanchthon, a brother of his order, a nobleman and 
four riders. My assistant also tells me that no fewer than 
thirty horsemen were also present. At six o'clock Miititz en- 
tered with four horsemen. They were cheerful and happy 
with one another, for I had left instructions to entertain them 
well and give tliein enough. Miititz relates what they did in 
his letter, to which I refer you. Yesterday at one o'clock 
Luther left ; Miititz would have accompanied him but that 
one of bis horses was sick. My assistant telEs me that be re- 
mained yesterday at Lichtenberg, at which I am well pleased. 

Upon my honor, Sir, I would not have taken one hundred 
gulden 10 have remained at home. For I fear something 
would have happened to me. Miititz would gladly have 
brought me, poor devit, into the game, so that he could have 
revenged himself on me for what he could not do to Dr. 
Luther. . . , 


Endcrs, Ü. 495. Ccnnan. Eilcmbvkq, October i4i tSM^ 

■ . . . Luther has ofFcre<l to write a humble letter to the 
rope's Holiness, in Latin and nerman, to dedicate a little 
|)ook to hi» Holiness, and in the preface to write an epistle. 



Let. 308 

showing his Holiness why he ftrst wrote and how it can« 
about, and who started and strengthened the errors and who 
preached so diligently to the detriment of the Holy Churci. 
. . . The book will appear in twelve days and will have tlic 
date September 6,' just ten days after the embassy left Eiifc- 
ben- . . . This is so that no one can say that Eck and Jks 
followers with the bull caused him to write this book to ht$ 
Holiness, for tlie bull was published on September 21, so ifaat 
this book would have been written fifteen days before anyone 
knew anything about the bult. Luther will also give a fair 
account of the Letpsic debate and the diligent attempt of mj 
gracious Lord of Merseburg to hinder the same, and he will 
also praise the Pope personally. . . . Dr. Luther has alw 
written Spalatin a partial account of our negotiation and con- 
clusion, which letter I now send to your Grace. . . . 

Corpus Rcfonnatoruvi, xciv. 355. Mayence, October 1$, ij» 

Hcdio, or Heyd. of Baden (i404'lSS3), matriculated at Frdburt 
1313, B. A. 1514. M. A. 1516. lit 1519 he wu a chaplain at Ba&lc, a 
iSJo went to Mayeiict. In 1523 to Slrassburg. where he wai ooe 
cf the leadinff Reformers until his death. KMifittyelopädif. He h»d 
wrillcn to Luther from Basic, June 23. iS». Erdcrs. ii. 431. 

Greeting. Although I am long absent from you. dearest 
Zwingli, yet would I be present with my letters. Capilo called 
me to Maycncc, where I shall be preacher until Iw returns 
from the coronation of tiic king," and perhaps aftenvards, if 
Christ will, for Capito ie going to give up this office, having 
been made cn-unciUor of the Archbishop of Mayence. You 
will hardly IwHcve how valuable lie is in this position. Luiber" 
would long ago have been burnt in thi* district and Lutheran» 
excommunicated* had he not persuaded the archbishop oth- 
erwise. . . . 

>Tbi> di>Int«itiiaiM plan wm followed, 10 ihit T.riiiher*i pfcfKe 10 TItt Ltifti 
tt o Chrutian Man, actually wittt«n »bout tbia tiiuc. twrc th« (•!*< 4ai« S<p 
lenbcr i, Ot, U MlklU ■■71, |i»( im <ls]n aflcr ibe cmliiuiy <StHlp4U ■■•4 Uafcl 
Iiad lonr to Luther fTom the chapl«r ai Eii1«hFn, Suftm, no. aff. For Iht lart 
if. Snilh, 9'^ 

»I. f.. of CKarl« V. at AixUCbapelU. Oeicber tj. i(*a. 

»I. t^ hU book!. 



The Pope has sent a bull about Luther, a real bull, I hear. 
He urges the angels of heaven, Sts. Peter and Paul, and every 
creature to take part af^ainst Luther and his adherents; they 
arc to be slaughtered, burned and so forth. If the bull really 
is what they tell us it has little apostolic spirit and no Chris- 
tian mercy. O free Germany, where is our freedom? Not 
even our tongue is free. Hutlen is hiding-, for the Romanists 
have prepared poison for him and have hired men to take 
bim bound to Rome or to kill him. Me will not remain hid- 
den long, as tl]e monks of this province, who are furious 
papists, think. The Elector of Saxony is very liberal towards 
learned men; they say no prince is more upright or greater 
than he. Luther will burst forth from personal vices' and be- 
fore the next fair we shall have thunder. Cease not, help 
good men and Christian piety as much as you can. The monks 
will try everything. . . . 


Pirtkkeimeri ofero. rd. Goldxst. ao^ NiuST^DT, October iS, isaa 

Hail, dear Stromer. I have received Luther's book' which 
you sent, but what good will it do us if we are not allowed 
to read it, and if we who are innocent are cursed so fiercely? 
I hear that Eck has posted some bulls or other things at Meis- 
sen and has publicly traduced my name' How just it is 
that I who live at Nuremberg should be accused in Saxony I 
As I presume he has left a copy of the bull at Leipsic I pray 
you let me know the contents thereof. . . . Moreover, I hear 
that a book called Der abgehcbelie Eck is handed around and 
that everybody says that I am the author of it, as though 
no one but I knew how to play the fool. . . . Charles von 
Miltitz has informed me of the contents of the bull, but he 
sent me no copy of it, supposing, I know not why, that I al- 
ready had one. 

■AUiMto« U <l«ie of Luihef'* Aiir4U 10 tk* Crrman Ifrbiltly. Wdaiar, vL 4C9, 

tPtttOBtaitlr lb« Adirn, to tht Gtrm»» tfrbBily. 

*Wbra Efk «ru eivcn the bull to pest in Gcrmanr (Smitb. «rl \ he wu iIIovmI 
U ncntlan by nam« ikoM of Latb«r'> (ollowert who he ibousbl ibould b< 
u««amiinicat(d *itb bim. Rt ti>m«d Catlttidi. Sp«n(lrr >nd TircUihotr, lb« 
bntT i>ri>b>btr b«caiue of Üie tuiit »polcen of 'm tbb lector. 




Corpus rtformaloram, L 269. (October).' 15» 

Our kind service to you, learned, honorable and goo<) 
friend. The coadjutor' and councillors of our fp-aciou5 lonl 
the Bishop of Frcising and Naumburg have written to ni 
about the Pope's bull and Dr. Eck's doings, and have asked 
us to give their messenger letters to Wittenberg so that be 
can get a printed or written copy of the learned Dr. Luther*! 
appeal against this bull, as you will team further from (hetr 
letters. But as we have no knowledge, except what nnnor 
has brought us, of Luther's appeal against the papal bull, we 
have replied to the said coadjutor and councillors that ve 
have sent their letter lo you as to one who is well posted oo 
Luther's actions and lliat they should find out all about It 
from you. Wherefore in the absence and place of our gn- 
cious Elector Frederic we kindly beg you to give the messen- 
ger of the said coadjutor and councillors whatever informa- 
tion you can in order that he may announce it to them at 
Zeitz. Our gracious lord will take this in good part, and so 
shall we, personally. The Councillors.' 


Erasmi optra (1703). Üi. s8S- Louvaik, October 18, ij» 

Lrtlers nos. 311-M evitlcnlly Ixlong do« together soon after iJi« 
burning of Lather's works it Louvain, October 8. ind the consequent 
sttack on Erasmus. The only one which can be accurately dated ti 
no. 311. The others must, at any rate, fall between Augiutr. 153a *^ 
February. 1521. while Rosemund was fcctor. ! beliere that tbey all 
come in October, before Erasnms left for Colosnc, vfacrc we find 
him in the first days, of November. 

Roiemuiid ( I ^Sj-Decetnlet 5, 1526) studied at Louvain, where he 
began tcachinK ans in 1509 and ihcoloEy in isiS- In 1518 be tKcaoic 

^"n* C»ffiu Rtformtlarnm dAMi ibU Xareoibcr ij, bat ih* «vwai* bUvM 
I« »kov rbu ii muitt hiT« b««n «arlifr, prrki^ ^ij Kil Nimwti ,~ t, t-, 
October lE. 

nifnr? Sf&vip4b«rg, en wIiori »nd tbi* aSair. ri. infr», November ij. 

■PrDbably FabJin von PnliUKh, Haoe«ld roa Eiuwdel ■«■! Job« ron T«ab>a- 
bmm, tp«k*n of \fjj L^tbcr IB tbt atorcnnitloard tenet »r Ho wb ei ij 

■et. 311 



Iran of the (acuity, and rector during the winter-gem ester, 1530-1. la 
NovonbcT, J534, bo was mode president of Adrian VI.'s College. 
/Illgemeine DtvUehe Biograpkii, and de Jongh. :65-7- 

I do not ihink it necessary to admonish you of your duty. 
of which a part is not only to keep from hurting others your- 
self, but to prevent anyone doing an injury to another. The 
many things which Nicholas Edmond, either at your command 
or at the Pope's, said against Luther, do not. I think, pertain 
to mc; but what he did beyond all command and contrary to 
th« will of the Pope, who wishes e\'cn those who have hith- 
erto followed Luther dealt with gently, and that none others 
should he involved, this, I say, which he did in attacking me 
falsely and undesen-edly, pertains to your authority and juris- 
diction. You should silence this man of peevish tongue, cspc- 
ciaJly as he is a bad example and injurious both to the order of 
theologians and to this university. ... On October <>, in the 
church of St. Peter, while preaching on chanty, as I happened 
to be present, he suddenly and ignobly turned hi^ sermon 
against me, and said that i favored Luther, although from the 
beginning I have always said with perfect truth that ] had no 
commerce with Luther except what one Christian might have 
with another. . . . From the taste of his works which I have 
had, I liked his gifts, by which I conjectured he might have 
been a chosen vessel for Christ had he wished to use his 
gifts for Christ's glory. As there were mauy fierce sermons 
against him and many false charges 1 preferred that, if in 
error, he should rathei be corrected than put to death; if 
that is to favor F^uther. I frankly confess that I favor him. 
as ! think the Pope does, and you all do if only you are true 
theologians and CItrislians. . . . Hgmond even said that I 
defended Luiher. because in my letter to the Cardinal of 
Mayence I spoke of the Carmelite who blamed Luther for 
saying iliat some mortal sins should not be confessed, al- 
though he did not understand Luther's meaning. . . . Surely 
if it is pious to refute Luther it is necessary- to understand 
him. . . . [Follows a long apology for this and for the letter 
to Luther.] . . . 

I do not think that you approve of those who have hitherto 
against Luther, of whom the first was Prierias. the 



Ld. ju 

iecond a certain Franciscan,* the third' wrote anonymouiJji. 
though he confessed he was a Dominican and received a ul 
arj- from tlie French King. . . . 

If I were devoted lo your order and most hostile to Lulbo 
what other advice could I have given than I did give? Burn- 
ing Luther's books may remove tlicm from the bookstores; I 
doubt whether they can thus be removed from the minds o( 
the people. But this might have been done if you bad fol- 
lowed my advice. Even if ray counsel did not please JW, 
yet it ouglit not to be thrown in my teeth as a Int of hypor- 
risy that I gave it honestly to the Cardinal of Mayence who 
deserved this service from mc. I gave him the advice in a 
scaled letter, thinking nothing less than that tt sliould be pub- 
lished, but I hear that it was published before it wa- lI^ 
to tlie cardinal, and not edited as I wrote them. Fur > 
they charge me with saying "our Luther" it is certain that 
I never said it. and would not have said it even if he hid 
been mine,' . . , 


Erasmi opera fiTOj), iü. 536. (Louvain, October?, 15a) 

In Ulis letter Erasmus relates tlie course of his quarrel with Egraoad. 
This letter is dated he. (it.. and in the London i&p edition, xii l& 
■519. but tlie coninls show thai it should rather be 152a Moreoief. 
Roscmund was rector only between August, 1520^ and Fcbruarj-, 1531, 

. . . Invoking St. Paul Egmond prayed that as Patil bad 
been changed from a persecutor of the Church into a doctor 
of the Church, so Luther and Krasmus might be. Why do 
they do such things? Because they desire nothing so much 
as to annoy. They take it ill that I am not a Lutheran, as 
truly I am not. unless it be for Christ's ser^-ice. I know thit 
I am too free with my tongue, but no one has ever heard 
mc approve Luther's doctrine. I have ne%'cr cared to read 
his books except a few pages which I only glanced at. I al- 
ways favored your debates against Luther, especially the 

'fttkapi AuKiutInc Alrcld. 
1 do «Hi know »bg ii mciiit. 

'BrawMia aimnt <h*i In pubUthlnit hi* Uvtt to AAcfi «f V&rcsM (ao. I^t 
tlwj ctiaB(<4 "Lulbet" tniB ''our Lutbcr." Stnilli. a«l. 

Let 313 



writings of John Turcnholt,' who, as I hear, disputes team- 
edly and without passion. When Luther's books were burned' 
no one saw me sadder. I have constantly averred that much 
in him displeased me. I have written much privately and 
said much to restrain him from his turbulent manner of writ- 
ing, and lo, I am called a Lutheran. If your university likes 
these jokes I can stand them, and 1 prefer to do so than to 
revenge myself. Rut in my opinion things should be done 
differently. Vincent' has blamed me for the tumult in Hol- 
land, when, after an idiotic sermon, be was almost stoned by 
the people, but I never wrote to any Hollander either good or 
about Lutlter. Farewell in Christ, magnificent Rector. 



£rafrni Oftra, iü. 60;. LouvAlN (October?), 1530. 

[E««sa>ti* ha» been traduced by Nicholas Egraond. and has therefore 
appealed to the rector of the university, A public conference is 
imnged in which Erasmus and Egmond may acctixe each olher ajid 
dffend thciDselvcs. The conversation between them on that occasion 
»as in part as follows:] 

You publicly lied about mc," said I, "io asserting tliat I 
avored Luther, whom I never favored in the sense you 
meant." He replied, not with emotion, but with fury; "Rather 
you are the author of the whole afltair, an old fox switching 
your tail over everything." He vomited rather than said 
many similar things, until at last a word — not "raca,"' but 
aoDtber word amclling worse than it sounds — burst forth as 
the prelude to his intemperate speech. . . . After a long al- 
icrcaiioD he returned lo the same subject and said that he 
would never cease talking against Luther until he had fin- 

■JabB Ni(i ot Turnliuiil. rnniinDnlf calW DHnTo. laufhi iihiloioiiIiT *( Lon* 
run MM. tbcn inidiot ibrulair with .Mriao of Uiiccbt; luinr ot (be viinctt ot 
Ctvj; D. D,. ifii. Dem »I the laculir o< ibcolocr 151s. 151]. isjö. tili, 151t. 
Cnoa of St. Ptter'i (LAuriin), ijio. Died Augutl 4, ijjs. De Jonxb. ijCit, 
The h»«1i ai<init Luihtr, ii|>nktn ot by Crumu«. wu itCiwfd br Ibc printer, 
m^ttj UxrtcDS. l>rie*lD publufacd otlicr voikn. 

'Al Lovriio, Otlotcr f. 1^10. CI. Smith. gS. 

■V'iixcnt Dicrcx (T^rotlqtici) of BcicrwTcklti-Harlcm. becamt a Dominican In 
tit» ätj, Riidlcd *i PiiiK «here he began 10 tcMh in ibc c«iiTcnl. sf St. Jam«* is 
I JI4. He ptjUiikcd variou* IhioI:*, xtuX on rrturniDf lo L<.ii*>ii> iri 15)7 wa> 
DiA^r dMIar «f lh«o1ocr. He Ai*ä Aofuil 4. 1 5^6. al (be ace et fsitj-Kve. tis 
«at oat »f Eruniiu' bitliietl eneniM. Tu wbom ü aiMrcucd letlar no. JI4, 
pabläke4 wlifc tb« ujrfrru "To bia >na«t p*riiitent CutAtttr." Dc Jongb. rjif. 
.JHaiibew, v. it. 




ished him. 1 replied thai he might shout against Luther mml 
he burst, provided only that he said oothing against m«, f« 
by doing the latter be accomplished nothing, but only nude 
himself ridiculous in the eyes of all gfx>d men, as I saw that 
the audience were even then laughing at him. "Ya !" satd bt, 
"they are your friends." ... He charged me with writioj 
an epistle to Luther. "In which," say I, "I warn him via 
to shun." "Rather," says he, "you leach him what to write." 
For it seemed that the man took it iU that Luther sfacvM 
write correctly — and so ill, that he preferred to have hie 
dead than corrected. But he could not brook it that I wrote 
Luther: "I do not advise you what to do. but only to do 
what you do of yourself." When I c:(cused this as a (»t of 
rhetorical civility, according to the rule that we should deny 
that we are giving advice even when we are, he grew h« 
again. "You say rightly," says he, "that the rule of rhetoric 
is to paint, pretend and lie about everything." 1 smiled and 
confessed that rhetoricians sometimes lied, but added that so 
did our professors sometimes. .Again, when I said thai 1 
was consulting the dignity of the theologians, he replied: 
"Leave that to us. »ell attend to it." When I said thai Ij 
burning Luther's books they might be removed from the K- 
braries. but not from men's minds : "Ya," says he, "you couid 
do that if you wished." . . . 

After some irrelevant bickering the rector* bade us Prtttni 
to Luther who was the chief subject of the conference. 
"Gjmc." says Kgmond, "you have written for Luther, no« 
write against him." Denying that I had written for him. but 
rather for the thcolt^ans against him. I gave many reasoos 
for not writing against bim again, as lack of leisure and oJ 
skill, fear and the desire not to hit a man already dowa 
"Well, then," says he, "at least write that we knocked him 
down." I replied that there were not wanting plenty to shout 
this even if I kept silence, and that it would be more fittöf 
for those who won the victory to celebrate it. and finally thit. 
as their books were not yet published, it was not certain 
whether they had beaten him or iKrt. Turning in despentioa 
to the rector. "Did I not say," says he. "that we would ac- 

«Colukalfc Ruomi^ 





complish nothing here? As long as he refuses to write against 
Luther we shall consider him a Lutheran." "Then you arc a 
Lutheran yourself," say I, "for you have written nothing 
against him and not only you, but all your friends." Then 
bowing a farewell to the rector, but not to me, he departed. 


LrotM* opfra, iu. 6», LauvAiN, (October?), 1530. 

(Tbis long letter of 13.700 words recapiiulatcs most of ihc cKarg«f 
to ivliich Erumu» hirl been exposed. Towards the end lie reiunis 10 
the quarrel with Egmond :) 

So to make liimscif, as they say. like a dancing camel, he 
[Egmond] invoked t!ie epistles of I'aul, saying: "Paul, once 
a persecutor of the Church, from a wolf was made a sheep. 
Let us pray that the same may happen to Luther and Eras- 
mus." U Attic charms' O slander like to blows I Although 
he was laughed at and hissed by all he spared me no re- 
proach, even in his sermons. When he published the bull 
agaiDSt Luther, he chanced to see me present, and suddenly 
changiog the subject of his discourse, he spoke more against 
Erasmus llian against Luther, nor did he make any end. but 
repeated his charges over and over. But when the audience 
began to nod to each other and to laugh, his face witnessed 
the impotent rage of hi« mind, and he broke off, rather than 
ended, his slanderous discourse. When I complained of it to 
Godschalk Rosemund, the rector of the university, he ran 
wild against me with llie same sort of accusations and lies, 
so thai one might rather think it was a clown talking 10 a 
rustic than an old man to an old man, a theologian to a lhe< 
ologian, a priest to a priest, and that in the presence of the 

[Erasmut then recites the substance of the colloquy tnvcn in the 
letter lo More, tvpra, no. jij.J 

His disciple, the prior of Antwerp, a doctor of the violet 
hood, excused himself before the magistrates for inciting to 
riot against Luther by saying that he had not read Luther's 
books, but that he acted at the command of Nicholas Eg- 


noad. At the same time the chiefs of the Dominican owa- 
iittry acted in such a disgraceful way as to aiienate the minds 
of all good men. Chic of their number said in die bearing of 
some laymen: "Would that I could fasten my teeth in 
Luther's throat ; I should not fear to go to the Lord's supfier 
with his blood on my mouth." . . . 



Enders, ii. 497. Wittenbckg, October jo, ijtt 

Müurcr, a friend oi Mosellanus, a learned pliiloin^pher and Ihcolopu 
and i inuskiaii, taught for sonic time at Alt'Ccllc before his dulli io 

Grccting in the Lord. Dear Michael, you would hardly be- 
lieve how much I am pleased to sec enemies rise against m 
more than formerly. I am never prouder and bolder than 
when I hear that I displease them. They are doctors, bish- 
ops, princes — what then? If the Word of God were not a»- 
sailed by them it would not be the Word of God as il is writ- 
ten: "The heathen raged and the people imagined a vain 
thing. The Icings of the earth set themselves and the princes 
took counsel together against the Lord and against his 
Christ."' Lo. here you see the attitude of princes, tctngs 
and bishops towards the Word of Christ; what more do you 
•want? I would greatly grieve if they praised me. for what 
misery is greater than to please them? Let ever>'thing pass. 
Michael; the things of God arc hidden and spiritual. . . . See 
to it that you preserve your soul in this Babylon. The judg- 
ment of God hangs over them and works terribly, which the 
blind men do not see. Let the blind lead the blind, says he.* 
If the Word of God had to be defended with the might and 
eloquence and genius of man. Christ would not have called 
fishermen to do it, nor would he have defended it with his 
own blood. I do what I ought. Having received for noth- 
inff. I ffive ior nothing," even with danger to my life, fame ao'l 
goods, yea even of my soul. I wrote ai home, I worked sin- 

■PhIcd U. tl. 
'Hkllh««, XT. 14. 

■Matih<w. X. S. I cive ibe iriM tetwc of ibe ward mnalucd in mti MM 
"(leetr" uid •omctune* ml»nniI<rKoad 





cercly, wishing to teach all what I my-^clf believed. I am 
clean from the blood of all,' at which I rejoice. In time they 

jriU *cc whom they have repulsed and persecuted. 

Hi care nothing if my work On the Babylonian Captivity is 
prohibited. What does it matter if all my books arc pro- 
hibited? [ will write nothing ngainst those who u-ie force 
against us. It is enough for me to have taught the truth 
against those stupid babblers, and lo have defended it against 
the learned who alone are able to hurt. Both the style and 
the maner of the Italian book of "Thomas EUiadinus" sliow 
that it is Emser's.' The Lord's will be done. I so despise 
those devils, that were I not held here 1 would of my own 
accord go to Rome in spite of Satan and all tlie furies. What 
if they kilt me? I am not worthy to suffer aught in so blessed 
a cause. 

It makes no difference if my letters written to you are de- 
livered to someone else. I do not fear lo have ihem public 
propcnj', for I write under God's sight; if he approves, who 
shall disapprove? I beg you. learn to despise men strongly, 
as Christ says: "Beware of men.'" It is a great thing to have 
a propitious God and to trust in him. Farewell in Christ, 
dearest Michael. 

I will not write to Duke George. You, too. know what I 
got from him with my three letters before the Leipsic de- 
bate. If h« is worthy he w 111 hear the truth ; If he is unworthy, 
the labor will be vain. 

_^ Your brother, 

H Martin Lutucr. 



Burcklördl-Bitdctmoiin, 14a. Aviono.v, October 30. 1530. 

We have some of Luther's works here- Of him there arc 
various opinions and judgments according to the various 
thoughts of men. Those who have imbibed sophistry and the 

■« Sisincl. llL it. 

*TbaiB*c itb'dini TodcKtii Pluicmitii O, r. ... in Morliitum LulberuBl . . . 
Ofut», Rome, Aiuiul. is'*'- Lulbet wu miaukcn in ucritiinu ib( bosk to £iiiki; 
it wM br ttiadinu*. ■ Dominkaa of noble C«riwui Xanily wbkb k»d «ctitcd 

M PtMtlU*. 

■Hattbtv a. 17. 




dregs of learning do not easily learn better, but prefer to be 
pigs with Gr>-Uus,* especially in this papal state, where tbc 
Pope's purse is an oracle and where it is impious to deviate 
a hair's breadth from the constitutions of the canoatsB. 
There are some Italians who, having published volumes front 
these shades, croak lo the field and äwamp. but they arc men 
of mediocrity whose lucubrations are cc^dcr than the water 
of Monacris.' But truth herself, having laid aside her mask, 
now shows her face in spite of them. However, the good 
man was not a little injured by a libel of a poor Impoitor, 
who, by pretending that Martin had recanted, brought back 
even those who had entered the way of truth to their former 
errors.* So great is the desire of these rascals to deceive, 
that, when they see themselves otherwise vanquished, ÜiC}' 
think up some new way to crush trtilli for (heir own gaifl, 
traducing the fame and doctrine of excellent Martin as 
heretical. . . . 


Barcldiardt -Biedermann. i4i> 

CFbeiburc im Ocbtlakd. Ociober 21. I5ja| 

Kotier, of Strasburg, was an ofganiti and composer at FrctlnrB 
until 1530. when he was banUhcd. He (hen found oii asyloin in Ben, 
and Uught music until his death 1541. C/. O, acmen: Beiträgt at 
RtformoliotisgtJthichU, in. aoff- 

. . . Doctor Martin Luther has published a book To Ün 
Christian Nobilily of the German Sation on the Imfrovf 
mcnt of the Christian Estate, which was printed at Basle. 
October 13.' and was sent mc by the agent. I have nc\'er read 
nor heard the like; all men wonder at it; some think th« 
devil speaks out of him. some the Holy Ghost. He sliakes 
the ground in a way that the Holy Father and the Romans 
won't und to their ta.ste. Ai the end of his book I ßnd the 

' yiriAXin, "PMfcer" C/, riuMrel, Jdaratia, pp, «Sj-tf. 

'An Arcadian irrini. frovnbiallr told, PtinT. Hul. Bar., kxxL 17. 

■Luiker blitisclf nieiiilaiii ibU work in the b«cinnlw of kii Ba^tanmn Ctflicüj 
(SoTcnibcr, i}io): "Sctiptii qBidan (r«tef Ctcnooentla Iltlna 'm>oc«iieBta 
lf»rtiul Lutbcri ad umciaoi Milcm.' hoc »r. qua nvn ca«, ul verb* aoMMit Kd 
qui ip«e Pit icvocBI: tie cnjnt l(*Ei bodic incipiniol laitniHrc." Cf, Wtuur. 
v). «M- Cf. '■r'*> ni' 'W' Lulber «fialw at It In Aukuh Either*, iL «|(. 

<"Sa«nkftac let falli.** Il tuat oul Knt M Wilteabcfi; to Au^aat 



words: "I think truly that I have sung highly.*" . . . This 
shows all the wickedness that goes on at Rome, tt can't 
stand There must be a reformation. Charles' must begin 
iL . .. 

DtuUth« R<i(kt\agjakten, a. 454. 

• (Aix-LA-CSArtLLE, October si, is».) 

Jerome Aleaiwter (1480-154:1} met Erasmus at Venice 1508, at«f 
«hich he tsughl at Paris till 151J. After servitig the bishops of Paris 
and Liege, he reiuraed to Italy in 1516 and was ntsdc Papal Libtsnan 
in 151g. July, 13J0, ihc Pope >cnt him as ics^ttc to Charles V, to act 
againtt Luther, where he comlucted liiinsdf wiih conspicuous success. 
Smith, op. (it., 48-104. In 1538 he was also sent ai legate to Germany. 
Hi» /oitrno/ published by Omoni i&js: several works on him by J. 
Paquicr, including his LeUert, 1909. ReaUncyelofiääie and Allen, i. 

I kiss your blessed feet, most holy Lord. May God Al- 
mighty keep your Holiness for us long and happily. 

Tliat your Holiness may know all things that were done 
here in order in the I-uthcran affair, the Emperor, while 
we were at .Antwerp, signed an edict commanding that all 
Lutheran and other seditious books, wherever found in his 
dominions, should be burned publicly with fire. . . , 
H| We have not been able to do anything against Luther's 
^^crson. nor shall we he able until wc can prove to the Em- 
peror and other princes lliat the bull entrusted to Eck ha3 
been published in Germany and the sixty days allowed by 
the bull have elapsed. I have no douht that Eck has already 
done what he was commanded, but I have no certain news of 
it yet, which I attribute to the long distance. 

»The Emperor* entered this town yesterday. 
eithtagiaktrn, ü. 4.S7- (Atx-LA-CiiAFKU-e, October 35. isaa) 

. . . The other nuncio' and myself were received to-day 
r the Archbishop o£ Mayence . . . and I noted that he 
■ L«n2 »ertJ qitatation from th< baak. (o tbt end: "D««f Rome. »JiM I ttunk." 
tC^hulu V. C/. Smith. 0*8., jJlyfl 
iCkarlia «a« crowned x Aii. 0<tnb«r ay 

«Haria« Cariecloln of NirW ( T46o-Januirr ag. i;j8). bad b««n Mnl 10 Rom» 
br Haxinilian Sfona to rFt>t»mt him at ibe Laintti Coonctl. i]is. He wa> 
pnttomoltiy bj Len X. mil in iti$ «m ipcointrd piiiil nuncio lo th« 



was not only in words but in heart most deeply moved against 
the Lutheran errors and against Huiten's mendacity, so that 
he would have burned Luther's books in bis dioceses 1oii| 
ago.' . . . He expressed surprise that Eck had not visited 
him, and had done nothing about pubUshing the buU in 
Saxony. . . . 


Archiv für Refomuaiomgtuhichlc, Ü. 394. German. 

(Steikacb), October 35, ISA 

Lantichad was a SwabJAn Icnjght, who wrote in favor of the Refonna- 

lion in 1522, and in 1525 introduced it in his estates on the Neckar. 

He died in ijjr. Lc<. cil., p. jg^, Tlic IcUcr is *ii iniereuins leUt 

mony to th« reception won by Luther's Address to ikt German NobiUly. 

Most Gracious Prince and Lord! I have read a little book, 
written, doubtless, at the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, by 
the learned Dr. Martin Luther to his royal Roman Majesty 
and the electors, princes and other estates of the Holy Em- 
pire. In this he thoroughly and clearly shows (what is gen- 
erally known to the greater part of Christendom) the great 
faults, crimes and grievances at present existing in the Christian 
Church, both in her higher and in her lower chiefs, who ought 
to be maintaincrs of the faith and of divine righteousness, 
but who, on the contrary, more and more uphold abuses to 
the hurt of God's honor and the Chrisiian faith and to the de- 
struction of the Christian commonweal and particularly of the 
German nation. . . . Wherefore I pray, warn and admonish 
you as a Christian elector and as a member of the Holy Em- 
pire, to help act for the common advantage of Christendom 
... by which you will doubtless win everlasting salvatioo 
and in this world praise and honor from pious people. 
Your Grace's humble, 

John Lantschad of Stelsacb, Knight. 


Endcr», ii. 503. WitTKxaKRc, October 30, 15» 

Von Grcffrodorf was a Cliambrrl.-iin of Duke John of Saxony; in 

Erapaof. ■ patiiion hr k«ld for 1 numKa of year«. He wu fin^lr apfiointtd bf 
CfcxrlH. CovtTDor of UltKn. Siteraflitf Citttrolt, Piitor. rii. «it. oMt. 

iTb« InAuc^icp of CafJ'o pnimTrd Albert ftoin buraina Lutbrr'a boefc» br 
a itblle. Ct. P. Kalkoil: W, CafUc im DtfJIt Atbtttkit «#■ M<ju. r»*r. 




1534 his ambusador to King Louts of Ilungaiy, in 1526 ioterested 
the Evangelical Church visitation. 

Greeting. Dear J<^n, I rejoice in the spirit you show id 
lie midst of these tumults caused hy the bull. Surely Duke 
rge and the liishop of ^[c^scbu^j;, transported with fury, 
doing their best to destroy mc and my university. Eck 
ied to post the bull at the University of Erfurt, but they con- 
ptuously refused to allow tiim to do so, alleging some 
inis of law. The students also tried to get after him, but 
uld not find him. It is said that he pleaded with tears to 
duce the authorities to let him post the bull, so that he 
ould not have to leave ingloriously without accomplishing 
lything. The bull was primed at Erfurt and exposed for 
Ic, but tlie students seized the copies and threw them into 
e river, saying, "Let the bull swim."' When the book- 
llcr brought an action for damages against them, he was 
Don-suited, as the town council refused to notice the students' 
Ut. I expect the bull will turn into a bubble, for it is noth- 
ing more. Therefore I greatly despise it, howbeit I have 
bad a suspicion that at the instance of Duke George I may 
be forced to depart from Wittenberg; this I leave in God's 
band. May his will be done. I have read the letter from 
Aat see of the apostles, or rather apostates, written to Duke 
jjohn.' Good Heavens ! how giddily do tliese men act ! Fare- 
[wcll. and let me commend the cause to you. 

Mabtin Lutii£k, Augustinian. 



ZtiUehrift für Kirchengeschichse, ii. ii() (tS;?). (October, isao.) 

Most gracious I.ord. Doctor Martin's books are also to be 
tbumcd at Merseburg. They would have burned them at 
KLeipsic last week. Monday or Thursday, but they didn't, for 
[some reason unknown to me. A good friend told me that, 
having learned it from the written order. . . , 

■Pun on ih< word buHa, wbiih atio rntttin bubble, 

*A tenet sf tbc Fape 10 ib.c «ImIvc, tttA in bl> «boeiKc hj bis broiher, Dvfcc 
Jobn. ta toc*nt. Endcr*. /0c. cil. 


Böddng, i. 363. (Mayence? c. November i?, 15»!' 

Most blessed Father and most clement Lord, I humbiy 
kiss your feet. On October 25 I received with becomiDg 
reverence five breves from the reverend I-ord Marino Caiac- 
ciolo and Lord Jerome Aleander, the nuncios of your Hull- 
ness. The lirst signified how your Holiness had made Carac- 
ciolo a nuncio to his Imperial Majc^'ty, and at the same time 
sent Tiic a pleasing gift of the consecrated golden rose. Tlie 
second and third breves bade me aid with all dUig:ence and 
zeal the said lords Caracciolo and Aleander in executing the 
bull against Luther, the fourth instructed mc how to pro- 
ceed to extinguish the Lutheran conflagration, and the fifth 
was about silencing Hütten. In the first place, I thank your 
Holiness for seeing fit to give me the golden rose wliich birds 
me by a new bond to you, and makes me, wlio was alwajrs 
most diligent, still more diligent to obey you. For hitherto, 
although not commanded, I have remembered my duty and 
done my best not only to keep Huttcn's libellous books, which 
were published before I had any suspicions, from the hands 
of readers, but also 1 have studied to suppress the nascent 
fury of Luther, and at the very first 1 warned your HoUoesi 
of that movement which has now. alas, became a mighty 
conflagration throughout almost all Germany. I left nothing 
undone which either theologians or jurists advised me to do. 
I published an edict against Huitcn's works . . . and in the 
same edict included the works of Luther, although I had 
also prohibited them the year before. It would be long to 
narrate all my negotiations with other princes, but I beg your 
Holiness to believe that I left no stone unturned to oppose 
the growing evil. For which reason I have been obliged to 
bear with many unjust men, who have favored the opposing 
faction, of whom some blandly warned me to correct I know 
not what corrupted morals, and alleged, I hope not falsely. 
their desire for peace. Yet I am forward to desjnse ibeir 
hatred, considering the benefits which your Holiness has 
poured out upon me, of which the memory is always fresh 

>Bückin; dim Ihii JuIt. but the referent« to iht rrttjition of |«ii«t» frvs Lm 
on Gelobet j{ ptovd tlui th» iiuo inn i> littr. Cf. no. jit. 


and would stimulate me. if I were at all slothful, to satisfy 
every desire of your Holiness. Wherefore, most blessed 
Father, considering not so much the words as ilie intent of 
the present comraands to pubHsh the bull against Luther in 
the dioceses of Mayenee and Magdeburg and in those of my 
reverend sufFragans, I am now doing my best, with the advice 
of the nuncios. lo conciliate the favor of the secular princes 
without which every effort of ours will be in vain. What 
success we shall have I know not, but I have good hope. . . . 

CorfKs RrfonHOiornm, xciv. 360. P\i«Sj November i, ijaa 

Henry Loriti, of GTarus (1488-1563). matriculated at Cologne 1506, 
M. A. 1510, nuitriculatcd at Uaslc 1514, where for a time he woik«! 
with Frolien, .ird became » devotee! friend of Erasmus. From 1517 
tv 1522 he wai at Paris teachiiig school, he then relumed lo B»i)e, 
bat, bcins unable to follow his friend Zwin|{ti in the Reformation, 
retired to Freiburg in 1529. He published an original work on music 
in 1547. Life \ty O. F. Fritxsche. iSoo; Allen, ii. 279. Glareaii is 
particularly interestin« 10 Americans as having made (he first map of 
the New Woild in which the continent is called Aiuerica. The MS. 
of this, dating 1513. w;is *oM by Solheby in itfti. It wat printed ander 
the title De Geographia, in 1527 at Basic. 

. . . Now hear some news about Lmhcr! When the de- 
bale between Geek' and Ludicr was laid before the Uni- 
versity of Paris for judgment, although it perhaps would 
have censured some of the articles, now, after it has heard 
that Luther is condemned by the Pope, it refrains from giv- 
ing judgment. No one's books are bought more eagerly. A 
eertain boukscller told me that at the last Frankfort fair,* he 
had sold fourteen hundred copies of Luther's works, which 
bad never before happenc«! with any other author. Everyone 
speaks well of Luther. Truly the monk's chain is long, . . . 


Cerfut Reforinaiorktn, xeiv, 365. Lucebke, November 2. ijaa 

. . , Vou know, and much more clearly than I do, what that 

Roman r^iscal who is with us proposed or rather commanded 

■/. f., Ztk, rf. tut*«, no. 17S. Duke Crvrf Srti Met (he dcbaic 10 Patia, 
if. (■m.n». iSo. 
The KT**i booVnuri ol Getai«i>r btid enry «ptin«. Cf. SmJib. rr- 



under pain of excommunication at the Sw-i^ congress at 
Baden^ aboui burning Lutheran books.* First, we want to 
know your opinion, whether we ought to obey or not. after 
the command shall be published, and then, what your men 
of Zurich decided to do. Briefly, my own opinion is that the 
excommunication is to be disregarded, not so much becaa»e 
1 favor Luther as that 1 would unwillingly lose the mcoej 
1 spent for the books, and also because I think the thing is 
too unjust to be obeyed. When was it ever heard 'm ük 
Church that anyone should be condemned before he had a 
chance to state the reasons for his opinions, especially wbtn 
he particularly wished to do so? It is proclaimed through the 
whole town here that Luther and the schoolmaster^ are to be 
burned, although I never speak of him except to my intimalcs. 
and that rarely, nor have I ever brought forward a single 
opinion from him. Yet I know why they join my name with 
Luttier's ; it is because in my classes I speak the gospel tnilli, 
and say what the subject demands, though no more. And Ix- 
cau$e this agrees with what he says in se\'eral places, the? 
think that that is from Luther which is really from the gospel 
I could easily answer this charge if necessary. Yet I wotiU 
not willingly lose his books, for I have not one or two. b« 
a great many. \\'hcrcfore advise us and we will follow your 
advice. Do quickly and briefly more than we ask. . . . 

Endcrs. ii. gt*- Genn*n. Oxocne, November 3. IS» 

Honorable, learned, kind, dear Doctor, and singular, good 
Friend ! My willing service with all my body and estate i$ 
heartily yours! I have received your two last letters it 
Cologne, and have read them t<^ether with your Offer and 
Protestation* and have heard what George Spalattn has to 
say, and am glad to learn that you are minded to show forth 

*0n OctabtT at, «t BaJtn, tbe Pope') Nuncio Pucci atie tbü propoaiiioa 
MMrdaac« with taiuuctiani %t bad T«(«irtd ftoia AW*n^r. tlU iveedl ai«d 
U hnsd, ht, tit. 

*Wt«obIu incin> Uai*«If, Tb* raipkaci* opon nlluw« aa tfc« MUc teit- 
p«D(I«nttr at Lutber ü charscMtiiilt af lit Swüi lt<f«mat)oB. 

*Cf. i-^t*», no. jfl?. Al WArsu, lalrr. KtcklnitCB taaitA LMthrr** Off *■< 
Prtittta-Uom >ad bii It-IMt to Cbirlt* V. lo ikji nonircb. *ba l«rc tbeai lo pit 
wiihoDt fradlnf Iben. Be kid cenaialy m«« thtfn pt w Ia tM ly m Cakv*- 
Criur. t 3*4*. 



the Christian truth and to abide by it. and I am inclined to 
give )'üu what help and favor may be in my power for this 
end. I would not conceal this my answer to your letter, for 
you will find me ready to do you any pleasure I can. God 
bless you and govern your affair according to his will! 
^- Francis von Sickincen-, u-ith my hand. 



&d«rs. ii. 50s. Dc Weite. L 5^. German. 

^m WrrreNseiG (circa November 4), isatx 

^fHcnnann (not Jerocae, as Luther mistakenly called him) Mijhl- 
ptoTi cane oi an old Zwickau family. He was Uter burgomaster of 
tbia town. wh«rc he died August 25, 1334. In his last ycari be bad an 
nafonunaic altrrcalion with Luther, on which c/. Smith. 281. This 
Utter is the dedication to the German trastbtion of Ttie Liberty cf a 
Cinrtiam Man, on nliich cf. Smith, giB. Mühtpfort visited Luther at 
Wittenberg 00 November 4. O. Clemen. Lntktrs Werbe, ii, 1. 

Prudent, wise Sir and kind Friend! The worthy John 
Eigranus. preacher to your excellent town, has often highly 
extolled to me the love you bear the Holy Scriptures, which 
you zealously acknowledge and do not neglect to praise be 
fore men. Wherefore he desired lo make me known to you, 
of which I am willing and glad. For it is a special pleasure 
to me to hear of men who love the divine truth, since alas. 
so many, and chieHy those who bear titles, strive against it 
with all their might and cunning. Yet it must come to pass 
that many should stumble, fall and rise again on Christ, who 
is set for a stumbling-block and a sign to be spoken against' 
Wherefore, to start our acquainunce and friendship, I de- 
sired to dedicate to >'Ou this little tract and sermon in Ger- 
man, which in Latin I dedicated to the Pope, so that everyone 
may see that my doctrine and writing about the papacy has 
not. as I hope, a reprchcnsiMc. Herewith I commend myself 
to you and to God's grace. Amen. 

Endcrs, ii. 506. Winr.vDeic, Noven^er 4, 15». 

Greeting. I. too. wonder, Spalatin. what prevents you get- 
ting my letters. For I hare written twice and I know that 

*L«ik«. ii. 34- 




you received neither letter. I am glad that at last you see 
how vain arc the hopes of the Germans, since you say not to 
trust in princes and you cease to regard, as you have bitfaeno 
regarded, the judgment of men who either praise or condenm 
my writings. If the gospel were such that it could be cither 
propagated or preserved l>y the powers of this world, God 
would not have confided it to fishermen. Dear Spalatin, it 
is not the part of the princes and prelates of this worM to 
defend God's Word, nor by his grace do I seek the protec- 
tion of any of them, as they must rather set thetnsehrei 
against the Lord and against his Qirist. MTiat I do. I do 
rather that they may deserve well of the Word of God by 
their service to me, and may be saved by the Word. For I 
pity those who have heard and known. For they canBO», 
without their own eternal destruction, deny, desert and covet 
up the Word. It is to be feared that you. together with as 
and many of our friends, can be found among this class; asd 
wc must pray for a courageous spirit. 

It is a hard thing to dissent from all prelates and princes, 
but no other way is left of escaping hell and God's writh. 
So take care, lest those who arc offended b)- my bitterness 
should be such as hold the cause of the Word cheaply mi 
are influenced by I know not what human consiile rations. It 
is no wonder that one who estimates the affair at its true 
worth should cry out and be torn asunder. Even had yoa 
not urged mc to do so. 1 should have committed tlie whole 
cause to God, and have done nothing more than I have done, 
since I know tliat wc must act only by his counsel aad 

I have published the Latin AntibuH,* which I send; it h 
also being printed in German' Please do not let those move 
you who take it ill that I speak so sternly against gently ex- 
pressed commands. Those mandates of the Roman Pontiff 
are not gentle by which Christ is suppressed and people com- 
manded to deny the faith. I was forced to be brief by tJie 
very unworthlncss of the cause. That Satanic bull so tor- 
tures mc that I almost kqit silence allogether.. For since tbe 

^ASvtraut tJiecrAUIem AmtitkrUii Bulltm. Vfiimv. vL jpf, 
*Wid*T du Bulltn drt £«irArufr. Wtimtr, vi. Cij. 


Let 339 

beginning of the world, when did Satan ever speak so impu- 
dently against God? What shall I say? The iiiagiiitiidc oi 
ihe horrible blasphemies of this bull overwhelms me, and yet 
no one notices theiiu Many strung arguments have persuaded 
me that the last day is at hand. Tlie reign of Antichrist is 
beginning to end. 

Duke George rages against mc with his sophists and the 
Bish<^ of Merseburg, 1 sec that this disordered bull is breed- 
ing a rebellion, just as the Roman Curia ought to do. Hmser 
has put forth his fury against me under the name of Thomas 
Rhadinus Todiscus;' now he publishes at Rome and now at 
Lcipsic. They all take credit for the incredible fury of their 

I shall not write privately to the princes, but shall publicly 
renew my Appeal,' thereby summoning all Germans, great 
and small, to stand by me, and expound the villainy of the 
affair. Then I shall lay it to the conscience of each man, 
lest in the hour of his death he should be condemned for 
having obeyed these impious monsters. 

1 will do nothing with the Archbishop of Mayence, but I 
will approach Duke George and the Bishop of Merseburg 
with letters and with my German AntibuU when it is pub- 
lished, not that 1 hope to soften those hard spirits, but that 1 
may satisfy my conscience in warning them of their danger. 
For it is impossible for those to be saved who either favor 
this bull or do not fight against it. The Lord and you will 
attend to the result. 

Egranus told us the same about Matthew Adrian as you 
did. He has become my enemy, alleging as the cause that I 
have taught that good works avail nothing, but only faith. 
He has hardly been presented from reviling mc publicly. 
Finally, this man. most ignorant of theology, attacked and 
challenged me. He is useless and must soon be dismissed. 
Perhaps he will go to Leipsie to make common cause with 
Eck. The Lord's will be done. 

The Univcr-sity of Erfurt, when Imperiously summoned by 
Eck, refused to receive the bull, on the groimd rfiat it was 

*Stipfe. no. jid. 

*r. *.. ibe Appeal M > CciHral Council, made KoTcmber jS, ijiB. tjiibct 
rmawcd il NvrcMbac 17, i)n>, Weimar, vii. 74, S]- 


illegally sent. The Bishop of Bamberg* refused it cm ibt 
wme ground. The armed youth of Erfurt surrounded Eck 
and tearing tlie printed bulls into &mall bits, threw tlicm mt 
tbe water, so that it is now a real bubble.* Tbc town council 
connived at this, and the court at Mayence hears nothiof 
of iL' I expect you know how gloriously Eck was received 
at Lcipsic, hated as he is by almost all except the duke uid 
the bishop. Do what your spirit tells you, and farewell 

Martin' Luthes, AugustiniaiL 

Corfut Rejormatonim, i. 36;. WcmxBCnc, November 4 1510. 

. . . Luther has answered the bull,* Hui^ing Eck with the 
responsibility of it, for he certainly was the author of this 
tragedy. A few days ago he wrote a letter* to the Roman 
PontifT, which I think you will approve as being sufHciendtf 
modcraie and pious. I beg you to be watchful and not to 
neglect any human precautions, altliough not relying on thenri. 
but on divine providence. Martin seems to me to be dnveo 
by a certain spirit We shall bring about his success more by 
prayers than by schemes. My friendship for Luther is now 
80 firmly established that nothing sadder could happen to 
me than to be without him. Wherefore, for my sake as wdl 
as for tlie sake of the public, do what you can to prevent 
this man from being crushed, for I dare to prefer him not 
only to all living men, but to the Auguslines, Jeromes and 
Gregory Nazianzens of all time. Farewell, dearest Spala- 
tin. . . . 

da- J 


RfUhitagtakUn. ii. 4^ (CoLOCKs, November 6, t$ao.) 

... I know that your Holiness is rery anxious to know 

what wc did with the Elector of Saxony, wherefore I will 

give you a brief account of a' long afTair. It is his nature to 

■C*«rs« III.. Biihap ijos-u. As Kur*mhetj warn in bU dioone, E*fc «••I 
hlin ibe bull which wa* ilaa dlrcciEd i^init rifckbcini^r knd Spenfler. 

■Pan OTi "bull*." meaning boih "hull" and "buhble." 

'Erfurt iru an endive in Saionr undrr tfa» («rprnment »f HjfMue. 

*l'on Atn niarr FcHiehrn Bu'lfv und LUfm. Weimar, <ii. jj». Luthet t 
doubted ibc fcnuincneu ol ibr bull. *nd u> did Etwraai. 

iTtc pre!«* ro The Littrrly ef a Ci'uiian ilaa. 

Ut. AJ3 



seem good and religious and a devout irequenler of churches, 
bat all his counsellors are more Lutheran than LuOier him- 
self. Moreover, he is extremely hard to see, but we did see 
him on November 4,* and worked on him su that he seemed 
to be persuaded by us and said that he had never spoken 
twenty words with Luther. 


rnumi opera (170J), iü. 589^ Coukke, November g, igacx 

. . . You see what a fatal tragedy is now heing enacted, 
the catastrophe of which is uncertain. Whatever it may be, I 
pray that it may be for the glory of Christ and the evangelic 
truth. I prefer to be a spectator rather than an actor In this / 
play, ooi because I deny the cause of Christ, but because 1 
see it is beyond my littleness. Would that I were able to do 
what is best, as I wish. . . . The silent judgments of the 
good have perpetual authority and weight even with posterity. 
It has always been my endeavor to separate the cause of 
Luther from yours and that of sound learning, which would 
only bring odium on it and on us without helping Luther in 
the least. But others have acted otherwise. They hate me 
so that those conspirators against sound learning and the 
gospel have almost attacked mc. There is no doubt about 
their actions, although they cloak them with high names and 
irritate the mild Pope to his own hurt for their advantage. . . . 


Briffwechsel dts Bralus Rlnna>t:is. 250, Basle. November 8. isao. 

t. . Our Erasmus of Rotterdam is now officiating as 
nciltor to the Emperor; it is an honor to him, but a toss 
for literature. For some days he has been at Cologne, after 
the Emperor was crowned at Aix-la-Oiapel!e, on October 23. 
Tbc Pope has sent Jerome Al<;andcr with a monstrous bull 
to the Emperor to induce liim to crush Luther. He also sent 
Caracctolo, Cajetan and Miltitz. It is to be feared that the 
Emperor will give his consent, as one too young to under- 
stand these things. The whole of Germany is for Luther. 
Hütten has fairly translated the Pope's bull which curses 

*0n Ail inttrneor aad iu inuhi. tf. SniTb, of. m^ loo. 


Luther, that is, he has explained and mocked it with witlj. 
caustic notes. In tlie title page of the booklet he has sur- 
rounded the Pope's arms with this verse: "At his right hand 
stood a bull in cloth of gold aiid many-colored garments." 
You never read anything more cutting. For as you km» 
the Pope anathematized Huttcn and wrote to some of the 
princes either to kill him or send him hound to Rome. Hence 
the bitterness of his invective. Pucci, who tried to do mucti 
against Lutlier in Switzerland, is simply despised.' Yoa 
know that hitherto Zasius favored Luther. Now he tiis 
«iomewhat changed his opinion, because Luther wrote it would 
be better for priests to have wives than harlots. But I im 
abusing the patience of my Boniface to go on with triflps 
like these. FarcwcH. Boniface. 

P. S. — The Pope has recently condemned Reuchlin's artJcie 
to please the monks, whose help he now needs, and to spiu 


Erasmi optta (1703). iü. sga Coloqnk, November 9, ipa 

r know that you have no leisure to read all sorts of leners. 
excellent Sir, nor have I much more time to write, yet I was 
induced to do so by John Faber,' a Dominican theologian, 
whom I discovered, by careful examination, to be very dif- 
ferent from some of that brotherhood, for besides solid learn- 
ing, integrity and affability, I found in him excellent judg- 
ment. VVe have often consulted on the method of composing 
this Lutheran trage<Iy without a cataclysm of the whole globe. 
For what lover of mankind is not moved by the beginning 
of this drama, seeing that there is imminent peril, unless 
something is done, that it shall lead to a catastroplic danger- 
ous to Christianity? The most horrible wars arc oftcti started 

Kl. tupr«, DO, jaj. 

*0( Augiburc ('trc-i)]Oi not n be confounded wilb ifat bu of xkt a»»e «&■• 
«bo wu Biifaop oC Vicna*. Studied In Iu>r "ad bctan« Dominicaa Prioi *t 
Au(abitr|. lie met E(a*niuii al Louoain, Oelob«r, is*n, and wiifa him |iI«ibc4 > 
pMMful «olnlicn of tbp Lutterin ichisni. coinpiMinf M Ihit tine *l Cotacn«. «id 
Emtnui' belfi. tbc Canniium eitjui.iam mpi-flu comiuUumi »ttt . . , wbid b( 
prtued an (br F^rnperor'l *ävü*i%. and it Worm* aStrxag ■ timllaf plaA «f 
arbitration. He also apaki «erir (rccly at tbe (uneral of CkUvraa. Jinoarr. ■['■ 
Id- titra, »a. jMj). Lif« ia H, Faulut: Dit dntltthr Dtmimetnt' (>}«))■ 
«•«■J I J. 



by trifles. And in my opinion Cicero was right in saying that I 
an unjust peace was better tlian the justcst war. Now this 
drama has gone farthvr than I could have wished, but I think 
the e\'il is curable; certainly it is more so now tliat if it goes 
on increasing. I should also wish it so healed, that it may 
not merely be suppressed for a time to become worse later, 
as happens to patients when physicians cool their fever with 
a potion without bleeding, or to those who scarify a wound 
which has not been sufficiently cleansed. 

Some think that severity had better be used, and Fabcr 
would not disagree with tliem did he not fear that it would 

rdly succeed. He says that it is not sufficient in (his matter 
to follow your inclination, but that several things must be 
considered. First, we must consult the dignity of the Roman 
Pontiff, whom all lovers of Christ must favor as Chriit's 
vicar, lest the gospel truth should suffer. And I doubt not 
that Leo is of this mind, that he considers his only glory to 
lie in the flourishing of the doctrine of his Prince. Fabcr 
says we should not consider only what I-uthcr deserves, or 
who favor Luther, but what conduces to the public peace. 
It makes a great difference who lay hands on this evil and 
with what medicines it is cured. Some mix in this affair 
only to exasperate it with their misplaced zeal, and double 
it, consulting not the authority of the Pope, but their own 
advaotage. Briefly, they so act that they hurt sound learn- 
ing more than tliey do Luther. For it is not right that inno- 
cent, or rather holy studies should suffer on account of Luther, 
nor ought other men, without cause, to be involved in his 
aflfair. He added that we should consider from what fount 
the whole thing flowed, namely, from hatred of good learn- 
ing. . . . 

It is not for men like me lo judge the Pope's breves. But 
there were some who misse<I in the bull bruught by the nuncio 
the gentleness worthy of Christ's vicar and of this peaceful 
Leo; and they impute the bull not lo him, but to his advisers. 

U^ But Faher himself will explain his plan more fully to you in 
l^person, and if you approve it you can help him at the Diet of 
Worms to carry through a plan which all will approve. . . . 




GeSt, i. 144. Aktweup, November iCv tj» 

Cnunayc w:is at this time tfcr«i.iry, councillor and minl>mister «f 
Charles V. For many years he had been DuVc George's banker ud 
(TCDcnil representative in (lie Netherlands. F^rlier in this year he kwl 
written to the Sorbonne on bcholi ol Puke Gcurec fur tbcir opinioDi 
Uie professors deliberated on the question on July 17, appoimiac 
Jamea Banliclcmi and Noel Bcda to con«i<ler the aiiswcr. The pwt- 
nil tetter was apparently leceivcfl anl Jiscussetl on Movcrabci IJ 
The final cüiidemnaiion was dated April 15, 1521, See Gess, he. fit, 
and Smitli, op. tit., p. 453, where for "iVcdcric" should be read **Gco«Ge" 
— both names bciiiK rejircseiited in cuntemporary documents sirapty bf 
the word» "Dux Saxoniae." 

Most learned Fatliers and venerable Sirs I Your kindness 
has again made me bold to write. Recently, in behalf of the 
most illustrious Duke of Saxony, I asked your worships, 
for the love of truth, which doubtless occtipies your minds^ 
to deign either to approve if true or to reprove if false the 
writings of Martin Luther, which have taken bold of the 
minds of many everywhere and are embraced as most true 
by some. According to your habitual bene\'olence, you an- 
swered that you were busty day and night reading and dis- 
cussing them and would take no rest until you had discovered 
(he truth which Martin seems to seek, and had pronounced 
on it. Truly, the aforesaid duke, anxious to know the truth, 
received this letter with high honor and read it with great 
pleasure, hoping that your worships would soon do what }'Oii 
promised. But as this is delayed he awaits anxiously, hear- 
ing various opinions, some saying that Luther is good, others 
shouting that he seduces the common people. . . . Now the 
tumult increases, and no small tragedy is excited here in the 
sight of the world and with the connivance of our professors 
at Louvain, white others of sounder mind weep and wail, and 
all await your judgment. . . . 


Enders, il 523, Eilcnbubc. November 13. is» 

Greeting. I have received the "Bull"' you sent, Spalatin, 

'A pteudonymoiM »UiK wbicb appeared i.boul Ibi* time under the tMt 
Jhelveut Bulla. 


and we daily expect your happy return' with many new things 
to tell us and one old thing, namely, that there is no hope in 
th« court of Charles. I am glad that Hiiltcn lias come out; 
would that he had intercepted' Caracciolo or Aleonder. 

We do not fear the exconimuiiicalioti threatened by the 
bull, although we hear that tliose two bishops' are about to 
set forth ; I will receive them fairly and give tliera their proper 
titles. Duke George, although in a rage, is said to control 
himself externally. Our Philip Melanciubon, under the name 
of Faventinus Didymus, is answering* Thomas Rhadinus. 
that is, Emser. 

Mdanchihon's wedding will be on November 26. The 
danger of malicious go&sip forces us to hurry the day. 

Henry Schmicdbcrg," deceased, left me one hundred gulden, 
which pleased mc particularly, as the dying just man con- 
demns the unjust living, as the wise man says," and those 
who offered Eck cups full of gold' for traducing God's Word 
may have something to make ihcm angry, but which I never 
sought for. By this second sign now warns them. For 
who would not consider Fck's ignominious reception at I.eipsic 
and Ivrfurt as one of God's wonderful works? Yet hitherto 
hardened Pharaoh perseveres that there may be many signs. 
But be of good cheer and despise alt that curse. Oirist has 
befun this business and will complete it, whether 1 die or fly. 
Called io his name by Schmiedberg, I came to Eilenburg, 
but, in the meantime, he departed to the I-ord. He is said 
to have died most constant in the faith, and (what is a great 
cross to my opponents) to have publicly professed and cora- 

>Sp«]Min and llie eWlor I*{| Cologne pn NowmWr j. 

^'iMcrtrptiMr* 1 lb« raraninf is «onmhai daubtrul, «bciber nertljr "fra^ 
miEd" or "MiM<L" 

*FTo1nbly ibv tri»bop* oi M«ri«tiurt ■o4 Bratidmbnrt- Tbe tiRer pwted 
Ikiousb WtlienbctB on hti nj lo tb« Di«t of Worma and irird to po«t tbe bjlt. 

•U» siwiirrr appnriil fi[»1 in Fibnuirj, ij«, Ctrfut Rrftrmtl^am, L tS$. 

'ScbnicdbtTf. of a prominrnl LcIemIc lamllr, CtaantttloT of ATcbbiibov Fbilip 
«f RMuabuix and FniBinarn, aoil AdminUtiaior of Naumburi, When ibc bull 
was Mai 10 KauntKirf ibt peoitlc Mormed Scbniitdbcig'» iialuc; ibr Utter ftll ill 
«ilk triabi and «cot M t.cip»ic. «bcrc be dfor ui> ■ will, TcmcialKflDg Lulbct. 
Tb«a fce «cni IV Eiltoburg, xid on rrowing w«r>e bad Liiih«r vummoacd lo bin, 
but (tied «1 NQTcmbcr ) befoie ihc latter ainTtd. Eaik», li, 3>6. 

■ BMh of Wiidom. ir. ifi 

Gearf« s**« £«k a c«p fM of fddL 





mended my doctrine. See the presence of Christi The 
Roman Antichrist presses on, and Satan throttgl) him, but 
he who is in u% shows himself greater than tie who U to the 

I'he bishop of Breslau died* in the same faith, the best vi 
all the bishops of ÜÜ5 age. The Uishop of Merseburg has btt 
much in the opinion of the public, and his pigmy holiness 
does not suffice for the work of impiety, which bids him obey 
the Pope rather than his God. Others will tell you the rest 
Farewell in tlie Lord. Martin Lutheb. 

P. S. — Melanchthon, who salutes you, and I are splendidly 
entertained by these heroes, Fabian von Feilitisch. Haugold 
von Einsiedel and John von Taubcnheim. 

Bocldng, i. 42J. Emricbukc, Noirember 15, 153a 

May what I have be^n at this time with so much peril 
turn out badly for me. if, excellent Erasmus. 1 am not mort 
solicitous for your safety than for my own success. You may 
sec plainly the state of affairs, and 1 greatly wonder what you 
are doing there where, as elsewhere, there is so much hiM- 
tility to us, and where, as I hear, the mandates of I.eo X. are 
cruelly executed. Do you even imagine thai you can be safe 
while Luther's books are burnt, ajid that his condemnation 
will not prejudice your cause, or that those who condemn 
him will spare you? Fly. fly, and keep yourself safe for usl 
I have sufficient, even in6nitc peril, but my mind is used to 
danger and to whatever fortune may bring; with you it if 
different Fly, excellent Erasmus, fly while you can. before 
some disaster falls on you (a thought I detest). Then, when 
it is no longer safe for you, you will have to say wliat no 
wise man has said: "I did not think." AH of those fellows 
cr>' out that you arc the author of this business and that 
from you, as the fountain head, has flowed wliatever now dis- 
pleases Leo; they say that you went before us, Üiat you 

li fabn. i», 4. 

*John Thunn, to vbon LuArr had writttn oa July go« ijia. EaAtwt, S. 44^' 
ft« died on Antnn t. 

Let 337 

taught us. that you first incited the tninds of men with the 
love of liberty, and that we are all your followers. . . . For 
by so long flattcniig and praising the Tope you have deserved 
the mortal hatred of Aleandcr who will wish to destroy you, 
especially when he sees his fury resisted by arras. We would ^ 
have done this before had not Sickingen advised first to trj- 
the mind of the Emperor, hoping that he would do something 
or at least allow us to do it. And we will do it unless that 
wicked Slav [. -Meander] subverts all things and seizes the 
Emperor's crown, the reward of which deed Lulher and I 
demand. . . . 


Endvfs, ii. 537- Dc Wette, i. 535. Gemian. 
K WiTTErfBEitc, November 17, 15». 

My service, etc. Honorable, wise, dear Sir and Friend 1 
I have read your letter and teamed your great courage for 
the Christian truth with especial joy; God strengthen yo« and 
all of us with his grace ! I thank yoii heartily for your great, 
friendly care for me and for all Wittenbergers, Vou must 
certainly believe that Dr. Carlstadt and Melanchthon are en- 
tirely at one ; for a while one spoke to his classes in a different 
way from the other, from which circumstance perhaps this 
rumor grtw. By God's grace Philip is minded to have no 
quarrel with him. Neither did it ever occur to me to harbor 
annoyance or dislike of Erasmus. It pleased me well tliat 
he desired me not to mention him.' I wrote to him about it 
and promised not to speak of him any more, nor of any 
other good friends if it displeased them. People have many 
such false rumors to write about me, but don't let their gossip 
deceive you. If God will, Erasmus and I will remain at one. 
It is true that 1 sometimes privately discuss with Melanch- 
thon how near or far Erasmus is from the way; he and every- 
one can do the same about me with tmpuntt)' and in friend- 
ship. I will attack no one first; it is sufficient to me to de- 
fend myself when attacked. 

*Erumu «ai olTcrided bf Lutbet*! tcfercncc to ttln In Ibc Atuarrr (• Ikt 
CMJfiiiiMA«» «f LoHvai'n, ■nrl mute Ihit icqucu. iu a Iciict to McUocblboni cA 
4ii^fai no. ajS. LnllMt'i kttct U ion. Cf. Smiili. «oif. 


I am having my Appeal renewed and printed in Latio ud 
Gennan, although 1 thought there was no great need of it, so 
open and shameless is the bull with its Amichristian anathe- 
mas. We know not whether the bishops will execute ibt 
Imll. We hold that they have been legally answered b)- ui. 
Herewith 1 commend myself to you before God, Amen. 

Dk. Martin Luthek, Auguslinia». 



S. Hess: Erasntiu von Rolerdam (Zurich, 1790), ii. 707. 

LvccRifK, November aa, ij». 
Rudolph zum Buhl (Clivana«, i4p(>-iS7S). teacher of Greek «t 
Zurich aiid after 1519 a friend of Zwingli, Oo him, Corptu Refvrw» 
lorunt, xciv. 335. 

. . . Would you like to hear somelhinK about Luther? You 
have it in the letter of Ammann." Of lirasmus? I will t«B 
you something. He is a scoundrel. Hear what he did. He 
was summoTied by the king of England to a conference.* The 
king patted him on the shoulder and said: "lirasmus, why 
don't you defend that good Luther?" Erasmus answered: 
"Because I am not enough of a theologian; now that the pro- 
fessors of Louvain have put me down as a grammarian I 
don't touch such things." .\ftcr a long conversation the kin^ 
said: "You are a good man, Erasmus," and dismissed him 
with a gift of fifty ducats. Then Erasmus went to Frankfort 
When his friends came to sec him, he waved them away. 
"Look out," said he, "don't touch me," and held out his hands 
as if he feared to be hurt. When they expressed sympalh)* 
and asked him what was the matter, he told them he had a 
wound. When they asked him where, he replied ; "In the 
purse." Thus he tried to turn the bargain into a joke. He 
was going to Basle, but was prevented by the king of Spain 
and is now also kept iu Germany. . . . 

>John jMob Ammann of Zurich (died is;]), Mudeni of Mrcoaiiu. on wbon 
KC Znnnn'M Wfikr. tU. ig-B. 

'Al the cenfocdce «.l CaUi*, JuIt, i)>o. It b doubitul b«w muck Mfcwnini 
linew ahuut il. Krasrnus b<mKlt onlr *n» tbM he Uikcd with Henry VIII. oT 
bij (Etumui'i) vHlltig acainM Lniber, but mere of w>ji ot niiliinc pcac*. 
Eraimi c^fa (>70J>. 111. do. 6^v. CI. Engiith Uiitartcat Revtem, c. bij. 



rdt-Bicdennaon. 143. Rasle, November 21, 1520, 

... I have nothing to write of Luther except that Pop« 
Leo is trying to ruin him, and for that reason keeps sending 
legates to make Charle* hostile to him. Charles lias not yet 
determined what to do. A certain virulent and ha'mg lam- 
poon,' which I will send by the next messenger when I have 
a chance, has come out against Aleander. the learned Greek 
, scholar who is the Pope's legate. 

Bwlting, 1. 437. EscRMBunt;, November 25, tS2a 

. . . Luther* is burned at Cologne ilso. Therefore the 
loiy Muse of truth-speaking Luther will go into the flames 
and die. ... I hear that all orders of men greatly grieved at 
the act and only a few pricst.t were pleased with it. I hear 
that some of the nobles favor Luther so strongly that Sick- 
,mgen thinks that there would have been an extremely dangcr- 
3US rebellion at Cologne tf only Frederic of Saxony had been 
Fthere, for he left a short time ago. We are waiting to see 
'what will happen at Mayencc, for our adversarieä arc tr>-ing 
something there. I hear that Luther published something* or 
other to-day excommunicating and anathematizing Leo X. 

Rtichsiasickitn, ii, 466. note Oi-PF.MHriM. November 17, 15» 

Soon after leaving Colngrc Frederic had wnttcn to Chicvres and 
Nassau a Ictler which has been lost. The following t» the answer. 

• Croy (i^Sfi-May 27. ijai), was made Siadthotder of the Nelhcr- 
'ScTtral attiuliA «acne am on AlesDilcr M ikU lime, of »blcli pcrb«» At 
siiiii llkclx !n ibia iiuiancc U llic Ada Atadrmi»* Lwoitinuit. pcrli*t« bf the 
pea »[ Erumua. rcptlniid in tilftfrt Wtrkt (KrUngfii), Oftr» Iclina varii 
^ftumtnli, IT. jcS'i«. Tbe proof of Ike authoriliip, P KalfcoR: Dif VrrmtU- 
lmiH)lf«Hlill ^** Er«HiH#, ii<.. p -ijH- Tlic uniiliriljr of thr atgrlc to lli>t of F.ra*- 
oiiu wu «iitf aaficeil. V aiianii<)t* Biitftammltne, a. 3*ti. Ct. turlher. P. 
Kalhofl: AnfiUfi 3ri Ct^nrtt. in ifrn S 'f4rrS3t<i*n. ii. J5if. »nd the Ullcic hf 
lb« tune ackaUr in 7vinp.'u IVerit, vii. 40«. 
I/, f.. kU work«, NaT. I». 
Aifmi-i fxtet»hiUm AKtUhruii hiflna. Wtintr, t1. i^j. 


lands iscp6; in 150g took charg« of th« education of Charles V^ lo 
whom he became a chief adviser after 1516. He died at Wona«. 

Henry of Nassau (1483-Sepicmber 14. 1538), an officer of Man- 
milian. In 1516-7 h« wks in command of the siege of Aniheim; ia 
1521 fought against France. He was then made Governor of fit 
Nclhcrlands. He vinled Spain in 1522 and im. He WAt at tli« Dtd 
of AutEsburg in 1530L AUgtmeint dtvttehe Biographic, The ft^owiii 
anecdote of him is found in n contemporary pulilication. reprinted b^ 
P. Frederic^]: Corpua InntiitilioftU Sferian6icar, iv, no. 37. "Tbt 
Count of Na.ititu »aid 10 the prcachciü at the Hague: 'Go and prcick 
the gospel simply like Lttther, offending no one' . . . Then the pro- 
fessors of Louvain complained lo Margaret, sister of Charles V., «I» 
said; 'Who i« Luiher?' 'An unlearned monk,' said they. Thni,' 
said she, 'all you learned men write against one unlearned, and the 
world will rather Wieve many learned than one unlearned.'" 

We have received the letter of your Lordship on the af- 
fair of Martin Luther, the contents of which, and especially 
your Lordship's wishes, we carefully explained to his im- 
perial and Catholic Majesty, Your Lordship will team man 
at large from his Majesty's letters what he has decided tipoa 
It seemed to us at all events that your Lordship ought, for 
the sake of your piety and zeal for (he orthodox (ailh, to bring 
Lutlier with you to the imperial Diet, so that the affair might 
be quieted and extin^ruished, for which we both promise oar 
good offices with his imperial Majesty, especially as we are 
sure that your Lordship desires this. . , . 


Reiekstaosaktcn, ii. 466. Gcrmnn. Oppenheih, November 28, ipQ 

Highborn, dear Uncle' and Elector. We have been in- 
quenlly and urgently requested by the nuncio of the Pope's 
Holiness, to guard against farther damage from Dr. Martin 
Luther's books, as wc did in our Lower Burgundian Hereditary 
Possessions, and wc should like to have them burned here 
and everywhere in the Holy Empire. Now our highborn, 
dear uncle,' William of Chicvrcs. and our dear and trusty 
Henry Count of Nassau, our viceroy in the Netherlands, have 
shown us that you desire that we should not touch Luther, 
nor do anything more against him before he is heard. And as 

■Tbii tlUt- la not 10 tw iilt«n ll»rally. 


re should like lo put down this movemenc, from which we 
'?car much disorder and error may arise, wc earnestly re- 
quest you lo bring the said Luther with you lo the next Diet 
Worms, where we will have him sufficicnlly examined by 
learned and wise persons, and have no wrong nor anything 
illegal done lo him. We beg you to prevent farther trouble 
and to command the said Luther in the meantime not lo 
write or publish anything against his Holiness or the Roman 
see. Thereby you will do us special pleasure which we shall 
graciously acknowledge. 

£ad«rt, il sjz. Wittknberc, November 28, 153OL 

H Greeting. Reverend Father, wc rejoice that the elector has 
returned.* I pray you to pray for us. Duke George is in- 
sane; he is more than furious. We daily expect anathemas 
and thunderbolts from that Quarter. We think to stick to our 
appeal. I sec that the affair is verging 10 a great tumult; 
may God turn it to the good! We have read the answer' of 
our elector given to the papa! Nuncios Ateanrier and Carac- 
ciolo; it is so learned and acute that we see they got nothing 
from him. I will send it later. The same Aleander is taxed 
with many vices in 3 libellous but clever book.' Tlie men of 
Cologne and Louvain have burnt my books. We know not 
what will happen. Farewell in the Lord. Our vicar* has 
gone to Sternberg; brother John has turned to follow him. 

m, Martin Luthek. 


^^nder«, ii. 534- Wittenbirc, Kovember 29. isaa 

Greeting. Dear Spalatin, I gave a letter for you to the 
nKsscnger going to Grimma; now that the reverend Father 

*Tkc «Icetoi tclumcil In bU own lini! on Nnvrmlwr to. 

*0» ti<nttB\KT 4. ■! C0I0KIK. tbe nuntio» hid Interviewed Frederic iitd 
dCMUldtd tllM Lutlitr be punithcJ at ddivctcJ u)>. After CDnisllini Etiimui 
on N^rnnbcr 5, Frederic relumed llie requetts of thr Icjalf« on Koveinber £. 
C/. Soiitfc, loo, 

■Alesndri «m attaclced In many coniemponrT «Hire*: pctbam tbe nne tBMM 
it ibe ^(M AeaJtmiot Lvcaxicnnf. on obitb tf. Smitb. gS. 

•Wcoul Unk. 




James* is going I will ^ve him another, which perhaps will 
arrive before the first. I will soon take up and defend uoe bf 
one ail the articles condemned by the tnill, as you wrote aod 
as I understand thcy^ wish. Unless you translate it into Ger- 
man with more freedom than you have hitherto done,* pleue 
let mc do iL For absolutely no translation except a very free 
one can reproduce Bgures of speech and tlie cogency of the 
argumentative style. 1 do not mention the extreme dißicnlty 
of giving the author's spirit. I doubt not that you could 60 
it, for you translate with wonderful facility, but I see that 
you are a httle too closely hound and afraid to change a 
single sentence as is sometimes necessary. 

I intend to dedicate this book to Tabiin von Feilitzsch, a 
gentleman who is greatly to my liking. Wherefore plea« 
send me his full title as snon as possible in Latin and Ger- 
man. Vou use the German title, but I de&tre to know both so 
as to be able to judge how the Latin title is derived. Thus ] 
wilt go before and do you follow fasL 

My parents and sisters* honored the wedding of Melanch- 
thon as did many honorable and learned men. 

Please let us have another copy of the elector's answer,' 
for they would not let us read it twice. You will learn the 
rest from my former letter with my booklet Oh Christian Ltk- 
erty. Farewell and pray for me. 

Martin Luther, Augustinian. 



H. dc Jongh: L'anci<nne FaetiUi de thiotogu de Louuam, tQtt, 
p. 158. n. 3. LouvAiN, NovonUr y>, 1530. 

... I am sorry that Theodore Martens' refuses to print the 

book of Professor Tumhout. In the first place, he ought not 

'Prabablj Vop, Ibc elcciai'i tonfoaor. 
'Lulbcr piobklilT cacAn« üic elccl«r. 

*Spilaiia irsnilaKil I.utliir'a worti On Chriittat t.i^eny. Lalbcr hiaatXt tn^ 
Ut«d ibe wollt be ü *{>c>kia( «f do», (he Aattrti^n of »H tk» jtrikttt nr«a#ty 

*[.u'lirr at th» time had three «faltt», muricJ to nn «amcd Kaufasno, 
falatr and Mtfktnradi. 

■f. f., to Ifc* l^e»lt«, ef. lofr», «10- 3*J. WTio "til«!-" »er« if uiueiuk, pcrkkf* 
Kfflt WitlpnbcTe cinont «-lib whom tjoth^ waü nrti fricodlf. 
ajdartn» (c. i^so-Uty 38, xm), "At Aldui of lb» Kelbcrl»MU," «toiled Ibe 


thus to show his animus. Then I should like the work printed 
for many reasons. Tlie man is one of the most skilful in 
theology ; nor do 1 doubt that he writes as he has disputed, 
using solid arguments and not invective. As I do not ap- 
prove having Luther crushed by mere vociferations and con- 
spiracies, I am all the more desirous of seeing him refuted 
by the Bible and good reasons. Let us attribute all we pos- 
sibly can to the Pope's bull, yet such a refutation would be 
more convincing to the learned and to the intelligent. Oo you 
therefore persuade the man not to refuse, and I will do the 
same as much as I can. Farewell. 


Ertumi optto (1703). tit. 18S91 (Late ia isao.) 

. . . You know what a smoke has been raised at Louvaln 
by the theologians who fathered the bull :* the same was done 
at Liege with the connivance of tlic bishop who is ambitious 
of the cardinal's bat; fmally it ^vas also done at Cologne in 
an even more hateful way under the rule of Hochstraten. 
But though Luther's writings are not approved by all, yet 
there is none who is not displeased by this way of acting and 
this savage tyranny. Nor would they have acted with im- 
punity at Cologne had not the presence of the king protected 
them. Now Luther's works are sold there as before. 

Two men, Latomus and Tumhout, have here written against 
Luther, but neither publishes his books on account of dif- 
fidence. I think. Indeed, it is much easier to conquer him 
vrith bulls and with smoke than with arguments. I have never 
mixed in the Lutheran affair, but yet I have not approved the 
clamors nor the pamphlets of these who have hitherto op- 
posed Luther. They take this ill, for if 1 stood by Luther 
the same engines would be directed against me; if I wrote 
against him these men of evangelic meekness and simplicity 
would use the hatred of the Germans thus aroused against 

Ut of prietint U V«iiic«. »«( itp • «bop H Aloil. *nd in it^j itotvi) te Antwerp, 
la i4D8 t« LevTiiB. in isoi baclc in Antverp, in ii» <» Loovaln. uotil ts>9 
wIm« b« »ilrrd II» AInM P. S. Allrn, I. gi« 

iHmb of (be ibeoloRicil nuierial in ibe boll Eimrgt Dvmin* wu UteD fron 
lb* coadcnnMlan of l.ulber I)<r ihf UnlvetaUT of Louraln. "Tht •nokc" ttten 
W tk« bsminr of Lulhcr'» book*. ■■ Lou*ain Otlobrr 8. >1 Liitt Oclobct i;. M 
Caiognc Nanaiber la. 




me for my destruction. They have laid fals« charges agaiasi 
mc before the papal nuncio, as though I alone upheld Luther 
and prevented his death, which, rather than his correction, is 
what they alone desire. Francis von Sickingen related tbat 
when he expostulated with the Emperor about the mandate 
against Luther, which is being carried around, the Emperor 
said that he had never issued such a mandate, ^^^eo the 
Elector Frederic of Saxony spoke with him about Luther he 
received the reply that Luther should not be condemned un- 
heard. The bishops are forced to dissimulate, only when they 
showed the elector the breve in which he was commanded to 
throw Luther into prison, he said that he was- surprised 
that the Pope should make such a demand of him, a laynaa, 
when he was not convinced that Luther deserved such treat- 
ment and when the affair had been referred to the Diet ol 
Worms. The nuncios took this answer very ill. It is dear 
that the bull was published contrary to the command of the 
Pope. Aleander, who brought it, had no commission save 
to confer with the universities. He is a man skilled in tlic 
three languages, and if all say that he is a Jew, surely bis 
life lends color to the assertion. What he ha» done in Lower 
Germany furious Eck does in Upper Germany. The Ge^ 
mans publish seditious tracts, and I wonder that no one is 
able to quiet the tumult. Luther ■writes more fiercely eveij 
day and seems to be aiming at rebellion against my advice. 
He writes that he simply despises the Roman bull, but re- 
news his old appeal at the advice of friends. ,\ breve' was 
shown to Matthew Lang, Cardinal of Gurk, at Cologne, com- 
manding him to invite Staupitz. vicar general of the Augus- 
tinians, who favors Luther, and force him to abjure ail 
Luther's dogmas, and if he did not do this throw him into 
prison or punish him some other way. 

There are many things in Luther's books which are worthy 
of being known; some things which had better have been 
omitted and all things too violently, not to say seditiously, 
written. For if he had said what was necessary more mod- 
erately. e\-en if he had accused the intolerable vices of the 
Roman Curia, he would have bad the support of all 

'On tbU. r/. Smlib, af. <ii., to; On iMig. m>>s, an. to. 


t. 347 



fet I know not how it is tliat all who have written against 
have composed nothing worth reading. If he has gone 
id in writing, they arc madder in their answers. And 
long Ihose who wish Luther dead I sec no good man. The 
«ers of Adrian of Utrecht are full of bitterness; he 
favors disciples worthy of himself, vain, deceitful, ambitious 
and revengeful. ... 1 have seen Huttcn's kttcr' complain- 
ing that the Pope has written to have him cast into chains; 
be was not to be found when I was at Cologne, it was said 
I that with forty companions he lay in ambush for the Ro- 
maiiists on whom he has declared war. . . . 


'EndcTS. ill. I. WiTTCNDERc. December i. 15». 

This is Luther's dHicaHon to his Asseriio Ommium Arli^orum, 
Weimar, vii. 9^. Fcilitiach died only a few days later, white the 
work WAS in print. 

You. Fabian Feilitisch, or rather Fo«lix, prove what I have 
often said, that laymen have a spirit of judgment and zeal, 
for when my Philip and I were with you at Eilcnburg* you 
gave a splendid example of liow purely, learnedly, piously and 
felicitously you could judge and talk of Christian affairs. 
Nor do 1 doubt that in this court you have many rivals, so 
that 1 simply rejoice to see the admirable plan and judgment 
of God, who with the froward shows himself froward and 
with ihe elect is elect.' For we who are the clergy, that is 
ihc chosen ones of the Lord,* who ought to be the masters of 
tfie laity, turned our backs on Christ and his gospel, in so 
much that he in like manner turns his back on us. And as 
wc provoke him with that which ts not God, and with the 
word which is not the gospel, so again he provokes us with 
those who are not clergy and with those who are not learned, 
by giving them pur« knowledge of himself, and leaving us our 
foolish and impious doctrines. Thou art just, Ü Lord, and 
thy jud^cnt is right.* 

^Sufta, no. 196. Tliit wm pubtliihcd. 
'I. t.. In HoTcinb«r, tufra, no. jjj. 
'PMla xriii. ifif. 
**'}i'o* cnln, qui dc cUro Doiatnl «iniw." 



Since, therefore, I have written and spoken much, out 
knowing that there was such blindness in the shepherds ol 
Israel,' I deserved only that they should revile me instead tA 
loving me, and render evil for good.' until they became » 
senseless to their own salvation that they publicly condemned 
and burnt my books at Cologne and Louvain. For they han 
a zeal for God above others, but not according to knowJcdgt' 
I am so far from being angry at them that I greatly pity tiwr 
blindness and perdition, or rather their childish folly. For 
what is easier than to bum boobs which you canoot refute? 
The impious king Jehoiakim burned the books of Jerembh 
the prophet,* but he was not justified thereby. Truly, as I 
said, this is due to our perversity and to the wicked mind 
to which God has given us up.' that we the clergy shosU 
condemn the truth which the laity embrace, so tliat tboK 
become priests who are not priests, and laymen who are out 

Wherefore I thought best to address j-ou laymen, as a aev 
race of priests, and to bring my remarks together felicttouäj 
(God grant) under your felicitous name, to assert asd 
strengthen all that those incendiaries have damned with their 
bull so like themselves. Do you commend me in this worfc 
or rather the Christian doctrine to yourself and all your no- 
bility. Farewell. 

Zeilschrift für Kirchetiffeichichlt, iL 121. 

WnTiNBERG CDcccmber j, ij»). 

Most serene, highborn Prince, most gracious Lord. I wfl 
not conceal from your Grace that f arrived here at Witten- 
berg last evening shortly before four o'clock, and, tliank God. 
found everything right and well. . . . 

I found Dr. Martin mcrr>-, who thanks your Grace humMj" 
for your greeting. He thinks the pusillanimity of the priests 
is increasing. It has occurred to him and perhaps to some 
others that possibly the universitj' annoyed your Grace by 

llMlab. Irl. 10. 

'Pnlm dx. 4I- 

t. *Ö 



last letter. He is entirely undaunted, and bas already be- 

in his new book refuting the articles in tlie bull, and done 

sixth of it. He promises according to your Grace's advice 

to write more courteously henceforth. He has also begun 

to expound the Magnificat and to dedicate it to my young 

lord. . . . 

The provost of Liska near Zerbst. who was charged by 

Ibe Bisbop of Brandenburg' to execute the bull, has written Or. 

rtin that he will sooner lose his provostship than do it. 

Dr. Martin has gathered the canon law and decretals to 

im them as soon as he hears that they have undertaken to 

m his books at Leipsic. He has also decided to bum the 

1 publicly in the pulpit unless ihcy mend their abuses. Dr. 

'Martin has so long meditated the papal rule that he says he 

Is now commanded by them to sin and do evil and forbidden 

to do good and even to act and live honorably and Christianly. 

On which a new allegorical picture has been painted which I 

will bring your Grace to-morrow. 

I think I will bring you thirty letters to Dr. Luther from 
I princes, lords, and learned, famous people from Swabia, Swit- 
I Zetland, Pomeraiiia. Breisgaii, Bodensee. Bohemia and other 
Ljands, all comfortable and Christian writings. . . . 


Enders, iii. 3. Mavevce, Deeember 4, ij». 

Greeting. I hear from friends that you are often threatened 
and that the evil increases daily; the tumor will soon burst 
and tlie whole power of its evil go elsewhere. The affair is 
carried on with a strange sort of violence, but it is partly 
human; no wonder that it has some human frailty about it, 
(or such will always accompany humanity. 

Eck has written a triumphant epistle' to Cologne in which 
he boasts of tlie success of Girisl's work at Leipsic, for thus 
he calls his own sycophancy. I have never seen anything 
more noxious than tlie barbarian sophists there, fools, atheists, 
uncultured^ without style, the graces or faith, relying abso- 

*A I«ll<r I« II«ck«trsl*n, July »4, 1519, pnMUbtd «itb tht i*M July «4, ijao. 




lutely on humaji intellect. You have often blown the trumpet, 
and Huttcn. who will soon try arms, shouts war for u*. I 
think you will be safe there, nor shall our chief lack an 
asylum. Our enemies are protected by strong bulwarks, ui- 
tlcs and moats, relying on money, arms and numerous it- 
pendents. The people stand unanimously for you ; not the 
smallest part is with the Romanists. "Alas!" the latter n- 
claim, "what is this monstrosity, that a private man shouW 
unpunished call into question the ancient decretals!" To 
which the saner reply: "What impieiy it is to extinguish 
Christ's doctrines with human laws!" Why do I say all this? 
Only to show that everything is tending toward» a trenicndooi 
revolution, of which the outcome is uncertain. There ut 
men who fear that such a strife would obliterate all show irf 
religion. For they take your teachings in a sinister way, at 
it were. 

Someone has written a satiric dialogue' ai Cologne agamst 
Hochslralen, taxing Eck and Alea